(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Comptes rendus des séances du Congrès international des pêches réuni à ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book thaï was prcscrvod for générations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's bocks discoverablc online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose légal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia présent in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journcy from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we hâve taken steps to 
prcvcnt abuse by commercial parties, including placing lechnical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use thèse files for 
Personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do nol send automated queries of any sort to Google's System: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character récognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for thèse purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogX'S "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informingpcoplcabout this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it légal Whatever your use, remember that you are lesponsible for ensuring that what you are doing is légal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countiies. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can'l offer guidance on whether any spécifie use of 
any spécifie book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps rcaders 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full icxi of ihis book on the web 

at |http: //books. google .com/l 



.;, Google 



.;, Google 



D,g,i,.,.d.:, Google 



FISKERIKONGRESSEN 
1 

BERGEN 



n.s.ti.rd.vGoO'^lc 



\ 5EL5KABET FOR DE KOBSltE PISIEBIEIIS FBEIME, BEBGE» 



BERETNING 



ATHOLDT I BERGEN DEN 1851—2125 JULI 1898 
EPTER FORANSTALTNINO AF 

SELSU6ET FOR DE NORSKE FISKERIEES FREIHE 
I BERGEN 



Db. j. brunchorst 

3 OBNEHiLSBKHBT^B 



.,:,iP,..i-,:,G00glc 



SOCIM PODH L'HICODlilCEIEIIT DES PÊCHES lORîtClElIllES, i BEHGEl 



COMPTES RENDUS DES SÉANCES 



ONGRÈS INTERNATIONAL DES PÊCHES 

KÉUNI A BERGEN DU 18 AU 21 JUILLET 1898 

LA SOCIÉTÉ POUR L'ENCOURAGEMENT DES PÉGHES NORVÉGIENNES 

A BERGEN 



PUBLIÉS PAR 



Db. J. BRUNCHORST 

s OËNËRAL DD CONdEftS 



38®*=-- 



4 OBtBO, IKPBtHKOB 



D,g,i,.,.d.:, Google 






.;, Google 



INDHOLDS-WETESMISB. 



Forberedende Avbeider (Travaux préliminaires) 

Overnîgt over Kongresaens Meder (Aperçtt des g^ances) 

Fortegnelse over Kongressena indskrevne Deltogere (Liste des 
membre» du Congrès) 



OOLLtNS, JoSBPH WilIJAJIB: 

The Fieberies of the United States 

TI^B^, J. 0., Pibkebikokbci-Ekt: 

Om 01'undlsget for Udvikliïigeii af de norshe Fiskerier 
og for Forbaielsen af deres Vseidier 

KOBDQAARD, 0: 

The pvactical f4cieiitit!c investigations in Lofoten 

Diatusaion : 

Cftptain ColUns 

FiskeriboDaulent Daht 

Baokbb, Fb., Fiikbbibkolbbbsttbbb: 

Om Nedastning af Told paa bermetisk, i Blik nedlagt 

Fiak 

Diakuasion : 

Lndt 

Prœaidenten 

Kahks, F.: 

How can tbe aale of glue be made moi'e profitable! ... 
BiTLL, Hbmbie, Dibectob: 

The speciâc graiity of hetrîug, and the relation between 

this and the amount of fattj' matter tontained 

DiBkuBsion : 

Captain Collins 

PrfBflidenten 

Barcla; 

Dr. J. B, Fullatton 



5S: 



^761 



Pag. 
Vit. WALUm, Fbedsbie M., FiaEERnHSPKET0B: 

Sildens Vanciringer og de enropœÏBke Bildeftskeriers 

Periodicitet 91 

Diskussion : 

Dr. Hjort 124 

Theodor B. Zabi 137 

TIII. WESTlReiABD, PlSOHBBEIAlîBHT : 

Ueber den ZoU auf Hering in Rassland, Deatschland and 

Oesterreich 128 

Diskiuaion : 

Generalkonsul Tâttormann 138 

Profesaor Qrimm 1 42 

Prcesidenten 143 

IX. Përabd, m. J.: 

L'enaeignemftnt profaasionel des marini pêchenrs en 

France 145 

Dîakaaaïan: 

Pype 151 

X. B&RCLAT, M.: 

English Une- and trawl-fiahing 153 

XI. B0ItENBEI(, PlSKBBnXSFEKTOR : 

HvalfaTigatens Indfljdelse pas de andre Fiskerier 1*)3 

DisknRsioD : 

Generalkonsul TÔttenuann 172, j 73 

Fiskeriinspektar Ssrensen 173, ISO 

Beatjrer Nordgnard 174 

Grosserer Ludt 17fi 

Fiskeriskolebestyrer Backer 17.5 

RsdaktBr Thue 17l> 

Dr. HJort 177 

Prœsidenten 179, 181 

Fiskeriknnsulent Dabi 180 

XII. Bbcrchorst, j., Db.: 

Om en mulig SammenhEeng meUem 0dbyttet af Torske* 

t^skerierne i Lofnten og Finmarken 183 

Diskuaaion : 

Fiskeriskolebestjrer Baoker 18+ 

Dr. Brunchorst 185 

PiakeriinappktBr Wallem I8.Î 

XUI. Frhlb, Hbrmak, B. S.: 

The oyster ponds on tbe weat coast of Norway 18S 

XIV. Olsbn, Hboak: 

On th« aea territorj, speoially with regard io the 

iÎBherîes 191 

Dishuaxioa: 

W. de Weschoiakoff 2W 

Dr. J. H. Fnllarton 205 

Pype a07 



v.L.OO' 



S"- 



Pag- 

Prof, Vincisfoerra 208 

Captain CollinB 208 

Kaptein Dreohael 210 

Pérard 212 

Fixtei'iinBpektor Lundberg 212, 213 

Amtmand Olsen 213, 214 

Brnsdal 218 

General bonBUl Tôttermann 215 

Pr^sideiiten 2l5 

XV, ViNCISUÏRBA, D.: 

Sut rintrodnction dea aalmoiiidea dans lea lacs voIcanig^ueB 

de l'Italie 217 

XVI. KisHiFouïB, K.: 

The neeessitj of an international flahericB association . . 222 
XVII. Pëkasd, J.: 

Snr la formation d'uD comité international poar l'organi- 
sation des congrèa futurs 226 

Disknssion : 

Dr. Brunchorst ' 227 

N. Borodine 228 

Piskerik on soient Dabi , 230 

Olsen (Grimsby) 280 

PTÉBaidenten 230, 231 

Frimann Kahrs 230 

W. de Weschniakoff 230 



.;, Google 



.;, Google 



OYERSIGT OYER KONGRESSENS ARBEIDE. 
ipeiçn dn triTiIl do Congrèt. 



.vGoot^lc 



I 
- Forberedende Arbeider. 

Under 3lde Âpril 1898 udsendte Direktionen for „Se]8kabet 
for de norske Fiskeriera Fremme" i Bergen til en Bœkke af Insti- 
. tutîoner og Private i de forskjellige Lande félgende 

Indhydelse : 

nVed den store internationale Fiskeriudstilling, aom afholdes i 
Bergen i dette A ar fra I6de Mai til 30te Septeraber i Forbindebe 
med en norsk Landsudstilling for Industri, Landbrug, Kunst, Hus- 
flid m. V., mader felgende fremraede Lande: Amerikas forenede 
Stater, Danmark med Island og FEereeme, Finland, Frankrige, 
Japan, Rualand, Sverige og Tunis. 

Disse Lande deltager officielt, n7en ved Siden deraf har ogsaa 
Udstillere fra Storbritanien, Tyskland med flere andre Landft aendt 
Anmeldelser. 

Direktionen for ^Selskabet for de norske Fiakeriets Fremme" 
i Bergen har ment, at der i Tiislutning til de Moder af forakjellig 
Slags, aom vil blive afholdt under Udstillingen, ogaaa burde seges 
afboldt en international Fiskerihmgres, og den tillader aig derfor 
herved at indbyde saavel Nordmœnd aom Udleendinger, der maatie 
vœre aœrligt interesserede for Fiakerierne, til at deltage i en saa- 
dan Kongrea. 

Kongressen vil holdes i Bergen fra og med 18de til og med 
21de Juli, kort Tid efterat Juryen, der akal sammentrœde i ferste 
Hahdel al Juli, er fœrdig med sit Arbeide, og uraiddelbart efterat 
de store Regattaer for indenlandske Brugsbaade og Lystfarteier, 
hvUke tager ain Begyndelae den 12te Juli, har fundet Sted. 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



I 
Travaux préliminaiTes. 

Le 21 Avril 1898 l'administratioii de la ^Société pour l'encou- 
ragement des pêches norvégiennes", à Bergen, envoya à certaines 
institutions officielles de pêche et à an grand nombre de personnes 
privées s'intéressant aux pêches, l'invitation suivante: 

Congrès International de Pêehe. 

Une Exposition Internationale de Pèche jointe à une Exposition 
Nationale d'Industrie, d'Agriculture, des Beaux-Arts et d'Industrie 
domestique aura lieu à Bergen cette année du 16 Mai au 30 
Septembre. 

Les pays suivants ont répondu à l'invitation d'y adhérer: le 
Danemark avec l'Islande et les Iles Féroé, les Etats-Unis 
d'Amérique, la Finlande, la France, le Japon, la Russie, la Suède 
et la Tunisie. 

Ces pays participeront officiellement, mais il y aura aussi des 
esposants d'Allemagne, de Grande Bretagne, etc. 

L'administration de „la Société pour l'encouragement des 
[lèches norvégiennes", ayant son siège à Bergen, a jugé à propos 
d'organiser pendant la durée de cette exposition un Congrès Inter- 
miional de Pêche et invite à cet effet les Norvégiens et les Etrangers, 
intéressés aux pêches à un titre quelconque, à prendre part à ce 
Congrès. 

Le Congrès aura lieu à Bergen du 18 au 21 Juillet, quelque 
temps après le passage du jury qui se réunira dans la première 
quinzaine de Juillet et immédiatement après les grandes régates 
qui commenceront le 12 Juillet. 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



xn 

Kongressens Forhandlinger vil konime til at bestaa dels af 
Diskussioner om bestemte forudopgivne Emner, dels af Foredrag, 
ait efter Program, der vil biive Deltafçerne tilstillet. 

De, som inaatte enske at forealaa Emr.er tit Diskiission og i 
Tilfœlde indiede denne, eller holde Foredrag, anmodes om înden 
iode Juni at give Meddelelse deroni. Foredrag kan holdes for- 
uden paa et af de skandinaviske Sprng ogsaa paa det engetske, 
franske eller tyske Sprog, 

Enhver, der vil deltage i Kongressen, inaa inden i^Ode Juni 
melde dette til undertegnede Direktion og indseiide den fasteatte 
Kontingeni 6 — fera — Kroner, hvorefter et Medlemskort vil 
blive vedkoratnende tilstillet. 

Dette Kort berettiger til: 

1) den NedsietteUe i Befordringsudgifter, som kan erholdes med 
Jernbane og Dampskib; 

2) fri Adgang til Udstîliingen i syv Dage, og 

3) til at erholde tilstillet en trykt Beretning oni Kongressens 
Forhandlinger." 

„I Direktionen for Sehkaliei for de norske Fiskertem Fremme." 
Kr. Lehmkuhl, 



J. Fleischer. 



Ved Iiidredepartementets Foranstaltning var Indbydelaen gjen- 
nem Udenrigsniinisteriet officîelt tilstillet Regjeringerne i Danmark, 
Storbritanien og Irland (med de britiske Besiddelser i Nordamerika 
og New-Foundland), Rusland med Fînland. Tyskland, Holland, 
Eelgien, Frankrige, Portugal, Spanien, Italien, 0sterrige og Ungarn, 
Grœkenland, de nordamerikanske forenede Stater og Japan. Endelig 
blev Indbydelse fra Indredepartementet sendt det sveDske Civil- 
de parlement , 

Der indkom som Svar paa donne Indbydelse :Meddelelse fra 
flere Stater om, at de vilde sende officielle Delegerede, og desuden 
indkom Anmeldelse fra for8kjelli;;e Fiskeriinstutioner og fra en 
Bœkke Privatmtend, interesserede i Fiskeribedriften, saavel fra vort 
Land som fra Udlandet. 

Til Fastsœttelse af Program og Règlement for Kongressen og 
idet Hele til Ordning af dens Anliggender besluttede Fiskeriselskabet 
at nedsEette en Organisationskomite liestaaende af ReprEesentanter 



XIII 

Le Congrès s'occupera à disouter des aujets proposés d'ai 
et il y sera fait des conférences, suivant un programme qui sera 
adressé aux participants. Les personnes désirant proposer des 
aujets de discussion ou faire des conférences sont priées d'en informer 
l'administration de la société soussignée avant le 10 Juin. Les 
conférenciers peuvent se servir soit d'une des langues Scandinaves 
soit de la langue française, allemande ou anglaise. 

Toute personne désirant prendre part au Congrès doit en 
prévenir l'administration de la Société avant le 20 Juin, en payant 
la cotisation stipulée, savoir 5 — cinq — Kroner. On lui remettra 
ensuite une cai^te d'admission. 

Cette carte donne droit à: 

1) une réduction sur les frais de voyage, que l'on cherchera à 
obtenir des administrations des chemins de fer et bateaux à 
vapeur. 

2) l'entrée gratuite à l'Exposition pendant sept jours. 

3) un exemplaire du compte-rendu des séances du congrès. 

L'administration de la „boeiété pour l'encouragement des 



Kr. Lehmkuhl, 

Préaident 



J. Fleischer. 



Cette invitation fut en outre, par l'intermédiaire du gouverne- 
ment norvégien, envoyée d'une manière officielle au gouvernement 
du Danemark, de la Grande Bretagne et de l'Irlande, de la Russie et 
de la Finlande, de l'Allemagne, de la Hollande, de la Belgique, 
de la France, du Portugal, de l'Espagne, de l'Italie, de l'Autriche 
et de la Hongrie, de la Grèce, des Etats Unis et du Japon. 

Enfin, elle fut envoyée à ta chambre civile du gouvernement 
de la Suède. 

Plusieurs pays répondirent à cette invitation en promettant 
d'envoyer des délégués officiels et un grand nombre d'institutions 
scientifiques de pèche et de personnes privées de notre pays et de 
l'étranger annoncèrent leur participation. 

Pour fixer le programme du congrès et le règlement à 
suivre pendant sa durée et pour s'occuper de tout ce qui aurait 
rapport à. l'organisation da congrès, l'administration de la „Société 
de pèches" décida ensuite d'établir un Comité d'organisation se 



XIV 

for Fiskeriselxkabet, som Indbyder til Kongressea, de hervserende 
Fiskeriinstitutioner forevrigt og desuden af Reprœaentanter for 
saa mange som muligt af de udenlandske Stater, fra hvîlke Del- 
tagelse var anmeldt, 

Komiteen sammensattes af felgende Herrer: 
Dr. I. Brunchorst, Bestyrer af ForsBgsstatîon i Bergen Henrik 
£ull, Capt. 1. W. Collins, Konaulent A. Feddersen, Sekretaer J. 
Ileischer, Exe. Dr. 0. A. von Orimm, Dr. K, Kishinouye, Kiebm. 
£r. Lehmkuhl, Fiskeriinspekter It. Lundberg, Bestyreren af den 
biologiske Station i Bergen 0. Nordgaard og Ingénier /. Pérard. 
Komiteen vaigte Herr Lehmkuhl til Formand, Professer Orimm til 
Viceformand, Dr. Brunàuyrst til Sekretaer og yedtog Program og 
Eegleinent for Kongressens Forhandlinger, 

Programmet fremgaar af den efterfelgende Oversigt om Kon- 
gressens Forhandlinger. Reglementet for Kongressens Meder var 
felgende : 

§ 1, Kongressens Forhandlinger fares paa hvilketsorahelBt af de 
skandinaviske Sprog aller paa et af Sprogene engelsk, fransk 
eller tysk. Af Foredrag eller Udtalelser, der fremkommer 
paa noget af de nordiske Sprog vil stenografisk Referai blive 
optaget til Brug for Kongressens Berstning. Talere, der 
benytter noget andet Sprog end de nordiske, og som ensker 
sine Foredrag eller Udtalelser indtagne î Beretningen, maa 
indlevere dem i Manuskript til Kongressens Sekretœr for dennes 
Slutning. 
§ 2. Saafremt Tiden tillader det vil der efter Afholdelsen af de i 
Programmet optagne Foredrag og dertil knyttede Diskussioner 
vœre Anledning til at fremkomme med kortere Meddelelser. 
Disse maa paa Forhaand anmeldes til Organisationskomiteen 
eller Kongressens Praesident og skal, hvis det af Komiteen 
eller Prœsidenten forlanges, indskrnenkes til en Tid af haist 
15 Minutter. 

Ingen Udtalelse h&v under den Diskusaion, aom ledaager 
Foredragene eller de fremsatte Forslag til Resolution, optage 
lœngere Tid end 5 Minutter, og hvert Mediem har kun Ret 
til at faa Ordet en Gang i hver Diskussion. Dog har Ind- 
lederen af vedkommende Emne Ret til en afsluttende Replik 
paa îndtil 10 Minutter efterat de «yrige indtegnede Talere er 
fœrdîge. 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



XV 

composant des représentants de la Société de pèche et d'autres 
institutions semblables à Bergen et des délégués, en aussi grand 
nombre que possible, des états étrangers prenant part à l'exposition 
internationale de pêche. 

Le comité fut composé de M.M. Dr. J. Brunckorst, Senrik 
Bull, directeur de la station d'expériences scientifiques à Bergen, 
capt. I. W. Collins, A. Feddersen, consultant de pêche, J. Fleischer, 
secrétaire, Son Excellence Dr. 0. A. Orimm, Dr. K. Kishinouye, 
Kr. Lehmkuhl, commerçant, B. Lundherg, inspecteur de pêches, 
0. Nordgaard, directeur de la station biologique à Bergen, et 
0. Péard, ingénieur. Comme président fut élu Kr. Lehmhihl, 
TÎce-président Dr. 0. A. Grimm et secrétaire Dr. Brunckorst 

Le programme fut dressé tel qu'on le trouve dans le cha- 
pitre suivant et le règlement fut fixé comme suit: 
I) Les eommunicalions peuvent être faites dans l'une des langues 
Scandinaves ou bien en Français, en Allemand, ou en Anglais. 
Les communications et les observations qui seront faites dans 
l'une des langues Scandinaves seront sténographiées pour les 
procès verbaux du Congrès. 

Les orateurs qui feront choix d'une autre langue et qui dé- 
sirent que leurs communications soient insérées dans le compte 
rendu devront remettre leurs manuscrits au secrétaire avant 
la an du congrès. 
S) Après les communications portées au Programme et les dis- 
cussions qui les suivront, et si le temps le permet, il sera per- 
mis aux membres du Congrès de faire de brèves communica- 
tions. Une demande à ce sujet devra être remise à l'avance 
au comité d'organisation ou au Président du congrès et ces 
communications ne devront pas occuper plus de 15 minutes. 

Dans les discussions qui suivront les diverses communications, 
chaque membre ne pourra prendre la parole qu'une fois et pen- 
dant 6 minutes au plus. L'auteur de la communication pourra 
parler après tous les autres orateurs pour répondre aux re- 
marques ou aux observations qui lui auront été faites et cela 
pendant 10 minutes. Les limites de temps peuvent être aug- 
mentées si le Président le juge opportun. Le Président 
pourra consulter l'assemblée à ce sujet, mais le vote aura lieu 
sans discussion. 



A'OO^Ic 



XVI 

Re)çeleii om Tidsindsknenkning kan fraviges af Preesidenten, 
hvis ingen Indvending derimod gjeres. I modsat Fald kan i 
Sagen af Priesidenten forelsegges ForBamlingen til Afgjerelse 
ved Votering uden forudgaaende Diskuasion. 
Forslag til Resolutioner, der «iiskes behandlede ved Kongiessen, i 
maa paa Forhaand vœre forelagt Organisationskomiteen og 
hâve erholdt dens Approbation. Forandringer i Resolutionerne 
kan dog foreslaaea i Medet. 



n I 

Oversigt over Kongressens Msder. 

Den internationale Fiskerikongres sammentraadte den 18de 
Juli Kl. 10 i Museets atore Foredragaaa], 

Fiskerieelakabeta Prœaes, Hr. Kjebmand Lehmkuhl, betraadte 
Prœsidentpladaen, oplœete Liaten paa Deltagerne og udtalte felgende: 

"The invitation to this congress was isaued by the Society 
"for Promotion of the Norwegian Fisheries, and I beg leave in the 
"name of the Society to thank ail who are preaent for having 
"accepted this invitation, and to wish them a hearty welcome. 

"By the directors of the Society a committee was formed to 
"organize the congresa. This committee conaisted of Dr. Grimm, 
"Dr. Brunchorst, Mr. Bull, Capt. CoUins, Mr. Fedderaen, Mr. Fleiaoher, 
"Dr. Lundberg, Mr. Nordgaard, Mr. Pérard, and myself. I aiso beg 
"leave to thank thèse gentlemen for a pleasant i:ollaboration and for 
"the valuable asaistance they rendered in organizing the congreas." 

Derefter opfordrede ban Kongreasen til at vœlge Prsesident. 

Profeaeor Dr. Orimm reiste sig og toreslog PrEesidenten i 
Ësekutivkomiteen, Formanden i Organisationskomiteen for Fi^eri- 
kongressen, Kr. Lehmkuhl som Priesident. 

Kapt. J. W. CoUins udtalte, at Hr. LehmJcuhls iheerdige Arbeide, 
hans Fortjeneste saavel af Kongressen som Fiskeriudstillingen, og 
hana at^erke Interesae for Fiskerinasringen i det hele burde aikte 
ham ailes Stemmer. 

Hr. Lehmkuhl valgtes med Akklamation. 



XVII 

3) Les propositions de voeux, avant d'être présentées au congrès 
devront être soumises h l'approbation du comité d'organisation. 
Des amendements peuvent être faits pendant les réunions du 

congrès. 



Aperçu des séances du Congrès. 

Le congrès international de pêche se réunit le 18 Juillet à 
10 h. du matin dans la grande salle de conférences du musée. 

Le président de la „Société des pêches k Bergen", Mr. Kr, 
Lehrakuhl monta à la tribune, donna lecture de la liste des membres 
du congrès et dit: „Coinme l'invitation à. prendre part à ce con- 
ngrèa vient de la «Société pour l'encouragement des pêches norvé- 
^giennes", je prends ici la liberté, au nom de cette société, de remer- 
„cier tous ceux qui sont ici présents d'avoir accepté notre invitation, 
„et je leur souhaite, de tout mon coeur, la bienvenue. Pour préparer 
nie congrès la société établit en son temps un comité d'organisation, 
„qui fut composé de Messieurs Dr. C^rimro, Dr. Brunchorst, Henrik 
„B«11, Capt. Collins, Feddersen, Fleischer, Dr. Lundberg, Nord- 
ngaard, Pérard et de moi-même. Â tous ces messieurs j'ai égale- 
„meut à présenter les remerciments de la société pour aimable 
^collaboration et leur inappréciable assistance dans l'organisation 
„du congrès." 

M. Kr. LehmkuM invita ensuite le congrès à élire un président. 

Dr. Ghimm prit la parole et proposa h l'assemblée d'élire, 
comme président du congrès, le président du comité exécutif do 
l'exposition internationale et du comité d'organisation du congrès in- 
ternational des pêches, M. Er. Lehmkuhl. 

Capt. Collins ajouta, que le travail énergique de M. Kr. Lehm- 
kuM, les services qu'il avait rendus à l'exposition internationale des 
pèches et au congrès, et l'intérêt qu'on le savait porter à. tout ce 
qui avait rapport aux pèches devait certainement lui assurer tous 
les votes. 

M. Kr. Lehmkuhl fut élu par acclamation. 

D,g,i,.,.d.:, Google 



xvni 

Prœsidenten foreslog derefter falgende vaigte som Vice- 
prassidenter : 

For Amerika Hr. Kapt. J. W. CÔUiTts 

„ Danmark Hr. Feddersen 

„ Ruslaod Prof, Dr. Grimm 

„ Japan Prof. Dr. Kiskinoupe 

„ Tyskland Dr. Heriing 

„ Sverige Dr. Lundherg 

„ Frankrig Hr. Pérard 

„ Finland Hr. Sandmann 

„ Italien Prof. Dr. Vinoiguerra 

„ Belgien Hr. Pype 

„ Storbritanien Dr. J. H. Fullarton 

„ Osterrige og Ungarn Hr, Vall-e. 
Allé vaigtes med Akklamation. 

Soin Gêner al sekretaer vaigtes enetemmig Dr. Brunckorst, som 
SeJa-etœrer Bestyrer Bull, Fiskerisekretser Fleisoher og Bestyrer af 
den biologiake Station Hr. Kand. real. Nordgaard. 
PrEesidenten holdt derpaa felgende Aabningstale i 

"Gentlemen! 
The population of the world is rapidly increasing, and the need 
of food of ail kinds la increasing in the same proportion. This is, 
I présume, the real reason of the remarkable derelopment of the 
fishing industries that the latter half of this century bas witnessed. 
And thanke to better communications and better methods of con- ' 
serving, the use of this valuable article of food is spreading more 
and more. Various kinds of fish are now eaten in many places where 
they formerly were not known even by name. 

But although it may be said that the fishing-induatries in some 
respects bave leached a certain degree of pei'fection, we are not- 
withstanding, in my opinion, still at the beginning. There are very 
few fields of buman work wbere the combined exertions of practical 
and scientific men hâve a better chance of achieving important 
résulta tban in the âshing-industriea. But what an important task 
science bas to perform hère, bas only in the last twenty or thirly 
years been undei-stood or appreciated by the public, and I believe 
that few bave fully realized what a nice, nutritions, and whole- 
some food fish is. Some even maintain that it greatly stimulâtes 
our mental activity. 



XIX 

Le président proposa ensuite d'élire coiuiiie Vice'présiâsïits : 
Pour TAmérique .......... Càpt. /. W. Colllns ' 

„ le Danemark M, Fedder&en. 

„ la Russie Prof. Dr. 0. A: Qrifnm 

„ le Japon ; .■ Prof. Dr. Kishinouye 

„ l'Allemagne , , . . i)r. 

„ la Suède Dr. 

„ la France M. Pérard 

„ la Finlande M. Sandmann 

„ l'Italie Prof. Dr. Yindguerra 

„ la Belgique M. Pype 

„ l'Angleterre Dr. I. H. Fulîarton 

„ l'Autriche et la Hongrie M. Valle. 
Tous furent élus par acclamation. 

Comme secrétaire général fut unanimement élu Dr. Brunchorst 
et comme secrétaires M. M. Bull, Fleischer et Nordgaard. 

Le président ouvrit ensuite le congrès par l'allocution suivante : 

Messieurs. 
La population du monde augmente de jour en jour, et le besoin 
d'aliments de toute espèce s'accroit d'heure en heure et se fait sentir 
d'une manière de plus en plus urgente. C'est incontestablement 
ce fait qui fi donné l'impulsion au grand développement de l'in- 
dustrie de pèche dont nous avons été témoins dans la dernière 
moitié de notre siècle. G-râce à des communications plus faciles 
et à de meilleures méthodes de conservation, te poisson devient 
un aliment de plus en plus répandu et it sert maintenant de 
nourriture dans plusieurs endroits du monde ou l'on ne connaissait 
auparavant ni son goût, ni même son nom. Mais, quoiqu'on ait 
ainsi droit de dire, que cette industrie de la pêche a déjà atteint 
un certain degré de perfection, elle n'en est pas moins qu'à son 
«oiumencement. — Il y a peu de domaines du travail humain od 
les études scientifiques, jointes aux essais pratiques, peuvent attendre 
et obtenir de si grands résultats que sur le domaine de l'industrie 
de la pêche. 

Ce n'est que dans les derniers vingt ou trente ans que l'on a 
réellement commencé à. comprendre l'importance du problème que 
la science a à résoudre dans ce domaine, et il y a certainement 
encore un grand nombre d'hommes qui ne savent apprécier 
i'escellence, la salubrité, et la force nutritive des aliments qui nous 
viennent du poisson. Et cela malgré qu'il a été soutenu que le 
poisson, comme nourriture, stimule notre activité mentale.. ,-,,-,n|(- 



XX 

Then there ia little danger of économie conâicts. It is often 
asserted that the sea is inexhauatible. This assertioD, I fear, does 
not hold good, bat I certainly hope that a better knowledge of the 
habits and life of the inhabitants of the watera will make it possible 
to attend to the harvest of the sea, of the -lakes and of the rivers, 
in a tnanner that will husband tbeir resources better than bas 
hitherto been donc. And I also confidently trust that thèse big 
storehouses of the human race will in the future be made to yield 
much more than they do dow. But on the other band I bave not 
the slightest doubt that the demand for consumption will increase 
on a Bcale so grand, that it will easily cover the production even if 
this becomes much more extensive than at the présent time. Therefore 
it may be said that there is scarcely any walk of active économie 
life and scientiâc effort more ût for international collaboration, than 
the âsheries. 

ThÎB is the first international Fisheries-Congress that bas been 
held in Norway. You will ail be aware tbat the fisheries are among 
tbe chief sources of subsistence for the inhabitants of this country. 
ITiey are in fact only second in importance to agriculture. The 
number of Norwegians who in some way are dépendent on tbe tîsherieSr 
and the industries connected therewith, is commonly estimated at 
one fifth of the whole population. The annual value of our chief 
âsheries is about one and a quarter million of pounds sterling, 
calculated afler the prices paid on tbe spot where the fish îs> 
caught. This does not include the amount af fish for home con- 
sumption, for which it bas not yet been possible to get any exact 
Btatistics. The annual export value of fishery products from Norway 
is about two and a half millions of pounds sterlii^, no small sums 
for a country only possesaing a population of about two millions, 

It will then be easily understood that ail work that aims at 
Ihe promotion of the fisheries is followed with an intense interest 
in this country, and that the meeting of an international fisheries. 
congress in this city is a natter of much moment. The fishermea 
, lead a hard life ail over the world, and not least so in Norway 
with its long, dark and stormy winters. May I then be permitted 
to express the hope that the works of this Cîongress will, to some 
extent contribute to the raising of the social and économie 
levai of those men whom we ail admire in their sturdy and manlj 

i.,,i " ,L'OOQlC 



XXI 

En outre il y a peu de divergeances économiques à craindre 
sur ce domaine. On a souvent soutenu que la fécondité de 
la mer est intarissable. Pour moi, je crains que cette asser- 
tion ne soit pas tenable, mais j'espère qu'une connaissance plus 
approfondie (que celle que nous avons eue jusqu'ici) de la vie 
et deB habitudes des poissons, va nous mettre en mains des moyens 
de profiter largement de l'abondance de la mer, des lacs et des 
rivières tout en prenant des mesures de ménagement, les employant 
d'une manière plus efficace et dans une étendue plus grande qu'il 
ne l'a été fait jusqu'à présent. Mais d'un autre côté je n'ai pas le 
moindre doute que la consommation va devenir si grande, que l'on 
aura besoin de tout ce que la mer pourra produire, lors même 
que la production serait plus grande qu'elle ne l'est aujourd'hui. 

Ceci nous montre clairement que l'on peut dire avec raison, 
qu'il est difficile de soulever une question, ayant rapport à la vie 
active et économique des hommes et ayant droit aux recherches 
scientifiques, qui soit plus digne d'une collaboration internationale 
que celle des pêches. 

Ce congrès est le premier congrès international de pèche tenu en 
Norvège. Or, vous savez tous que la pèche est une des plus grandes 
sources de subsistance de ce pays où elle tient incontestablement la pre- 
mière place après l'agriculture. Le nombre des Norvégiens, dont 
les intérêts essentiels se rattachent à la pêche et aux industries qui 
en dérivent, monte à un cinquième de toute la population du pays. 
La valeur annuelle de nos grandes pêcbes représente une somme 
de 31 '/4 millions de francs, calculée d'après les prix payés sur 
place même ou le poisson a été pris. Et cette somme ne 
comprend pas la valeur de la consommation du pays. L'expor- 
tation annuelle des produits de pêche de la Norvège représente une 
somme de 62V2 millions de francs, un chiffre assez important, comme 
vous le voyez, pour un pays de 2 millions d'habitants. 

L'on conçoit facilement par ces données, que la question des 
pêches est suivie et discutée avec grand intérêt dans notre pays, 
et qu'un congrès international de pêches, tenu en cette ville, a une 
très grande impoi'tance pour le pays. 

Les gens qui s'adonnent à la pêche mènent pour la plupart 
une vie rude et austère, surtout dans notre paye avec ses longues 
nuits de tempêtes et de froid. Vous me permettrez par conséquent, 

i.,,i " ,x.oog\c 



etraggle for .life. . With this wish 1 beg to déclare the Congress 
opehed." 



Kongressen vedtog derpaa, efter Prsesidentens Foralag, at sende 
felgende Telegram til Hans Majestset Kongen: 

„Den idag sammeittreedende internationale Fiskerikongres 
sender Beres Majestset sin œrbedige Hilsen." 

Derefter gik Kongressen over til aine programoiEessige For- 
handlingér. 

De Foredrag, soin holdteB paa Kongreasens farste Mededag, 
var felgende; 
■ i. Capt. /. W. CoUins: De forenede Staters Fiakerier. 

2. Fiskerikonsulent Jens 0. Dahl: Om Grundiaget for Udvïk- 
lingen af de norske Fiakerier. 

3. Bestyrer 0. Nordgaard: Om de praktisk-videnskabelige Under- 
S0gelser i Lofoten. 

T Anledning dette Foredrag fremkom Bemœrkninger fra 
Capt. Collins, Nordgaard og Konsulent Dahl. 

4. Hr. Bestyrer Backer: Om Nedsœtning af Tolden paa hermetisk, 
i BHk nedlagt Fisk. 

Til Foredraget sluttede aig Bemœrkninger af Hr. Grosserer 
Ludt, KJ0benhavn. 

5. Hr. Frimann Kahrsi Om Handelen med Lira, sserlig Fiake- 
lim, 

Kongreseena Mede afsluttedes ved â-ïiden. 

Om Aftenen var der af Fiskeriselskabet arrangeret en Middag 
i Logens Lokaler for Kongressens Deltagere. I Middagen deltog 
omtrent 100 Herrer. 



Eongresaena 2det Mode holdtea Tirsdag den 19de Juli Kl. 10. 
Prœaidenten refererede Svartelegram fra Hb, Maj. Kongen 
aaalydende : 

„Min Tak og Hilsen bedea fremsendt til den internationale 
Kongres. 



Messiem-s, d'exprimer ici l'espoir que le travail de ce congrès 
contribuera largement à porter à un plus haut niveau social et 
économique ces gens, que tous nous admirons dans leur travail 
BÏ plein de dangers et dans leur lutte si aventureuse et courageuse 
pour le maintien de la vie. En formant ce voeu je déclare le 
congrès ouvert". 



L'on résolut ensuite d'envoyer à Sa Majesté le Roi de Nor- 
vège la dépèche suivante: 

„Le congrès international des pêches, inauguré aujourd'hui, 
adresse à Sa Majesté ses salutations et ses respects." 

On passa ensuite à, l'ordre du jour. 

Les conférences suivantes furent données dans les séances du 
premier jour; 

1. Capt. 1. W. CoUins. Les pêches des Etats-Unis. 

2. 3&m 0- Dahl. Moyens de développer les pêcheries norvégiennes. 

3. Directeur 0. Nordgaard. Recherches scientifiques faites ani 
. îles Lofoden. 

4. Directeur Backer. De la diminution des impôts de douane 
sur le poisson en boîtes hermétiques. 

Mr. Ludt, commerçant de Copenhague, f^outa quelques remar- 
ques. 

5. Friman Kahrs. Sur la vente de la colle et surtout de la 
colle de poisson. 

La séance fut close à 2 h. 
■ Dans l'après-midi une fête fut organisée dans les locaux de 
la „Loge" pour les membres du congrès, et un dîner fut donné 
auquel environ cent personnes prirent part. 



La 2"* séance du congrès eut lieu le Mardi 19 Juillet à 10 b. 
du matin. 

Le président donna lecture de la réponse du roi, ainsi conçue: 
. „Je prie de présenter mes remerciments et mes salutations au 
congrès des pêches. Oscar," 



XXIV 

Derefter gaves Ordet til ferste Foredragsholder paa Dags- 
ordenen, Hr. Bestyrer Bull. 

Fonaiddagsmodets Foredrag var folgende: 

1. Beatjrer Henrik Bull: Om Sildens Egenvsegt og dens For- 
hold til Fedtgehalten. 

I TilstutniDg til Foredragsholderen udtalte eig Capt. CoUins, 
Hr. Lehmkuhl, Hr. Barclay, Mr. Fullarton og Hr. Wester- 
gaard. Under Diskussioneo havde ogsaa Hr. Bull et Par 
Gange Ordet. 

2. Fiskeninspektor WaU^i: Sildens Vandringer eller Flytninger 
og de europseiske Sildeâskeriers Periodicitet. 

Til Foredraget knyttede sig Udtalelser af Dr. Hjort og Hr. 
Theodor Zahl. 

M0det hœvedes Kl. Va2. 



Eongressens 3die Hede holdtes samme D^ Kl. 4. 
De afholdte Foredrag var: 

1. Fiskeriagent Westergaard : Om Sildetoldea i Tyskland, Rus- 
land og 0sterrige. 

Til Foredraget knyttede sig Bemserkninger af Hr. General- 
koDsul Tôttermann, Prof. Grimm samt Hr. Lehmkuhl og Ind- 
lederen, 

2. Professer Grimm: Om FloderneB Forgiftning ved Naphtà*). 
Til dette Foredrag sluttede sig Bemœrkninger af Captein 
Coliins. 

3. Ingeni0r Pérard: Fiskernes fagmsessige Uddannelse i Frankrige. 
Bemserkninger af Pype. 

4. Disponent Barclay: Det moderne engelske Bankfiskeri med 
Line og Trawl. 

Begge disse Foredrag ledsagedes af Demonstratioii af Lys- 
billéder. 



') Hr. Professor Orimms Foredrag holdtes paa t.ysfc og knnde derfor ibke 
refereres BtenograUsk. Manuakript til Foredraget bar man deav«erre ikke jaoà- 
taget. 



XXV 

La parole fut ensuite donnée & Ur. Henrik Bull. 
Les conférences données dans la séance de l'aTant-midi furent 
les suivantes: 

1. Henrik Bull. Sur la détermination de la densité du hareng 
et le rapport qui existe entre cette densité et la proportion 
de matières grasses qu'il contient. 

À la conférence s'ajoutèrent des remarques de Capt. Collins, 
Lehmkuhl, Barclay, Fullarton, et Westergaard. Pendant la 
discussion Mr. Bull reprit aussi la parole. 

2, Fr. Wallem. Sur les migrations du hareng et la périodicité 
des quantités de hareng péchées en Europe. 

Remarques de Dr. Hjort et Theodor Zahl. 
La séance fut close à 1 h. 30. 



La 3"" séance du congrès eut lieu le même jour à 4 h. 
Les conférences furent: 

1. G. Westergaard. Les tarifs douaniers du hareng en Allemagne, 
en Russie et en Autriche. 

Remarques furent faites par Mess. Tôttermann, Prof. Ôrimm, 
Lehmkuhl et le conférencier. 

2. Prof. Grimm. Sur l'empoisonnement des rivières par l'huile 
de n aphte*) - 

Remarques de Capt. Collins. 

3. 1. Pérard. Sur les pêches maritimes françaises et l'enseigne- 
ment profeesionel des marins-pêcheurs en France. 

4. M. Barclay. La pêche hauturiëre anglaise aux cordes et au 
chalut. 

Les deux dernières conférences furent illustrées par des photo- 
graphies transparentes. 

•) Comme la conférence de Prof. Grimm fut donnée en alleinHnd elle ne 
Alt ptt» sUnogi«pbié«. Le manuscrit ne nous fat malheureoseinent pna donné. 



DisilirrM.;, Google 



XXVI 

Eongressens 4de Méde holdtes den 20de Juli KL 10, 
Foredrageue var folgeude: 

1. Fiskeriinspektiar Serensen: Rvalfangstens IndAydelse paa dé 
andre Fiskerier. 

Til Foredràget knyttede sig Bemœrkninger af Capt. Collins, 
, Generalkonsul Tottermànn, Hordgaard, Ludt, Backer, Tbue, 
. ' Hjort, Lehmkuhl, Dahl og Foredragsholderen. 

2. Dr. Brunchorst: Om en mulig Sammeahseng mellem Finmarks- 
og Lofotfisket. 

Foredràget gav Anledning til BemEerkninger af Hr. Backer, 
Sarensen, Wallein og Foredragsholderen. 

3. Kjobniand Herm. Friele: Om 0sterspolIerne i det vestlige 
Norge. 

4. Amtmand Olsen: Om Sjeterritorialgrîensen. 

I Tilknytiiing til sit Foredrag foreslog Amtmanden en Udtalelse 
til Vedtagelse af Kongressen aaaiydende: „I Fiskeriets Interesse 
b0r Territorialgrœnsen fastsEettea ti! 10 eller subsidisert til 6 Sjemile," 

Denne Sag fremkaldte en ganske livlig Débat, hvori deltog, 
foruden Foredragsholderen d'Herrer Weechniakoff, FuUarton, Olsen 
(Grimeby), Pype, Vinciguerra, Collins, Drechsel, Larsen, Pérard, 
Lundherg, Wallem, Brusdal, TSttermann og Praesidenten. 

Capt. Collins foreslog den Redaktionsforandring i Âmtmandens 
Forslag, at Grsensen skulde fastsœttes til 10 Mile for de vest- og 
nordeuropœiske Lande. 

Ingénier Pérard stillede felgende Forslag til Udtalelse: „Det 
er af almen Betydning for Fiskerierne, at der istandbringes en 
international OTerenskomat for Fastsaettelse af internationalt Règle- 
ment angaaende Sjafiskeriet," 

Der voteredes farat over Amtmand Olaens Forslag med Çollina's 
j^ndrings forslag indbefattet, med Forbehold af senere at votere 
i>ver dette sserskilt. 

Forslaget vedtoges inod 4 Stemmer (Pickering, Duncan, Pérard 
og Lundberg). D'Hr. Tottermann og Vinciguerra deltog ikkeJ AL 
stemningen. 

Derefter vedtoges med 41 Stemmer mod 8, at CoUins's Mnd- 
ringsforslag skulde udgaa. 

Pérard tog derefter sit Forslag tilbage. 

Mddet hïevedes Kl. Vî4. C"-\-\tI> 



xxvn 

La 4™* -séance fut tenae le 20 Juillet à 10 h. do matiD, 

Conférences : 

.1. G. S0rensen. De l'influence de la chasse à la baleine sur les 

pêches. I 

Observations furent faites par M. M. Capt. Collins, Tottermaon, 

Nordgaard, Ludt, Backer, Tbue, Hjort, Lehmkuhl, Dabi et le 

conférencier. 
■2, J. Brunchorst. Sur un rapprochement possible entre la quantité 

de morue pêchée aux Lofoden et au Finmark. 

Remarques furent faites par M.M. Backer, Sorensen, Wallem 

et le conférencier. 
,3. Herm. Friek. Des huîtrières de l'Ouest de la Norvège. 
4. Hroar Oîsen. Sur la délimitation de la mer territoriale. 

Comme supplément à sa conférence Mr. Hroar Olsen proposa 
de voter la résolution suivante: 

„La limite territoriale doit être fixée à 10 ou subsidîatrement 
h 6 milles marins." 

Cette proposition provoqua une discussion très animée à laquelle 
prirent part Sfessieurs Wescbniakoff, Fullarton, Otseo (Grimsby), 
Pype, Vinciguerra, Collins, Drecbsel, Larsen, Pérard, Lundberg, 
Wallem, Brusdal, Tôttermann et le président. 

Capt. Collins proposa un amendement à la proposition de 
Mr. Olsen fixant la limite k 10 milles pour les paysde l'Ouest et 
'du Nord de l'Europe. 

Mr. Pérard proposa ensuite la résolution suivante: „Le con- 
grès arrête qu'il est d'une très grande importance pour les pêcheries 
qu'une convention soit faite pour établir un règlement international 
pour les pêches maritimes."' 

L'on vota d'abord suf la proposition de Hroar Olsen, modifiée 
par Capt. Collins, en se résefvant cependant de voter plus tard sur 
l'amendement du Capt. Collins, 

La proposition de Hroar Olsen fut adoptée contre 4 voix 
(Pickering, Duncan, Pérard et Lundberg). Messieurs Tôttermann 
et Vinciguerra s'abstinrent- 

L'amendement proposé par ■ le Capt; Gollins fut rejeté par 41 
Toix contre fi. ■ 

Mr. Pérard retira sa proposition et la séance fut close à 3 
h. 30. 



XXVIII 
Eongressens 5te Mede holdtee samme Dag El. '/i&- 
Foredragene var felgende: 

1 . Professer Viriciguerra : Om Indfarelse af Salmonidef i de 
Tulkanske SjBer i Italien. 

2. Professer Kishinouye: Om Nedvendigheden af et intemationalt 
Fiskeriselskab' 

3. Ingénier Pérard: Om Istandbringelsen af en international 
permanent Eomite til Organisation af de internationale Fiskerî- 
kongresaer. 

Pérard foreslog ffllgende Udtalelse til Vedtagelse af For- 
samlingen : 

„Den internationale Fiskerikongres i Bergen, sammentraadt 
efter Foranstaltning af ^Selskabet for de norske Fiskeriers 
Fremme" udtaler, at Dannelsen af en permanent international 
Komite, med det Opdrag at forberede Organisationen af de 
fremtidige internationale Fiskerikongresser (Tid og Sted for 
Afholdelsen, Program etc.) vil vœre en Foranstaltning af stor 

Nytte. Videre anmoder Kongressen d'Herr om at 

overbringe denne Résolution til den internationale Kongres i 
Dieppe, som har sat denne Sag paa sit Program." 

Dernsest foreslog han, at Forsamlingen skulde opnEevne 

Mœnd, der havde at overbringe ' Resolutionen til den fore- 

slaaede Kongres i Dieppe og arbeide for dens Réalisation der, 

Paa Prœsidentens og egne Yegne foreslog Brunchorst som 

Komite opnœvnt fdlgende: 

For Âmerika Thorndike Nourse 

„ Belgien Abbé Pype 

„ Danmark Fiskerikonsulent Drechsel 

„ Frankrig Ingénier Pérard 

„ Italien Professor Vinciguerra 

„ Rusland Professor Grimm 

„ Sverige Fiskeriinapektar Lundberg 

„ 0sterrige Direkter Valle 

„ Japan Professor Kishinouye 

„ Norge. Dr. Brunchorst 

„ Tybkland Dr. Herwig 

„ England og Skottand . Professor Fullarton. 



XXIX 

La !>'"* séRHce du congrès eut lieu le même jour à, 4 h. 30. 
Couférences : 

1. Prof. Vind^uerra. De l'introductioii de salmonidés dans les 
lacs volcaniques de l'Italie. 

2. Prof. Kishinouye. Sur la nécessité d'une entente internationale 
pour la tormation d'une Société internationale de pêche. 

3. /. Pérard. Sur la formation d'un Comité international perma- 
nent chargé d'organiser les congrès internationaux de pâche. 
Pérard pritposa la résolution suivante: 

„Le congrès international de pèches à Bergen, organisé et ré- 
uni sur l'initiative de la ^Société pour l'encouragement des pêches 
en Norvège", arrête que la formation d'un comité permanent, chargé 
d'organiser les futurs congrès internationaux de pêche, est d'une 

très grande nécessité. Le congrès prie Messieurs N. N 

de vouloir bien faire part de cette résolution au congrès international 
de Dieppe qui aussi a placé cette question sur son programme." 
Mr. Brunchorst proposa comme comité; 

Pour l'Amérique Thorndike Nourse 

„ la Belgique Mr. l'Abbé Pype 

„ le Danemark Consultant Drechsel 

„ la France J. Pérard 

„ l'Italie Prof. Vinclguerra 

„ la Russie Prof. G^rimm 

„ la Suède Inspecteur Lundberg 

„ l'Autriche Directeur Valle 

„ le Japon Prof. Kishinouye 

„ la Norvège Dr. Brunchorst 

„ l'Allemagne Dr. Herwig 

„ l'Angleterre & l'Ecosse.. Prof. Fullarton. 



.;, Google 



XXX 

I Diakussionen om denne Sag deltog med laengere Indla;g 
d'Hr. Nicolae Borodine og v. Weschniakoff, saint desuden d'Hr. 
0. T. Olsen, Eahrs, Fiskerikonsulent Dahl og Prassidetiten, der 
foreelog soœ Tilf0Îelse til Pérards Forslag at forelœgge for Kon- 
gressen i Dieppe Kishinouyes Plan til et internationalt Fiskeri- 
Belskab aamt Borodines Forslag. 

Pérards Forslag til Résolution, med de af Prœsidenten fore- 
slaaede TilfeJelser, vedtoges enstemmig. Ligeledes opnsevntes en- 
Btemniig de paa ovennEevnte Liste opstillede Herrer. 



Efter Âfslutningen af dênne Diskussion takkede Praesideiiten 
Medlemmerne for deres Fremmade og erklœrede Kongressens egent- 
lige Forhandiinger for afsluttet. 

Hr. Weschniakoff bragte Forsamiingens Tak til Komiteen, 
aaerlig Prsesidenten og Geiieialsekretœren, for deres Arbeide med 
Istandbringelsen af Kongressen og Ledelsen af dens Forhandiinger. 



Den felgende Dag, den 21de Juli, anvendtes til en Ekskuraion 
til Oatersanlsegget i EspevigpoUen, Tysnœs. Til Udflugten havde 
Bergenske Dampskibsselskab velvilUgen stillet et af sine ud- 
mœrkede Turistskibe til Disposition- Ved Ânkomsten til Espe- 
rig, hvor denne store Dampbaad ikke kunde gaa ind, blev man 
ni0dt af en mindre Dampbaad som satte Deltagerne i Land. I 
Baade og paa Flaader blev man derpaa aat ud paa Pollen, hvor 
man havde Anledning til at se Fiemgangsmaaden ved Indsamling 
af 0stersyngel og til at gjare sig bekjendt med den ussedvanlig 
h0ie Temperatur, Vandet i disse Poller om Sommeren gaar op til. 
Veiret havde fra ferst af vœret usikkert, men klarede midt paa 
Dagenopog i det Hele var Turen, fra hvilken man ved lO-Tiden 
kom tilbage til Bergen, sœrdeles vellykket og interesserede Del- 
tagerne meget. 

Med denne Udflugt afsluttedes Kongressens Samvœr. 



. v, Google 



XXXI 

A la diBcussion prirent surtout part M. M. Nicolas Boro- 
dine, v, Weschniakoff, 0. T. Olsen, Kahrs, Dahl et le président, i 
Ce dernier proposa d'ajouter à la proposition de Mr. Pérard celle 
de faire passer aussi au congrès de Dieppe la proposition de Prof. 
Eishinouye concernant une Société internationale de pêche et la 
proposition de Mr. Borodine. 

La résolution proposée par J. Pérard, complétée par le supplé- 
ment proposé par le président, fut acceptée unanimement. L'on 
adopta ensuite la liste des noms cités plus haut. 

Aussitôt que la discussion fut terminée le président remercia 
les membres du congrès de leur participation aux séances et déclara 
que le congrès avait terminé ses délibérations. Mr. Weschniakoff 
présenta au comité d'organisation et surtout au président et au 
secrétaire général, les remerciments du congrès pour leur travail assidu 
à organiser le congrès et à diriger ses séances. 



Le jour suivant, le 2'. Juillet, fut consacré à une excursion à 
l'étahlissement ostréicole d'Kspevig, à Tysnses. — ■ La comprignie „Det 
Bergenske Dampsldbsselskab" avait d'une manière très bienveillante 
mis un de ses somptueux bateaux de touristes à la disposition du 
comité. A l'arrivée à Espevig un petit bateau vint prendre les 
membres du congrès et les mit à terre. — L'on fit ensuite, soit 
dans des barquettes, soit sur des radeaux, la visite des huîtrières et l'on 
eut ainsi l'occasion de voir la manière dont on traite le naissîn 
et de se rendre compte de la haute température de l'eau pendant 
l'été dans ces buîtriëres. 

Le temps, qui tout d'abord avait été assez menaçant, fut très 
beau toute la journée, et à 10 li. du soir l'on arriva à Bergen très 
satisfait de la manière dont on avait passé la journée. 

Cette excursion termina les réunions du congrès. 



D,g,t,.,.d.:, Google 



m. 
Fortegnelse otct Eoi^^ressens indskreme Delta^ere. 



Abbot, w. 

Collins, I. w., Captein 
Kabrs, Frimann 
Wentz, William H. 



Belgien. 



Pjpe, H., Abbé. 



Danmark. 
Drechsel, Fiskerikonsulent, Ejebenhayn K. 
Feddersen, A., Fiskerikonsulent, EjebeDhavii V. 
Frimodt, M. L., KJBbenhavn K. 
Ludt, Aug. S., Grosserer, KJ0benhavn V. 
Salling, A-, Fiskeriagent i England, 46 Waverley Street, Hull. 

England og Skotland. 
Brekke, L. P., Kiabmand, Hull 
Dent, John, Neweastle 
Ferkingstad, L., Hull. 
FuUarton, J. H., Dr. 
Johnson, Andrew, HuU 
Monge, Fr., Hull 
Nourse, Thorndike, London 
Olsen, 0. T., Grimaby 
Bennie, A. D., Glasgow 
SmethuFBt, Henry, Gritnsby 
Stephenson, Hull 
Pickering, C, Hull 
Duncan, A., Lîverpool 
Haldane, T., Hull. 



.;, Google 



xxxm 

Finland. 
Revel, Oscar, Overretsnotar, Waea 
Sandmann, I. Âlbt., FiakeriiiiBpekteradjomt, Helsingfors. 

Frankrige. 
Beth encourt, Cardozo de, Paris 
Gaerne, Baron de, Paris 
Pérard, I., Ingeoior, Parie 
Roche, Paris 

Sépé, Georges, Directeur, Bordeaux 
Thoulet, Pr., Nancy. 

Island. 

Oudjohnsen, Student. 

Stemundsson, B., Cand. mag., Reykjavik. 

Italien. 
Vinciguerra, Decio, Prol. Dr., Rom. 

Japan. 

Kishinouye, K., Dr., Tokio 
Matzusaki, Tokio 
Terano, Ingénier. 

Rumeenien. 
Ântipa, Gr., Dr., Directeur, Bukarest. 

Rusiand. 
Arnold, Johann, St. Petersburg 
Borodine, Nicolas, Uralak 
Brandt, A., Prof., Dr., Kharkoff 
Girdwoyn, Michal, von, Ingénier 
Grimm, 0. A. von, Exe, Dr., St. Petersburg 
Hillsen, von, Cari., St. Petersburg 



XXXIV 

KouanetzofF, Innocent, 9t. Peteraburg 

Ktihne, von, Alexander, St. Petersburg 

Spoerhase, Christian, Astrachan 

Tôttermann, Exe, Generaikonsul i Christiania 

Weachniakoff, von, W., Exe, Statssecretair, St. Petersburg 

Zarubine, von, Johann, Moscau. 

Ichtyologische BibUothelc der Fiechereiverwaltung in Astrachan 

Bidel, Egor, Arcbangelsk. 

Sverige. 
Almstrôm, Robert, Rôrstrand, Stockholm 
Arwidson, I., Fil. Kand., Upsala 
Cederstrom, G. C. Friherre, Ingarô 
Lundberg, R, Dr., Fiskeriinspektflr, Stockholm 
Lonnberg, Einar, Dr., Docent, Upsala 
Millén, Direktar, Stockholm 
Sandqtist, S. J., Borgmastare, Hudiksvall 
IVybom, Fîlip, Dr., Stockholm 
Ostergren, Hj,, Filosofie Licentiat, Upsala, 



Batt, S., Stipendiât. 

Tyskiand. 
Decker, kônigl. Oberfischmeister, Altona 
Heincke, Prof., Dr., Dîrector, Uelgoland 
Henking, Prof., Dr., Hannover 

Herwig, Dr., Président for den tyske Havfiakeforening, Hannovei 
Pust, F. Albt., GeeatemUnde 
Rubardt, C, Geestemdnde 
Siebert, H., GeeatemUnde 
Uhde, Gustav jr., Harburg Elbe 
Wallenstein, Florian, Ingeni^r-Chemiker, Berlin 
Wilhelms. kônigl. Regierungs- und Baurath, Koslin. 
Hàpke, L,, Dr. phil., Bremen 
DrÔscher, W., Dr., Schwerin in Mecklenburg 



XXXV 

Osterrige. 
Valle, Antoine, Directar, Trieat. 



Norge. 
Aarfl()t, John, Aalesund 
Ameln, Johan, Konsul, Ber^sen 
Andersen, M., Fiskeriopsynsbetjent, Chnstiiinia 
Andersen, Campell, Rebslager, Bergen 
Arnesen, Arne, Cbristianasund 
Arctander, Borgermester, Bergen 
Backer, Fr., Fiskeriskolebestyrer, Bod» 
Barclay, M., Disponent, Hisken 
Berli, B., Grosserer, Aalesund 
Bertelsen, 01a, SagFerer, Haugesund 
BJ0rnsund, Sivert Olsen, Frsenen pr. Molde 
BJ0rDsund, Haisten S., Frœnen pr. Molde 
Bnincborst, J., Dr., Bergen 
Brusdal, Joakim, Aalesund 
Bull, Henrik, Bestyrer, Bergen 
Buvig, Fiskeriinspekt0r, Haugesund 
Dabi, Jens 0., Fiskerikonsulent, Cbristiania 
Dannevig, G. M., Kaptein, Arendal 
Devold, Laurits A., Aalesund 
Egge, Jobs., Haugesund 
Ëgge, M., Haugesund 
Eriksen, Bernhard, Stavanger 
Eriksen, Svend B-, Storthingsmand, Stavanger 
Falcb, S., Konsul, Bergen 
Flack, Arendal 

Fleiscber, J., Fiskerisekretier, Bergen 
Friele, Herm., B. S., Kjsbmand, Bergen 
Felbng, P., Garver, Levanger 
Giertsen, J. Chr., H. S., Kjebmand, Bergen 
Gran, Albert, Konsul, Bergen 
Gran, Johan, Konsul, Bergen 

D,g,i,.,.d.:, Google 



XXXVI 

Haances, T., ChristiansBand 8. 

Haave, A., Flor0 

Hagland, E. G., Haogesund 

Hansen, Rich., Formand, Sundere i Nordland 

Halvorsen, L., Skolebestyrer, Haugesund 

Helgerud, G-. H., Kjobœ., Trondhjein 

Helmers, J-, jr., Flore 

Kesb0, Byfoged, Haugesund 

Hjort, Johan, Dr., Christiania 

Hofseide, Hans, Aalesund 

Holm, C. J., Harstad 

Holmboe, R., Agent, Bergen 

Jangaard, Petter, Aalesund 

Jofaannessen, Ole, L. P. S., Konsul, Bergen 

Johnsen, Fiskeriagent i England 

Johnsen, Piskeninspektor, fiode 

Kongahavn, E, H,, Haugesund 

Enudsen, Henr., Kemjker, Bergen 

Kleppe, Fr., Hermetikfabrikant, Stavanger 

Klingenberg, Ingvar, Kjabm., Christianssund N. 

Kvalevaag. Andréas, Kvalevaag 

Lammethun, J., Flore 

Larsen, L. S., Aalesund 

Lehmkuhl, Er., Kjebmand, Bergen 

Lie, JenB 0., Haugesund 

Lie, Othar, Aames pr. Harstad 

Lotbe, A-, Haugesund 

Lunde, Christen, Nordland 

Maartmann, R., Kjflbmand, Kopervig 

Meylànder, G., Hermetikfabrikant, Stavanger 

Michelsen, Chr., Ordftirer, Bergen 

Mohr, Conrad, Konsul, Bergen 

Meller, I. Moses, Handelsmand, Ramse 

Nielaen, Joh, Fr., Christianssund 

Nordgaard, 0., Kand., Bergen 

Nygjerde, Olai, Eggesbonses, Sandraere 

Olsen, Hroar, Amtmand, Bergen 

Olsen, Martin, Ei0biuand, Vard» 

r..niP,..i-,:,G00glc 



xxxvn 

Ophaug, Anders, 0rlandet 

Ostnœs, Petter, Haram pr. Aalesund 

Pettersen, L., Lodsoldermsnd, Fredriksstad 

Pihl, Cari T., GrosBerer, Christiania 

JFUsmussen, Emit F-, Aalesund 

Keimeberg, Joachim, Konsul, Aalesund 

Simonnfes, Job. O., Fiskeriassistent, Bergen 

Sandfar, B. 0., Haugesund 

Serenaen, G., Fiskeriinapektar, Vard0 

Sejland, B. L., Flekkefîord 

Thiis, C. Hauge, Hermetikfabrikant, Stavanger 

Thue, Oscar, Fiskerisekrçtœr, Bod» 

Tobiasen, Joban, Maage pr. Harstad 

Torvestad, Aabjem A-, Haugesund 

Trovik, A-, Flore 

Vaebotten, A., Flore 

Waage, Torbjern, Stavanger 

"Walderhaug, Ingebrigt, Aalesund 

Wnllem, Fr. M., Fiskeriinspektar, Trondhjem 

Werring, Emil, Cbristianssund 

Westergaard, Fiskeriagent i Tyskland 

Wrangell, H. M., Haugesund 

Zabi, Tbeodor, Viksbolnien. 



.;, Google 



1.;. Google 



FORHANDLINGER. 



.;, Google 



.;, Google 



I. 
THE PISEHiniS OP THE ïïinTED STATES 

BY 

JoBEFH William Collins. 

Mr. Président and (îew/?ewîeK.— Fishing was the first induatry 
of North America, and it exercised the greatest influence on the 
seulement and commercinl deïelopment of that section of the con- 
tinent now embraced within the limits of the United States. 

The early diacoverers and navigators, who visited the ne w world, 
carried to Europe wonderful taies of the marvellous piscatorial wealth 
of the western seas, and kings, princes and merchants saw, in the 
resoarces of thèse newly discovered régions, visions of prosperity 
auch as hâve only bèen equalled in récent years by the discoveries 
of gold and silver mines in America and in distant Australia. Pleets 
of fishing veasels followed close in the wake of Oolumbus, and histor- 
ical records show that as early as 1503 a fleet was fitted out in 
Europe to engage in the cod fishery of the western Atlantic. The 
Basque, Norman, English, Spanish and Portuguese iishermen hast- 
ened to gather the harveat of the seas in the new world; and it 
is a tuatter of record that "twenty-five years ailer the landing of 
Columbus the crews of fifty veasels were plying their hand-lines over 
the ahoals of the New-found-Iand" . 

The reports of thèse adventurous men led to the settlement of 
niany régions which offered small attractions of other kinds, and 
ttûdoubtedly hastened the development of the country. In those 
^ly jears even the head lands of the coast sometimes received 



their nainï?: ïppjH-' ftsiij '£^\in the case of Cape Cod — that arm of 
Massachusetts that stretches Heaward, which was thus named because 
of the abundance of codiîsh in its vicinity. 

We need not consider hère the tradition which claims that 
long before Golumbus discovered Âniericia, European fishermen had 
made voyages to the great oceanic Banks of New-found-land, and 
were familiar with the abundance of fîsh on them, but it is a well- 
knowD historical fact that centuries before the Genoese discoverer 
sighted the islands of America, the sailors of northern Europa had 
pusbed westward to Icetand, and it was only a step further, so to 
speak, to extend their voyages to the harbors and banks of the 
western Atlantic. At an early date, those who voyaged to New 
England were impressed with the great store-house of wealth in 
the waters that washed the shores of that locality. Ab early as 
1602 6osnold made the statement that in the vicinity of Cape Cod, 
"from March to May, there was better fishing, and in as great 
plenty, as in Newioundland", and Brereton, his asnociate, declared 
that "forasmuch as merchants are diligent inquisitors after gains, 
they wîll soon remove their trade from Newfoundland". Captain 
John Smith appears to bave been the pioneer of American fisheries 
in the locality referred to, for in 1614 the ship he commanded 
caught a "fare" of forty seven thousand iish near the coast oi 
Maine. He seems to hâve had a tborough appréciation ofhia good 
fortune, as well as of the excitement attending the fishing, if we 
may judge by his writings. "And is it not pretty sport", he asked, 
"to haul up two pence, six pence, and twelve pence, as fast as you 
can haie and veare a Une? He is a very bad iisher who cannot 
kill in one day with his hooke and line, one, two, or three hundred 
cods" . Capt. Smith planted at Jamestown, Virginia, the first 
American coiony in 1609, and the permanence of the settlements 
in this région is attributed chieHy to the fact that the adjacent 
rivers and harbors abounded in fish and oysters — products for 
which they are still celebrated. And it may well be claimed that 
the inhabitants of the Chesapeake Bay région hâve acted upon the 
principle laid down by Capt. Smith, for they hâve always availed 
themselves of the opportunity to "haie" pence eut of the waters, 
much faster and more adroitly, than their famous predecessor. It 
is a noteworthy fact that more than forty-two thousand persons 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



are now employed in the iisheries of this particular part of the 

United States. 

The settlement of New Ëngland, from whence oïir most im- 
portant aea fisheriea hâve been prosecnted, nndoubtedly had for 
its chief object the establishment of a great commercial fishery. 

In his narrative of the "True Grounds and Causes of the l' irst 
Planting of New England," Edward Winslow relates that when the 
ag;ent of Uie Piiritans went from Leyden to England, in 1618, to 
solicit the consent of James 1 to their settlement in America, and 
to obtain from him a charter, the king inquired: "What profit 
might arise?" Their reply was embodied in the single, simple 
terra, "Fishing," which embraced ail of their hopes, and anticipa- 
tions, cominercially speaking. The king was evidently favorably 
imiiressed with the answer, not only because it signified the thrift 
which appealed to his Scottish préjudices, but also for other reasons, 
for he aaid: "So God bave my souI, 'tis an honest trade; 'twas 
the apostles' own calling." 

One of the reasons given by the Pilgrims for settling at Ply- 
month waa that "it seemed to offer some advantages both for whale 
and cod fishery". In the two years which followed the establish- 
ment of the colony at Plymouth, when the struggle to secure food 
was continuous, and its obtainment a matter of great conséquence 
for the préservation of life, tlie settlers depended chiefly on the 
niollusks which they dug along the sandy shores, or upon the fish 
caught in the few frail nets they had. Suhsequently they obtained 
from England better appliances for fishing, and in the autumn of 
1634 dispatched a ship to the mother-land, loaded with fish which 
hadbeen cured with sait they had manufactured themselves. Be- 
fore the middle of the 17th century, the Massachusetts colony 
annually exported to the countries of Southern Europe about one 
hundi-ed thousand quiotals of dried cod fish, having a value of 
four hundred thousand dollars. New England was thua early noted 
for its prominence in sea fishery, for not only had it shipped car- 
goes of dried cod to Southern Europe, hut it supplied a large 
percentage ol the fiah food eaten in America. Its fleet grew apace. 
Before the Revolutionary War Massachusetta had more than five 
bundred fishing vessels, and Marblehead alone had one hundred 
snd fifly sea-going schooners engaged in fishing, while the entire 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



âfitiing fleet of New England numbered six hundred and sixty-five 
vessels, carrying crews aggregating four thousand, four hundred 
mid âve men. As early ae 1701 Gloucester had a fleet of seventy 
vessels employed in the cod fishery on the distant banks of New: 
foundland. 

In 1713 the schooner rig was invented at Gloucester, by a 
builder of fishing vessels. History records that "Captain Robinsoii 
built and rigfjed a Icetch, as they were then called, masted and rigged 
it in a peculiar manner ; when launched the peculiar motion slie 
made as she glided into the water from the stocks caused one of the 
bystanders to exclaim: "Oh how she acoons!", Robinson instantly 
dasbed a bottle of rum against her bow, and exclaimed : "A scooner 
let her be!'. And thus the schooner originated." 

The invention of the schooner was an important event to the 
fisheries of the United States, for after two centuries of ti'ial its 
l'ig bas been found well adapted to âshing vessels, especially those 
employed in the western Atlantic. It bas been materially improved, 
liowever, since its adoption, and tbe graceful yacht-like flshing-clippei' 
of to-day bears little reaemblance to its ancient prototype, even 
altliough the rig remains the same in principle. 

The American sea âsheries suSered much in the four décades 
from 177S to 1815, during which time ocçurred the war of tbe 
Révolution, the embargo act, and the second war with Great Bri- 
tain. This period was noted for wars and rumors of wars. The 
larger fishing-vessels, which had formerly sailed to distant banks, 
were forced to lie idle and decaying in port, while the brave men 
who had composed their crews were chiefly employed in the army 
or navy wbile the struggles were in progress for the establishment 
of liberty and the maintenance of the principle of "free trade and 
sailors' rights" on the sea. Impoverished by the long contest for 
iiidependence, the fistiermen were generally unable, after the peace of 
1783, to provide themselves with large vessels, tberefore they built 
amaller craft, on which they cruised to comparatively nearby grounds 
aloDg the New England coast. 

Immediately after the Revolutionary war the adoption of the 
"Chebacco boat" became quite gênerai, especially along tbe north 
sbore of Massachusetts. Thèse diminutive craft, at fîrst ranging 
from about five to ten tons, derived their spécifie name from Che- 



A'OO' 



gic 



bacco, now a part of the town of Essex, Massncliusetts, where they 
originated. Cat-rigged, with two masta, they were "handy" boats, 
iind became so popular that they could be met with on almost nll 
of the inshore grounds. In later years, when some were hs large 
as from fifteen to twenty tons, they grew more venturesome, and 
not infrequently their cruisea were exteiided to the off-ahore banks. 

Indeed, tradition tells of some going as far as the West Indies 
during the embargo period, carrying ont cargoes of fish, and re- 
tHrning with mm, siigar or molasses. The difficulty of intercourse 
at that time often made thèse ventures profitable, and apparently 
lésa risk was taken in thèse diminutive vessels than would hâve 
attended similar enterprises in larger craft. 

Although the peace of 1783 continued to Americans the right to 
fish in waters bordering on the British North American provinces, the 
conditions that environed our fishermen for many years therearter 
were such as to render them iinable, in a large measure, to take 
advantage of this right, 

Soon after the peace of 1815, and the gênerai pacification of 
Europe, as a resuit of the close nf the Napoleonic wars, the New 
Ëiigland fisheries began to improve, After 1820 they advanced 
rapidly in prosperity, The bounty given hy the govemment to 
vessels engaged in the cod flshery had a most encouraging and 
bénéficiai effect; the remarkable and growing popularity of the 
mackerel as an article of food led to the establishment and rapid 
Development of the fishery for this species; and las), but not least, 
there was little compétition irom the British North American pro- 
vinces until after 1850. Prior to 1830, the British colonial policy, 
wliich prevented the colonists from trading with foreign countries, 
corapletely prevented exportation of provincial fish to the United 
States. And even later, trade in fish grew slowly, partly owing to 
the undeveloped condition of provincial fisheries, and partly to our 
tariff laws, which were quite sufficient to préserve to Americans 
control of the home market, and to protect them from foreign 
cnrapetition. 

It is true that the transportation facilities were crude and 
undeveloped. Nevertheless small freighters carried the cured pro- 
ducts of the deep-sea fisheries from every nook and corner of the 
eoaat to Boston and New York, whence they were sent to the re- 

■ r.niP,.. -v.CoOc^lc 



moteBt sections of the country. Dried cod, pickled mackerel, and 
herring, smoked or salted in brine, were admirably adapted to the 
transportation facilities of the period and the conditions of trade ; 
for they could be carried without détérioration by the slow procesi 
of travel then in vogue, while the dealer rarely found them other- 
wise than "in order" when they were called for. The luxury of 
having fresh fish whenever wanted waa then practically unknown. 
The raost important requirement was to hâve products that woiild 
"keep". And so the well-preaerved food treasures of the Atlantic 
found a ready sale and increasing appréciation. The fleets of fisbing 
craft along the New England coast not only augmented in numbers, 
but also in the size of the vesaela, while material improvement was 
noticeable in the form and rig. 

As has been shown, our fisheries during the firat two bundied 
years after the settlement of the country, were confronted with 
many difficulties, and aside from the incidents referred to, the hl- 
story of them is somewhat monotonous, and indicates comparativelj 
slow development except in certain directions. During thoae years 
fisbery was confined largely, if not almost excluaiveiy, to New Eng- 
land, where the whale induatry developed to large proportions, and 
fleets engagcd in the cod and mackerel fiaheriea. Little interest, 
however, seems to hâve been manifested in them by acientific nien 
or those not directly interested from a flnanciat standpoint; and 
up to the middle of the présent century few changes had been 
made in the method of conducting commercial fisheries, 

"The cod flshery, the whale-fishery, the mackerel, the shad and 
alewife, and tbe oyster fisheries", according to Goode, "were carried 
on in ItieO mucb in the same manner as at the beginning of the 
century, and their products were prepared and sent to market in 
accordance with methods not essentially unlike tbose in use among 
tbe earlieat fisbermen of tbe colonies." 

The development of the American lîsheries, particularly in the 
southern section of the United States, was serioualy interrupted by 
the occurrence of the war of the Rébellion (1861 — 6B), but since 
tbat time tbeir gênerai estent and value hâve been enbanced to a 
remarkable degree, The total value of the fisheries of the United 
States, according to the census of 1870, was $11,000,000. Tbis 
is generally considered to hâve been an under estimate, altbough 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



no one challenged the accuracy of the tigures at the time. The 
eensus of 1880 showed a value of $ 44,646,000 at the prices paid 
the fishernien. Goode, under whose direction thèse figures were 
obtained, states that "a fair estimate at wholesale market rates, 
rather than upon the eensus hasis of jishermen's prices, would at 
the présent time (1883), probably be above, rather than below, the 
sum of $ 100,000,000." I am disposed to believe that the figures 
f'(ir 1880 were a little in excess of the actual value of the fisheries 
iif that period, and feel that the statistics of récent years are 
iiiore accurate. The statistical tables accompanying this j>aper 
show in détail the extent and value of the fisheries of the various 
States and territories of the United States, and also the extent and 
ïalue of certain spécial fisheries for the various sections and statea 
of the country. According to thèse figures, which hâve been com- 
piled by the United States Fish Commission, the total value of the 
tishery products of United States in 1897, at the prices paid the 
lishermen, aggregated $47,180,847; if we include the enhancement 
of value through curing, packing, canning and otherwise preparing 
products for market, the total value could undoubtedly be justly 
plaeed at not less than $ 110,000,000, or 410,000,000 kroners in 
round numbers. 

Wbile there has been a décline in the New England deep-sea 

fisheries — particularly the whale fishery — during the last forty years 

or thereabouts, there has unquestionably been a marked improve- 

ment in the gênerai fisheries of the United States, most noticeable 

in some sections which hâve recently become important from the 

standpoint of fishery industries. This is due to various causes, 

aome of which may be enumerated. 

1. The development of the railway Systems of the United States, 

whereby a net-work of railroads covers the entire country, and 

make possible the rapid transportation of fishery products. At 

the présent time fresh fish are carried across the continent 

from the Pacific to the Atlantic, from the Great Lakes to the 

Gulf, or from the Gulf to the distant North, and sold at 

prices lower than beef or mutton. This has had a most 

impressive infiuence on the récent development of the fisheries 

of the Pacific coast and the Gulf of Mexico, where the amount 

of products has often been phenominal. 



s. The most scientific metbods of transportation and preparatioD 
hâve been generatly adopted, eapecially the improved Systems 
of réfrigération. Tbese are among the most important factora 
in tbe expansion of commercial fisheries. Upon ail the prin- 
cipal Hnes of railways, refrigerator cars are constantly run- 
ning; while at the chief âshing ports of the Ëast, of the Pa- 
cific coast, and the Great Lakes, large freezing bouses bave 
been built, in which the catch can be preseived in an abeo- 
Jutely fresh condition for a indefinite time. In thèse "Freez- 
ers" tbe choicest âshes are frozen stiff, and are packed away 
like cord wood, to remain until the market demanda call them 
Xorth. Thus mackerel, Spanish mackerel, weakfish, bass, cod, 
red snapper, wbîte flsh from the Great Lakes, and salmon 
from tbe west coast are available at ail seasons in a fresh 
■condition. From September to April, spécial trains freighted 
■with Chesapeake oysters, leave Baltimore daily for the West, 
^North and South West, while aimilar trains go ont from New 
York and New Haven carrying oysters from the Long Island 
■Sound région. Oysters are even sent to San Francisco, to 
be planted in the waters of the Pacific, in order to supply 
the demands of the western markets. In winter the markets of 
Boston, New York and Pbiladelpbia receive from the North 
car loads of smelts and other flsh packed in snow. Refrige- 
rator cars carry cargoes of fresh halibut from the Puget Sound 
ports to tbe Atlantic coast; similar cars are contînuously plying 
in winter from the ports of the Gulf of Mexico to ail sections 
of the North, West, and East, and it is common to find tbe 
-delicious fiah of southern seas in our most northem markets. 
,A fleet of echooners sailing from Gloucester, especially fitted for 
the purpose, bring halubut from the distant oceanic banks, 
often from a distance of 800 to 900 miles. Ten million pounds 
of halibut are annually distributed, packed in ice, to the cities 
■of the interior. Eecently a steel steamer, 140 feet in length, 
hiis been built, and especially fitted up for fishing for halibut 
on the Banks off south-eastem Alaska and British Columbia; 
tliese fish are taken fresh to the ports on Puget Sound, and ship- 
ped East, as has just been stated. Vessels fitted with refrigerat- 
ing apparatus bave obtained cargoes of herring at Newfound- 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



land, and frozen them firtificia,lly ; thus thousands of barrels 
■of fresh herring are brought to New England, New York and 
Philadelphia each winter; where they are sold at priées so 
low that the poorest people can avail themselvea of thîs excel- 
lent food. The increased demand for freah âsh has led to 
the enhancement of the means of trausportation and to impor- 
tant changes in fisheries. 

Tbe System of packing cooked food in hermetically sealed tin 
■cans, generally known aa the „Appert process", has been widely 
adopted in the United States wherever the Btipply of âsh exceeds 
tlie local demand, except perhaps in some sections of the South, 
and even there, canneries are multiplying, The progress of the 
canning industry in the United States is remarkable. In 1850 
there were only three canneries in the country, and those were 
devoted to packing lobsters. As an instance of the importance of 
this business, the Columbia River salmon industry may be cited. 
The first cannery was erected on the Columbia in 1866, and the 
total amount packed up to 1896, including the product of that 
year, was 768,268,448 pounds of salmon ; having an aggregate 
value of $ 66,321,096, equal to 248,704,110 kroners. Figures 
nearly as impressive could be given concerning the canning of 
sardines, at Eastport, Maine, and elsewhere, and also of the 
lobster, althongh the latter industry has declined seriously in 
lecent years, owing to a décadence in abundance of that valnable 
«ruatacean. Large quantities of mackerel, clams, clam juice, 
prawns, oyaters, and other kinds of fish products, are packed 
in the same manner. 

There hâve also been many improvements in the manufacture 
«f guano and <fi.\ from 6sh; and a new process for the extraction 
«f oil, which has been put into practice this summer, is expected 
to revolutionize the menhaden industry, whieb annually yields a 
Diuch greater quantity of cil than the wbale âsbery. 

The attractive appearance and cleanliness of the packages in 
vhich pickled, smoked, dried or canned âsh are non eshibited 
for sale, has led to a greater appréciation of thèse products, 
and a more extensive use of fish food. Fifteen years ago Goode 
stated that "sait cod fish is no longer sent to the best markets 
in hulk, and more than two thousand men, women and children 



are now emplojed .in reraoving skin and bone and packing the 
fieh in neatly eut strips in boxes, or in tinfoîl covered packages 
of deânite size. In many inland districts tbe introduction of 
boneless dried fish in boxes, and pickled fish in tins, bas led to 
increase of sales, estimated by compétent authority as three- 
fold — this witbin a period of four years." What he wrote tben 
may be more strongly emphasized now, for there bas been a 
material increase in the System of packing boneless cod, and 
large "skinning lofts" are common in most of the important 
fishing centres in New England. 

The canning of fish halls and the préparation of shredded 
01' desiccated fish, wbich can be made ready for the table 
in a few minutes, will doubtless result in an increase of the 
consomption of sea fish. 

An important industry — that of making fish glue — bas resulted 
from the préparation of boneless fish ; and associated with this 
is the manufacture, from the waste product, of a high grade 
of fertilizer. This industry utilizes hundreds of tons of fish 
sbins annually, and its product reaches a value of about half 
a million dollars. 

The désire for the Juxiiries of the table eshibited by our people, 
and the greater considération wbich they bave given to the art 
of cookery hâve been bénéficiai to our fisliermen. Many of the 
finer varieties of sea fishes, such as striped bass, sheepsbead, 
Spanisb mackerel, and porapano, sometimes bring extravagant 
prices, and the same can be said of trout or the early salmon 
or shad. This demand bas led to the appréciation of caviare 
and varions other delicacies, and also to the importation of 
foreign fish, like sardines and anchovies. 

The récent marked development in the extraction of pearis 
from the mussels, in our western rivers and lakes, may be 
attributed to tbe luxurious tastes of our people, and a dis- 
position to pay high priées for whatever pleases the fancy or 
suits tbe taste of individuals. 

The increased facilities for the disposition of fishery products 
hâve led directly to the adoption of improved methods and 
apparatus for the capture of fish, or other animais whii^ are 
objects of fisheries, and a conséquent decrease in the relative , 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC ! 



— 11 — 

expense of taking them. In the United States section of the 

Fisheries Exhibition are shown varions devtces of this kind, 

sufficient to illustrate the history of the Development of spécial 

forms. [ irill mention some of the most important: 

a) The fishing schooner has been developed in speed, sea- 

worthiness and adaptibility to a marvellous degree; while 

the skill of the sailor fishermen, who man them, has been 

coi-respondingly increased. Through the efforts of the United 

States Fish Commission, whicb bas sought to teacb tbe 

âshermen by precept and example, a material cbunge has 

been made in récent years in tbe form, construction and 

rig, of fishing schooners; as a reeult tbe speed and aea- 

worthiness of vesaels, engaged in océan fishery, hâve been 

more impvoved in the paat twelve years than during the 

previouB century. In an article which I recently wrote on 

the "Evolution of the American Fishing Schooner", the 

following statements were made: 

"In form and rig it seems tbat the modem clipper fishing 
schooner of New England has nearly attained perfection, 
80 far as tbat can be reached in sailing vessels of mode- 
rate dimensions. It ia, in fact, a sturdy sea-going yacht, 
with ail the grâce and easy sweep of Unes that characterize 
tbe highly specialized pleasure vessel, but generally car- 
rying inside ballast*) and neceasarily being somewhat wi- 
der in proportion or else having a sraaller area of canvas 
tban is carried by the leadkeeled yachts. Iron is largely 
used for ballast now. On most of the new vessels boiler 
punchings are placed in cernent between the floor timbera, 
and pig iron is stowed above thia. Thua the centre of 
gravity ia much lower than it was on the aballower schoo- 
ners, and the chances of righting if knocked down, are 
materially increaaed. Indeed, the ability of the new clipper 
to rigbt bas been fiilly teated in the gales to which it has 
been exposed, and numerous instances are on record 

*) Since thia ai-tide was written achooners hsïe been designed for the 
AUantic fisheries witJi caB^-iron keels; part of their ballast at leaat is thus 
wrried ontaîde, irhich it a decided innovation in the construction of thia class 
of veisela. 

h.ji,.. v.L.OO^IC 



— 12 — 

where it has escaped from the péril of foondering wjien 
sballow vesselB would doubtlesB hâve gooe to the bottom 
TJth ail on board." 

"The double head rig is now universally in favor, a long 
light bowsprit without jibboom being found more suitable 
than the clurasy rig of former years. The long head is 
also discar'ded, as is the big stern and flat counters, while 
wire riggiiig has been extensively adopted." 

It is sufficient évidence of the sea-goîng qualities of 
tbese schoonere, as well as of the strength and fitness of 
their anchors and cables, that they safely ride out the 
fiercest winter gales on the Banks of the western Atlantic, 
. although they are sometimes ancbored in from 150 to 
200 fathoms of water. 

The use of steam vessels in the fisheries of the Great 
La^es, and alao in the menhaden, wbale, oyster, market, 
lobster and halibut iisheries. 

The introduction and extensive adoption of the pound net 
which makes possible the capture of immense quantities oi 
the choicest vavieties of iîsh at a minimum cost and also 
large quantities of cheap grades of fish or other forms 
— herring, alewives, menhaden, squid etc. — which serve 
as a bait supply to the fleets engaged in the deep-sea 
fisheries. 

The adoption of the great purse seine which enables the 
menhaden fishery to be prosecuted the annual product of 
which exceeds 1,000,000,000 fish, and in which a single 
vessel a few years ago took 96,000 barrels, or 76,800,000 
fish in a single season. It bas also made it possible for 
our mackerel schooners to treble and quadruple their in- 
dividual catch in prosperous seasons, and on some occa- 
sions to take ten times as many fish as they could obtain 
by any other method. The purse seine has also been sue- 
cessfully used for catching salmon in Puget Sound, and 
incidentally large quantities of shad. berring and pollock 
hâve been taken with it off the Atlantic coast. 
The introduction of gill nets in tbe winter cod fishery, 
simitar to tbose used by Norwegian fishermen. 



"The introduction of the lighter and cheaper cotton netting 
in place of the old-fashioned fahric of hemp," and impro- 
vements in net-making machines, twine. etc. 
The extension of the use of the long line, or trawl Une, tbe 
utilization of which has incieased materially in tbe laat ten 
or âfteen years. Thie form of apparatus came into use 
about tbe raiddle of the présent century, and was not 
extensively employed as late as 1860. New large fleets 
of schooners are engaged in trawling at ail sea&ons of tbe 
year, and in tbe deep-sea market fishery — for haddock, cod^ 
etc. — some of our vessels are equipped with from 20 to 2b- 
miles or more of trawl line, with from 20,000 to perhaps. 
30,000 bocks, which is about double the amount used two- 



h) The use of fishing wheels for catching salmon automati- 

cally on the Columbia River. 
i) The diacovery and utilization of new flshing grounds, par- 
ticularly in great depths ofF the océan banks and continental 
plateau where halibut are taken; or the régions where the- 
red snapper fishery is prosecuted in the Guif of Mexico; 
aiso the extension of voyages for the capture of food flah. 
to distant régions, like Iceland, Alaska, Ochotsk Sea, and 
Southern Africa. 

j) The adoption of a coopérative share System and prompt, 
payments to tbe fisbermen at the end of each trip, as is. 
the case at Gloucester, our largest âshing port; and also- 
a plan of cooperatiye insurance which leads to a division 
of the loss of achoonera among ail the vessel owners of tbe- 
port. Tbe System of awarding thp, command of vessels to 
the most deserving fisherman, bas in addition done mucU 
to attract the most courageous and enterprising men from 
varions parts of America and Europe. 

k) The great expansion and development of the Government 
opérations in providing, at a minimum cost, the best charts 
of harbors, coasts, and âshing grounds that it is poseibls 
for science to produce ; the wide extension of our life saving 
service, tbe increase of harbor and coast light houses and 
light ehips, and the application of the System of storm 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 14 — 

wiirnings, ail of which hâve been of great benefit to tbe 

âsbermen. 
i) The propagation of fish by artiâcial methods bas, in récent years 
been a prominent factor in advancing certain branchée of the 
âsheries, and especially in creating an intelligent interest in 
the increase of tbe abundance of food fisheB in American 
waters. History indtcates tbat an interest in such work vas 
exhibited by AmericanB at an early date. It has been stated 
tbat "Jacoby, the father of artiticial culture, bad correspondents 
in the United States as early as 1770." Benjamin Frantlin, 
gênerai Lincoln, and others more or less prominent in tbe 
-early bistory of the United iStates, botb advocated and practised 
tbe System of transplanting fieh. 

Dr, Theodatus Garliek, of Cleveland, Ohio, was the firet 
■citizen of tbe United States to attempt the artificial propagation 
«f fish. In 1851 be obtained, and artiâcially impregnatftd the 
eggs of the brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, and aucceeded 
in hatching tbem. The success of Dr. Garliek aroused interest, 
and led to experiments on the part of others, and attempts 
were made to hatcli other species as well as Uie trout. The 
publication of the résulta inâuenced and developed public 
opinion, to such an extent, tbat the Massachusetts Législature 
•established a Board of Commissioners, in 1856, to pursue 
investigations relative to âsheries, and to consider "the pract- 
icability of the artificial propagation of âsb at the expense of 
the state." 

Eight years later, in 1864, Seth Green buOt a hatchery, 
and inaugurated the era of fish culture on a practical basis 
by prosecuting the work extensively. In tbe foUowing year a 
fish commission was organized under the authority of the state 
of New Hampshire, and the state attempted, at the public 
expense, to re-stock its salmon rivets. This was the first 
time in the United States tbat public money was appropriated 
for the purpoae of fish culture. Interest in the work continu- 
ously increased, and as early an 1870, it bas been stated that 
ten commissions had been etablished for breeding fish, and 
varions states had made appropriations of money for artificially 
hatching white fish, lake trout, shad, trout and salmon. 



, L <00' 



&^ 



— 15 — 

The United States Fiah Commission was organizeclin 1871, 
under an act of Congreas, and professer Spencer F. Baird, 
one of our most eminent naturalists, was appointed commis- 
sioner. Under hig direction was begun a very thorough scien- 
tjtîc study of the Bsheries, and the artiâcial propagation of 
fish waa soon inaugurated. The work of this commission, 
lilthough begun in a modest way, has advanced from year to 
year until it has reached gigantîc proportions, far exceeding 
in its scope and magnitude, anytbing of its kind in the world's 
Jiistory. For not only bave fish been artiticially hatched by 
millions, for the restocking of depleted interior waters, but 
mucb has been done in propagating sea âshes and crustaceans ; 
iii extending the range of important food speciea. and in 
iutroducing into oiir waters âshes tbat are not indigenouf;. 
Several varietiea of European trout hâve been diatributed 
over tbose régions wbere they can thrive; the Ôerman carp is 
common in nearly ail sections of the United States, and is 
asEuming an important position in our markets; the rainbow 
trout has been widely introduced in the streams on thé At- 
lantic slope; wbile the shad, striped basa, lobster and oyster 
bave been artificially planted in Pacific coast waters. The 
former two bave thrived wonderfiilty, The shad now has a 
range from Monterey, Califomia, to Alaska, and is abundant în 
some sections, while striped bass of large size and fine quality 
are seen in tbe markets of the far West. 

Previous to 1878 the fish cultural work of the United 
States Fisb Commission was limited to anadromous and fresh- 
water species. In tbat year, however, an attempt was made 
to artificially propagate cod, herring, and haddock at Glou- 
cester, Massachusetts, and ail of thèse were successfully hatched 
!it the temporary station established tbere. Two years later 
„3ucces8ful experiments were made witb severa! food fishes 
from our southern seaboard." 

Writing in 1883 Earll made the foUowing statements re- 
garding developments in American fish culture; 

"Within tbe last few years the improvements in the appa- 
vatus and methods of fish culture hâve been very inarked- 
Experience has enabled the fish culturists to improve upon 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 16 — 

the old Btyles of boxes and trougbs, and the hatching of e^s of , 
additional species bas neceseitated the invention of nev fonns. 

"The improvements in apparatiis for heavy eggs, likethose 
of the trout and salmon, hâve been chieây in the direotion of 
economy of space and conTenience of handling. The hatching- 
box used by dr. Garlick, a simple rectangular trough, was soon 
replaced by the glass grill, introduced fiom Europe. Latev 
still came the Clark trough, Holton box, Atkins' trough, Stone i 
basket, and Ferguson jar. 

"Semi-buoyant eggs, like those of the shad and white fish, 
are treated in a manner pecuHarly Trans-Atlantic (American)- 
The first, and for some years the only apparatus employed, 
was the floating box, invented by Seth Green. Next came the 
Bryan box, and later the Bell and Mather cône, Chase's jar, i 
Clark's jar, Ferguson's bucket, McDonald's jar, and Bower's- 
trough. I 

„Adhesive eggs, like those of the smelt, herring, and perch, 
are successfully hatched in the Ricardo and Clark boxes, and 
their manipulation is greatly facilitated by the aid of the 
McDonald egg-reel. Floating eggs, including those of the cod, i 
Spanish mackerel, and moonfisb, are hatched in floating boxes , 
so arranged as to utilize the action of the waves, and in ap- 
paratus invented by Clark and Chester." 

Since 1883 the changes in fisb cultural apparatus hâve 
been more marked than prevîously, so that now the hatching 
of fish in the United States is carried on with a very few 
devices, The universal hatching jar, invented by Brown and 
MoDonalil — known as the McDonald jar — is successfully used 
for Tarions kinds of semi-buoyant eggs, and also for adhesive- 
eggs, and probably has a wider scnpe of application than any 
other apparatus ever invented for fish cultural purposes, The 
McDonald cod hatching box bas proved very successftil in 
hatching buojant eggs of various species. Th« Chase jar i» 
used to a considérable extent for hatching white fiah and similar 
species, but it is being superseded largely by the McDonald jar. 
The apparatus now so successfully employed is mostly or entirely 
automatic in its action, and is much more economical thau 
forms previoualy used. 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 1 



— 17 — 

Not onlj bave tbere beeti improTemeuta în apparatus for 
batcbing fisb, but tbe most radical changea bave occurred in 
metbods of âsb culture. By tbe eatabliBhment of aub-stationa 
large quantities of egga are now obtained wbicb were not 
beretofore available, aud tbe estent of tbe work bas tbereb; 
been greatly enbanced. Ât manj of tbe principal batcbiug 
statione, as at Fut-in-Bay on Lake Erie, Wasbington, D. G., 
and Woods Hole, swift steam launcbes are brought into ré- 
quisition for Tisîting tbe fisbing grounds in tbe vicinitj, and 
bringjng tberefrom sucb eggs as may be obtained from tbe 
âsbermen, or perbaps bringing [lobsters, or other species from 
wbicb eggB can be obtained at a later date. Daring tbe spring 
and Bummer .tbe uGrampuB" bas been employed in carrying 
live lobsters în her vell from tbe âsbing stations in Maine 
and Massacbusetts to tbe batcberies at GloucsBter or Woods 
Hole, and in winter her crew rendezvous at Kittery, (near 
PortBmoutfa, New Eampsbire), and go out on tbe scbooners 
tbat fisb in Ipswich Bay for tbe purpose of colleeting cod e^s, 
millions of wbicb are obtained and transported by rail to 
Gloucester and Woods Hole. Tbe establishment ofsub-stations 
on tbe western rivers bas led to an enormous increase in tbe 
quantity of salmon eggB, taken for artiâcial propagation; but 
time does not suffice to enter into detailed descriptions of 
tbese opérations. Tbe steamer "Fisb Hawk", wbicb is sub- 
stantially a âoating batcbery, is enabled to carry on tbe work 
of propagation for many moutbs of tbe year, beginning her 
opérations in winter in the Gulf of Mexico, or on tbe Soutb 
Atlantic coast, and moving northward as the season adTances, 
and tbe increasing température of tbe water brings anadromous 
Bpecies, like tbe shad, into tbe rivers to spawn. 

Following is tbe list of twenty-five batcbing stations of the 

United States, operated in 1897; the principal species pro- 

pagated at eacb; aud the output of fry in tbat year: 

1. Oreen Lake, Maine, station for colleeting eggs of the land- 

locked salmon (Sahno salar sebago), brook trout Salveli- 

mis fontinalis), and the golden brook trout Salvelinus 

alpinus aureolus). Output, 1,233,433. 

S. Craig Brook, Maine, station for the propagation of the eggs 

i.,,i,^"2,L'00'^IC 



— 18 — 

of the Atlantic Balmon (Saîmo salar), brook trout (Sol- 
velimis fontinalia), land-locked &almon(Salmo salar sebago). 
In connection with this station a small auxiliarj station 
ia operated at Grand Lake Stream, Maine, for the col- 
lection of egg9 of the land-locked Balmon (Salmo salar 
sebago). Output, 3,341,780. 

3. St. Johnsbury, Vermont, station located IVi miles from 

the town of St. Johnsbury, and devoted exclusively to 
the propagation of the brook trout (Salvelimis fontinalis). 
Output, 884,785. 

4. Glouceater, Massachusetts, station located on Ten Pound 

Island, in the harbor of Gloucester, and established for 
the propagation of the marine âshes, chieôy the cod 
(Oadus callariasj, pollack (Follachius virens), mackerel 
{Scomber scombrus), and the lobster (Ramants americanus). 
Output, 110,826,000. 

5. Woods Holl, Massachusetts, station located in the town of 

Woods Hole, and devoted chiefiy to the propagation of 
cod (Oadus callarius) and lobsters (Homarus americanus), 
though the eggs of several other of the marine ôshes 
are handied, including the âatfish {Pseudopleurmiectes 
americanus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), tautog (Tatt- 
toga onitis), and sea bass {Centropristes striatus). It is 
also equipped for biological investigations, and most im- 
portant scientiâc work is conducted there each snmmer. 
Output 165,284.000. 

6. Cape Vincent, New York, station located on the St. Law- 

rence river near its mouth ; established for the propaga- 
tion of whiteâsh [Goregmus clupeiformis), pike perch 
(Stizostedion vitreum), and lake trout (Cristivomer ruimay- 
cash). It is utilized also for the hatching of quinnat 
salmon {Onœrhynchus tscha-wytscha) eggs transferred from 
the Pacific coast. Output, 4,074,600. 
9. Battei7 Station, Maryland, located at the head of the 
Chesapeake hay, four miles from the town of Havre de 
Grâce, Md., for the purpose of collecting and hatcbing 
eggs of the shad (Alosa sapidissîma), striped bass (Roeeus 
lineatus), and wbite perch (Morone amerieanà). Ontput 
52,606,000. ' -' A'OOgIC 



— 19 - 

S. Bryans Point, Marjland, station situated on tlie Potomac 
river, twelve miles below Washington, D. C, and used 
chieây for collecting and hatching eggs of the shad 
{Ahsa sapidissima). Output, 39,707,000. 

9, Fish Ponds, Washington, D. C, used for years for the 
propagation of carp, now chiefly devoted to the rearing 
of black basa (Micropterus), crappie {Pomoxis annularis), 
and shad {Alosa sapidissima). Output, 1,546,250, 

10. Central Station, Washington, D. C. Tbis station is provid- 

ed witb apparatus for the hatching of the eggs of the 
shad (Alosa sapidissima) and Salimonidte ; also as a di- 
stributing center for the stations in the vicinity, and as 
beadquarters for the Car and Messenger Service. At- 
tached to the station is a stnall aquarium used to ezhi- 
bit fresh and salt-water fishes, which also affords oppor- 
tunitj for natural history studj. Output, 27,439,744. " 

11. Wytbeville, Virginia. This station is located three miles 

out of the tovfn of WytheviUe, in Wytbe County, and is 
devoted principally to the propagation of the rainbow 
trout (Salmo irid^is), rock basa {Ambloplites rupestris), 
hlack bass (Micropterus salmoides), and crappie (Pomoxis 
annularis). Output, 456,424. 

12. Erwin, Tennessee- This station was eatahlished in 1897 

for the propagation of brook trout (Sàlvelinus fontinalis), 
rainbow trout (Saimo iridetis), hlack bass {Micropterus 
salmoides), and crappie (Pomoxis annularis), and is 
located in Unicoi county, two and a half miles from 
the town of Erwin. 

13. Put-in-Bay station is located on the Island of Put-in-Bay, 

in Lake Erie, and is the largest whiteâsh and pike perch 
station in the world, having a capacity of 200,000,000 
eggs of the whitefish (Coregonus clupeiformis) and 
500,000,000 eggs of the pike perch (Stizostediôn vitreum), 
Output, 68,402,431. 

14. Northville, Mîchigan, station, located in the town ofNorth- 

ville, twenty-five miles from Détroit, was established for 
the propagation of brook trout (Sàlvelinus fontinalis), 
hnt during the past yesr, 1897, over 11,000,000 eggs 



of tbe lalie trout {Cristivomer namaycush) were hanâled. 
Output, 6,697,000. 

15. Âlpena, Michigan, station, located in the town of Âlpena, 

on Lake Michigan, is devoted exclusively to the collec- 
tion and hatching of the eggB of the wbitefiBh (Corego- 
nus elupeiformis). Output, 32,000,000. 

16. Duhith, Minnesota, station is located at the western extrem- 

ity of Lake Superior, in the town of Duluth, on Lester 
river, and was established for the collection and hatch- 
ing of the eggs of the lake trout {Cristivomer namaycush), 
whiteËsli (Coregonus elupeiformis), and pike perch {Stiz- 
ostedion vi^eum). Output, 6,847,600. 

17. Manchester, lowa, station, located four miles from tbe 

town of Manchester, is equipped for the collectiog and 
hatching of eggs of the brook trout (Salvelimis fontina- 
lis) and rainbow trout {Salmo irideus) ; also for the pro- 
pagation of basB {Microptems salmtndes), and crappi» 
(Pomoxis annularis) in ponds. Output, 199,333. 

18. Quincj, Illinois, station is for the collection of black basa 

{Micrcj)terîis salmmdes), and of âshes indigenous to the 
Mississippi valley. The ponds for the rétention of thèse 
fish are located at Meredosia, Illinois, forty miles from 
Quincy. Output, 38,618. 

19. Neosho, Missouri; a station in the Ozark région of tbe 

State of Missouri, for the propagation of rainbow trout 
(Salmo irideus), black bass {Microvtertis salmoides), and 
crappie {Pomo2ds annularis). Output, 235,054. 

20. San Marcos, Texas; a station established on the San 

MarcoB river, Texas, for the propagation of black bass 
(Micropiffrus salmoides), rock bass (Amhhplites rupestris), 
and crappie (Pomoxis annularis). Output, 11750. 

21. Leadville, Colorado; a station located on the Rocky moun- 

tains, four miles from Leadville, and receiving its water 
supply from Rock creek. It was established for the pro- 
pagation of the black-spotted trout (Salmo my/âss), tbe - 
yellow-fin trout (Salmo myiiss macdonaldi), and the rain- 
bow trout (Salmo irideus). Several million eggs of lie 
brook trout (Salvelinus fontinaîis) bave also been collect- 
ed and batcbed at this station. Output, 639,131. 



— 21 — 

22. Bozeman, Montana, station is located in the Gallatin val- 

ley, four miles from the town oi Bozeman, and ie deTO- 
ted to the propagation of the black-8potted or mountain 
trout {Salmo myhss), the brook trout (Salvelintis fonti- 
nalis), and the grajling {Thymaïius ontariensis montanus). 

23. Baird station, Califomia, vas the ârst salmon station es- 

tablished on the Pacific coast, and is devoted exclusÎTely 
to the propagation of the quinnat salmon (Oncorhynckiis 
tschawytscka). Output, 6,333,586. 
a. Battle creek, an auxiliary station, operated in con- 
nection with the Baird station, at which 50,000,000 
eggs of the quinnat salmon {Oncorkynchus tsekatV' ' 
ytsàia) were collected during the season of 1897. 
Output, 14,530,090. 

24. Fort Gaston, Hoopa Valley, California, This station is on 

the Hoopa Valley Indian Réservation, and is devoted to 
the propagation of the steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri), 
the silïer salmon (Oncoj-kynchus Msutch); and the quin- 
nat salmon (Oncorkynekus tsehaviytscha), Two auxiliary 
stations, one at Redwood, California, and the other at 
Corbel, California, are also operated in connection with 
this station. Output, 1,105,377. 

25. Clackamas station, Oregon. The station is situated on the 

banks of the Clackamas river, a tributary of the Colum- 
hia river, and is devoted to the coUecting and hatching 
of eggs of the quinnat aalmon (Oncothynchus iséhawyt- 
scha). In connection with this station, three auxiliary 
stations are operated, one at Sandy river, distant sixteen 
miles, one on the Little White Salmon river, in the 
State of Washington, and one on the Rogue river. Out- 
put, 6,771,394. 
The total output frora the hatcheries of the U. S. Fish Com- 
inisBion in 1897, was 617,123,734*). The magnitude of thèse 

*) I bave not the exact flgares for th» work of th« atate hatcheries for 
ft« lam* jear, but it is, I think, a conservative concluaion to estimate tha 
tolal ontpnt eqnal to that g^ven for the TJ, S. Fiah Commiasion. If this ja cor- 
rect, the grand total of young fish hatohed in tlie United Statea, in 1897, 
ipproximatad 1,236,000,000 in round numhars. 



— 22 — 

figures will perhapB be more readilj appreciated when it is stated 
that for the first ten yeara — 1872-1B82 — during which artificial 
propagation was carried on bj tbe Commission, the averiige annual 
production was only about 34,100,000, or a total for the entire 
décade of 341,096,977— little more than one-half of that of last year. 

And yet the inâuence of the work of earlier jears on the 
abuudance of certain species was unquestionably well determined. 
Âmong thèse the ehad was most protninent, since it is the object 
of a large commercial fishery, and for many yeara before the in- 
troduction of artificial propagation of the species, it had gradually i 
dedined in abundance, so that the price paid by the consumer 
increased materially. Statistica for 1888 showed a remarkable 
increase in the catch. Tbe artificial propagation of shad wasbegun 
in 1882, and inasmuch as it taUes four years for the âsh to reach 
maturity, so that the instinct of procréation brings them into the 
rivers to spawn, the inâuence of the firet year's work could not be 
manifested before 1886, or 1887. But in 1888 the catch of shad 
was nearly double what it was in 1880, being 36,736,586 pounda 
in the former year «s against 18,074,634 pounda in 1880. In 
later years the increase has been still more remarkable. I 

The improvements in transportation of eggs, fry and adolt i 
fishes are among the most important achievements in connection with 
fish culture in America. It is évident that in a country of sucb 
vast extent there is a necessity for a wide distribution of young 
fish, and also of fish eggs, since it is often désirable to send the 
latter frora the point of collection to other points, where they may 
be auccessfully hatched — not infrequently across the continent. At 
first it was customary to carry small quantitiea of fry in ba{;gage 
cars of passenger trains, and those who went in charge of the fish, 
were compelled to continually dip the water over and over them, 
in order to produce the necessary aération to keep the fi-y alive 
until the point of distribution was reached. Now, however, the 
United States Fish Commission has four cars, which hâve been built 
expressly for tbe transportation of eggs, fry and adult fish, and thèse 
are kept almost continuously in opération in various parts of the country. 
They are fitted with refrigerating and pumping apparatus, suitable 
for circulating the water and keeping it at a proper température, 
and they are also equipped with office, kitchen, bertbe, etc., for 
the comfortable accommodation of the experts who are sent out on 



no are seni 
, L .oo^Tc 



them to look after the coDsigtiments. Tbus it îb now possible to 
distribute fish, with a great réduction of co8t, and with small loss 
compared with the old method. The latter is still used to some 
extent in transporting fieh to nearby localities, and the men sent 
ont for this purpose are called "messengers". Each is equipped 
with 10 or 12 large tin cans, as occasion may require, and with 
dippers, pails and other articles that are necessary for the proper 
prosecution of the work. Samplea of thèse may be seen in our 
section of the Exhibition devoted to âsh culture. 

Objects of fishery. — According to the best authorities we hâve 
a total of about 3,000 species of flshes in the waters of the United 
States. Of this number 300 are known to bave a commercial value, 
fiesides tbese tbere is an ahundance o^ crustaceans, mollusks, many 
reptiles having economical importance, and varions species ofseals, 
wbalei, and other marine mammals. Our coast line extends from 
the frozen North to the tropics, and it aggregates, on hoth océans, 
approzimately 7,000 miles. In addition, our fishing fleets extend 
their cruises from the far North to the most remote Southern 
waters, as well as in tropical and temperate zones. Thua we bave 
fisheries correaponding to those pursued in other countries, with 
the exception of the coral industry, for in récent years citizena of 
the United States hâve engagea în the pearl fishery of the G-ulf 
oî Califomia; while pearla hâve been extensively sought in our own 
rivera of the central and western states, At the same time, however, 
our fisheries hâve apparently not reached their fullest development 
in Bome directions, although many important changes hâve lately 
been made. Formerly skates were despised and throvfn away, and 
squid were used only for bait. Now, however, there is a small 
demand for thèse species for food purposea, with the probability 
that they will be more largely eaten in tbe future, as our people 
corne to understand their value. In 1897 tbe weîght of aix im- 
portant species of edible fish taken from the waters of the United 
States (including the lolister, and oyster, and excluding weight of 
ahells) reached a total of more than 500,000,000 pounds, while tbe 
weight of market flshes alone — those sold fresh for immédiate con- 
samption— aggregated 427,081,940 pounds. The total weight of 
Ësh products in the same year amounted to 1,596,413,068 pounds. 



OgIC 



IV. 

Fishing grounds. — The moat important fishing grounds are the 
great oceanic banks or submerged plateauB, which extend from off 
Nantucket to beyond Newfoundland. Lying between thèse and the 
coaBt are manj minor banks and ledges which are less important. 
XJpon thèse banks and shoals are taken tbo cod and other species 
of Gadidae, also halîbut. American âshermen bave, however, re- 
sorted to the banks off Iceland and Gtreenland in purstiit of halibut. 
Important âshing banks are also to be found off the soutb-eaatem 
coast of Alaska, off the coast of British Columbia and in the 
Ochotsk Sea. 

The mackerel and menhaden âsberies, in which the purse seine 
is the apparatus used, is prosecuted nortb of Cape Katteras, from 
close to the shore, or in the bays and estuaries, to a distance of 
about 150 miles from land. In récent jears an attempt bas been 
made to prosecute the mackerel fisbery in the waters of Bouthem 
Africa. The herring fisbery off the coast of New England is carried 
on near the shore, and at varying seasons of the year. No attempt 
bas been made to prosecute au ofF-shore herring fishery, althougb 
it is known that fat herring are abundant on and near the banks. 
Many American vessels reaort to Newfoundland and New Bruns- 
wick in winter to, obtain cargoes of frozen herring, which are 
caught by native fishermen close in shore in the bays and estuaries. 
The oyster fishery is prosecuted from the Gulf of Mexico to the 
eastern end of Long Island Sound, although the most important 
opérations are carried on in the great sounds and bays between 
Cape Hatteras and the northern limit of the fishery. On the banks 
and shoals of the Gulf of Mexico the red snapper, grouper and 
other species are taken, while along the shores of that région 
fisheries are prosecuted for the pompano, Spanîsh mackerel, channel 
bass and many other varieties of our most delicious food ffshes. 
An important sponge fishery is carried on upon the coral reefa 
near the keys and shores of southem Florida. Two species of 
river herring and the shad annually enter the great rivers of the 
Atlantic coast, and their appearance give rise to extenaive ûsheries. 
The chief fishing ground for our whaling fleet, which now bas ita 



— 25 — 

principal head-quarters at San Francisco, is in the Ârctic Océan 
north of Behring Sea, although a few vessels fish in the Ochotsk 
Sea and the waters near Japan, and Bome smali vessels from Pro- 
vincetown, and other points, hunt the sperm whale in tropical waters- 
The seal islands of Alaska, St. Paul and St. George, are the center 
of tbe fur seal fishery, though a few schooners engage in pelagic seal 
hunting, and others penetrate the most distant régions of southem 
seas in pursuit at the fur seal. The sea otter is bunted in Alaskan 
waters. The most important salmon fishery is now carried on in 
Alaska, but it is still prosecnted on a large scale upon the Columbia 
Eiver, and at Puget Sound; large quantities are also canned on 
other rivers in Oregon, Washington and California. 

Fisheries for wbite fisb, lake trout, lake berring, pike perch 
and various otber species are prosecuted in tbe great lakes, while 
tbe tributaries of the Mississippi are now comiag iuto greater prom- 
inence than ever in supplying fish to our markets. 

Fîsking Towns. The cbief fisbing centres on tbe Atlantic 
coast are north of Cape Hatteras. Baltimore, Crisfield, and Nor- 
folk are the most important ports for tbe prosecution of the oyster 
fishery of tbe Chêsapeake Bay région, wbile Bivalve, in New Jersey, 
New York and New Haven control tbe oyster industry of Delaware 
Bay and the régions north of tbat, including southem New Eng- 
land. The menhaden industry is prosecuted chiefly from Tiverton 
and Greenport. 

Tbe whale fishery of the Atlantic is confined chiefly to New 
Bedford and Provincetown. Eastport and Lubec practically control 
tbe sardine industry, although it is prosecuted to a greater or less 
eïtent in various other ports of eastern Maine. Boston and Port- 
land are the principal centres of the lobster trade. Gloucester, 
Boston, Provincetown and Portland are the most important ports 
for the gênerai commercial food flsberies, whicb are being gradually 
concentrated at tbe former two ports, Market fleets sail from New 
Locdon, Noank, Greenport, New York, Philadelphia, Savannah, 
Pensacola and San Francisco. San Francisco is now the most 
important wbaling centre, and also has a large interest in the 
salmon canning industry, and in the fur trade of Alaska. Astoria 
is tbe largest town of the Pacific coast supported exclusively hy 
fisheries, wbile Seattle is growing in importance as a fisbing centre. 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 26 — 

Fisherraen. — According to officiai Btatistics there were employed 
in tbe fisheries of the United States last jear 197,293 persons. 
"For every man engagea in the fisheries", sajs Goode, "there is 
at least one other man nho is dépendent to a considérable extent 
upon hia labors for support. To the class of 'shoremen' belong(l) 
the capitalists who furnish supplies and apparatus for tbe use of 
the active fishermen ; (2) the ahop keepers from whom they purchase 
provisions and clotbing; and (3) the skilled laborers who manufac- 
ture for them articles of apparel, shelter, and the apparatus of 
trnde. In addition to the profeasional fishermen, there is a large 
class of men who bave been called 'semi-professional' fishermen— 
men who dérive from the fisheries less than half of their entire 
income. Taking into account ail of tbose persons who are directly 
employed in the fisheries for a larger or smaller portion of the 
year, those who are dépendent upon fishermen in a commercial 
way for support, and tbe members of their families who are actually 
dépendent upon their labors, it cannot be far out of the way to 
estimate the total number of persons dépendent on tbe fisheries at 
from 800,000 to 1,000,000." This estimate waa reached by Professor 
Goode on the basis of 131,426 persons employed in the fisheries 
in 1880. If bis estimate was correct then, there are now about 
1,500,000 persons in tbe United States dépendent upon our fisheries. 
Of the 42 atates and territories whose citizens prosecute the fisheries 
27 bave more than 1,000 persons employed. Considered from the 
standpoint of persons engaged in the fisheries, Maryland makes the 
most important showing, having 39,443; Virginia cornes next with 
23,328; wbile Massachusetts with 17,238 persons, is nevertheless, 
the most important fisheries state of the Union, from tbe stand- 
point of capital invested, products obtained and value of products- 

There is not sufficient time to diseuss the interesting subject 
of nationality and the questions relating thereto. 

Statistîcs. — From statistics prepared from récent investigations 
by tbe United States Fisb Commission, of which an abstract is 
herewitb aubmitted, the following gênerai statements may be made: 
It bas already been said that tlie total number of persons employed 
in the fishery induatry of the United States in 1897 was 197,293; 
the fishing fleets numbered 6,453 vessels (over .5 tons each), with 
an aggregate net tonnage of 178,637.71, their value, including out- 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



_ 27 — 

fits, bring 114,711,244; aho 75,722 boats (less than 5 tons each), 
having a total Talue of $ 4,323,635. Other property used in con- 
nection K'ith the âaheries amounted to $ 40,945,040 and the total 
investment to $59,919,919. The products of the fisheriea reached 
a total of 1,596,413,068 pounda in weight (exclusive of shells, etc.), 
with a total value, at the prioes paid the fishermen, of $ 47,180,847. 
The New Ëugland states occupied the moet important position, from 
the standpoint of capital invested, aniount, and value of products; 
Massachusetts alone had an investment of $ 13,245,329, and she 
produced 301,349,331 pounds of products, having a value (at priées 
paid the fishermen) of | 7,531,194. New England leada in the cod, 
herring, mackerel, and lohster fisheries; in the year named it pro- 
duced 80,082,801 pounds of cod, valued at $1,677,927. Her pro- 
duction of herring amounted to 65,772,114 pounda, with a value ot 
$353,796. Her mackerel âahery produced 14,279,024 pounds, with 
a valuation of $ 724,430, (This was one of the moat unauccesafiil 
seasons for the mackerel âsherj known since 1840). The products 
of the lohster fishery amounted to 14,869,312 pounds, valued at 
S 1,001,025. The middle Atlantic states are most prominent in the 
market and oyster fisheries, having in the former 126,984,609 pounds 
of products, valued at $ 4,104,563 ; while the oyster industry of that 
section produced 161,385,717 pounds (exclusive of shells), having 
a value of $12,611,084. The Pacific states (including Alaska) are 
prominent in the salmon âshery, which had a product of 94,314,820 
pounds, with a value of $ 2,731,660. It is pertinent to remark 
hère that the total value of Pacific salmon, including enhanceraent 
of value by canning, etc., may be placed at $8,600,000 in round 
numbers. 

It may sufSce to say that men from many lands are attracted 
to the fisheries of the United States, and join with the native-born 
sona of the country in gathering the treasures of the deep. The 
stalwart, fairhaired and daring men of northem Europe; the swarthy 
sons of low latitudes; the pig-tailed slant-eyed oriental; the half 
amphibious native of Pacific isles; our own dark-skinned negro, and 
many others unité in a common effort to supply our markets with 
food, and with many other valuable objecta which they exact as 
tribute from the great marine storehouses that supply us with so 
niuch that adds to our comfort or gratifies our tastes. 



STATISTICS OF CERTAIN HSHM 

Prepared by the United 



STATES. 


COD. 


HEBRING. 


MACKEEEL. 


Pounds. 


Vaine. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Poimds. 


Vaine. 


AJaska): 


2,219,835 
639,000 


155,562 
21,660 


18,700,000 
617,112 


$32,000 
6,817 






WMhingtoD 










CalifomiB 


2,274,565 


56,864 


4,486.887 


55,796 


850,399 


$14,159 


Total 


5.033,400 


$133,986 


23,803,999 


$94,613 


350,3»9 


$14,139 


New Bngland atates: 
Maine 

Bhode Island .... 


7,786,535 

488,750 

69,912,247 

366,416 

1,529,863 


(152,036 
8,261 

1,356,514 
11,098 
50,018 


44,858,220 

220,000 

20,698,194 

700 


$163,314 

2.460 

198,002 

30 


2,296,096 

87.275 

ll,64i;378 

188,476 

65,800 


$102,645 

5,MI 

BS6,6W 

ld,73« 

4,817 








Total.... 


80,082,801 


Jl, 677,927 


66,772,114 


$353,796 


14,279,024 


$724,430 


MiddiB Atlantic States: 


2,277,458 
676,859 


$89.921 
20,691 










New Jersey 






22,907 


$2,W 






























































Total 


2,954,317 


$110,612 






22,907 


$ 2,741 


Santh Atlantic States: 










































FI rida (east coast) 














Total 














iinlf States: 

Florida{we9t coast) 






=^ 


' 




























































Total 




























Grand tolal. 


88,070,618 


[1,822,525 


89,576,113 


$448,409 


14,652,330 


$741,336 



1.;. Google 



ES OF THE UNITED STATES, 1897. 

ites Fiah Commisaion. 



8ALUON. 


IVIABEET FISHES. 


LOBBTBB. 


0T8TBE. 


?(ma.Aa. 


Value. 


Ponod.. 


Value. 


Ponada. 


Vaine. 


Poundfl. 


Value. 




Jl,219.973 

551,546 
781,000 
179,031 












,684,211 


3,140,759 
2,763.779 
14,190,804 


$63,469 
39,028 
869,631 






1,154,468 

11,431 

1,350,515 


























,314,820 


12,731^650 


20,095^2 


J472,128 






2,416,414 


$849.314 


152,740 


$34118 


17,989,998 
1,090,300 

68,09a,74] 
9,625,934 
3,388,126 


(244.286 
13,881 

1,400,49» 
224,174 
160,853 


10,300,880 

90,300 

2,089,602 

774,100 

1,614,530 


$683,082 

5,493 

157,330 

53,762 

101,358 










139 


t>8 


338,604 
1,625,749 
14,911,218 


$70,946 
261,276 


280 


S22 


1,432,47» 


153,169 


$34,i08 


100,187.099 


$2,043,693 


14,869,312 


$1,001,026 


16,775,571 


$1,764,700 






21,603,849 
31,466,260 
6,397,848 
4,679,711 
32,746,537 
31,102,404 


J833,306 
1,363,991 
182,181 
163,036 
760,425 
801,625 


165,098 
143,905 


$15,655 

10,861 


18,277,434 
18,204,291 
926,660 
1,227,324 
69,615,406 
43,134,602 


$2,748,509 
1,766,648 














5,600 


285 


«73,863 
5,295,86* 
2,524,348 


















126,984,609 


$4.104,663 


314,59£ 


$26,801 


151,385,717 


$12,611,084 






33,226,398 
3,950,605 
1,163,666 
6,614,231 


J967,764 
148,710 
66,055 
196,882 






4,977,336 
442,060 

1,570,485 
681,450 


$150.845 
23,204 


























14,850 






44,954,785 


1 1,379,411 






7,671,321 


229,419 






24,326,679 
1,404,778 
1,825.395 
6,965,582 
3,718,000 


$506,036 
46,U9 
64,368 
139,449 
164,200 






2,597,667 
3,367,490 
5.645,346 
5,891,095 
3,085,600 


$93,692 


















166,672 


















127,990 






38,240,434 


$930,174 






20,587,098 


796,062 






96,619,671 


$2,270,618 










(4,467,979 


12,765,968 


427,081,949 


11,190,687 


15,183,910 


$1,027,836 


198,836,121 


$16,150,579 



D,g,t,.,.d.:, Google 



STATISTICS OF THE nSHERIES 

Prepared bj thâ United 





Pbbboh» 
Bhplotto. 


VBBgBLg. 


STATES. 


No. 




Valna, înolud- 
ing Otttat. 




1,025 

2,849 
750 
4,820 
3,047 
2,339 
7,219 

' 57 

2,656 

91» 

944 

61 

587 

5,231 

14,129 

39,448 

17,238 

3,351 

1,075 

2,088 

575 

76 

39 

366 

10,467 

14.062 

10,274 

2,358 

2^539 

1,767 

2,328 

121 

520 

1,277 

630 

169 

28,328 

6,212 

67 

2,371 


38 

43 


887.87 
9,674.43 














66 
208 

43 
185 

23 


9,796.87 
6,269.68 

569.00 

2,787.89 

267.74 


1,154,686 






43,640 




470,068 




26,800 








4 


116.77 


16,495 
































119 

408 
1,627 

836 
64 
2 
62 


896.84 
13,136.67 
34,217.13 
59,259.30 
1,380.87 
266.52 
570.02 












MÉMsachnaetta 


4,639,168 
326.928 








48,769 
























15 
629 
666 
128 
69 
23 
61 
69 
16 


688.05 
7,879.22 
9,409.40 
1,616.69 

797.26 

468.07 
1,190.44 
1,484.79 

240.04 


43,099 
673,829 




1,011,109 


North Cwolina 

■Ohio 


101,029 
223,432 




54,009 




162.370 






SoDth Carolica 


29,326 












19 


240.76 


















943 
69 


14,151.87 
1,420.56 






160,364 


West Viiginia 

Wisoonsin 




41 


654,06 


164,093 


Total 


197,293 


6,468 


178,637.71 


$ 14,711,3M 



OF THE DNITED STATES, 1897. 

States Fin h CommiBsion. 



BOiTB. 


Otbbe 


TOTiL 


PB0DO0T8. 














Fbopbhti. 


Intbbtmbht. 






No. 


Value. 






Pounds. 


Value. 


499 


$20,663 


J 97,304 


1 149,777 


1,869,400 


9227,370 


466 


66,476 


1,963,728 


2,535,703 


64,169,336 


3,901,065 


561 


7,917 


28,647 


36,564 


8,875,868 


116,011 


1,479 


124,380 


1,836,469 


3,615,534 


50,065,734 


1,794,729 


1,853 


98,696 


3,065,987 


3,826,834 


61,468,221 


1,871,413 


968 


29,754 


151,965 


324,259 


7,194,688 


260,863 


2,379 


165,268 


502,799 


1,138,135 


87,563,598 


1,253,140 


788 


9,766 


137,866 


174,431 


2,994,117 


123,663 


30 


640 


1,835 


2,375 


235,068 


11,929 


1,694 


66,064 


929,693 


l,0rH,252 


13,681,505 


871,410 


890 


8,546 


33,292 


31,838 


2,746,383 


131,567 


739 


14,797 


31,913 


46,710 


4,079,704 


134,851 


61 


683 


3,728 


3.411 


242,387 


11,022 


639 


10,175 


35,319 


35,494 


2,273,585 


90,024 


3,860 


218,406 


490,382 


797,315 


37,063,306 


863,146 


6,920 


237,469 


1,838,672 


2,889,793 


121,700,200 


3,226,806 


9,825 


579,308 


4,933,848 


7,345,814 


141,177,827 


6,460,75» 


3,494 


254,033 


8.352,028 


13,245,229 


301,349,331 


7,631,194 


1,673 


103,989 


2,243,561 


1,674,168 


84,019,915 


964,379 


703 


44,463 


181,649 


368,512 


7,307,165 


185,64» 


423 


16,856 


883,664 


449,379 


10,345,471 


301,798 


523 


11,231 


32,984 


44,305 


3,821,664 


119,786 


60 


534 


2,187 


2,731 


340,466 


14.015 


30 


600 


83 


683 


42,821 


3,05S 


73 


4,170 


65,391 


112,660 


8,956,824 


91,481 


5,618 


387,491 


1,176,167 


2,437,480 


78,267,434 


3,646,382 


6,879 


401,686 


4,374,140 


6,788,935 


176,040,903 


6,046,660 


3,862 


188,875 


954,684 ■ 


1,243,988 


51,799,142 


1,037,669 


967 


117,876 


1,340,660 


1,681,958 


80,194,846 


667,039 


2,022 


ai2,935 


3,370,478 


2,637,413 


38,141,632 


1,282 086 


88B 


44,310 


1,117,378 


1,314,068 


16,045,384 


403,886 


651 


62,743 


783,700 


1,020,178 


127.365,476 


985,144 


1,337 


81,804 


66,633 


127,762 


4,944,840 


302,602 


97 


938 


1,973 


2,911 


416,920 


13,261 


446 


4,879 


25,334 


80,203 


3,445,291 


82,503 


814 


101,570 


187,843 


819,123 


7,959,400 


313,833 


90 


1,175 


10,560 


11,735 


1.230,134 


37,479 


56 


1,090 


3,704 


4,794 


208.139 


7,160 


fl,247 


463,733 


1,447,751 


2,846,259 


183,993,834 


8,647,846 


a,646 


170,166 


1,693,930 


2,034,469 


69,089,627 


1,401,438 


61 


3,630 


1,445 


4,076 


163,021 


8,701 


956 


50.894 


655,998 


770,984 


21,593,678 


539,416 


76,733 


1 4.333,685 


$40,945.040 


$59 919,919 


1,596,413.068 


1 47,180,847 



Important changes in marketing fish, etc. — If time permitteij 
it might prove of interest to diecuBB at some length the détails of 
the Tarious fisheries of tbe United States, bat thÎB I will not attempt, 
since there are near]y fifty Beparate induBtries which deserve men- 
tion, and even a few worda given to each would extend thÎB paper 
beyond the limita intended. There ib, howerer, a temptation to 
Bpeak of some of tbem, because they are peculiar to the United 
States, and aiso of other matters becauBe there hâve been changes 
in récent years which indicate influences are at work, which, I 
belieTe, will |sooner or later, perceptibly 'affect the fisheries of 
many other coontries beaides the United Statea. I will, however, 
limit myself to a considération of a few changes that hâve taken 
place, and to which I made référence in an article, entitled "De- 
cadence of the New England Deep-Sea Fishenea", lately publiahed 
in Harper'a Magazine. Thèse statements indicate that in aome 
couDtriea, the gênerai tendency of late years bas been to curtail 
the uae of salted fiaberieB products, and to extend the use of fresb 
or canned products. It is well known that tbis is true ofËngland, 
where there is increasing deoaand for fresh aea food and leaa for 
aalt fish. Of course herring are still salted, as formerly, and, I 
underatand, dried sait cod — klipfiab — are imported to some es- 
tent from tbe Shetland laies, or Faroe. But tbe bulk of tbe Ëng- 
lish catch la marketed fresb. There is a tendency towarda tbe 
aame condition in the United States, and tbe désire for fresh sea 
food is promoted by increased transport ation facilitîes, and the 
adoption of the highest scientific metbods of refi'igeration. Tbe 
following statements, which I [quote from my article in Harper'a 
Magazine, présent tbe matter more clearly, so far as the United 
States fisheries are concemed, and to my mind auggeat the import- 
ance to ail fiahing countries, of adopting metboda to meet the 
requirements of the présent âge:' 

"Millions of pounds of freah fisb, of the choiceat varieties are 
caught in pound-nets, and are sent to compete with the salted 
products that corne from diatant deep-aea fishing grounds. 

"Ahhough the process of canning waa first introduced at East- 
port, Maine, about 1840, for the pui-poae of packing lobsters, the 
enterpriee developed rather slowly. Thereafter a more rapid ad- 
Tance waa made; canneriea were built along the coast of northern 



— 33 — 

New Ëngland, and many âsbermen found employroent in supplying 
thèse, and in fnmishing cargoee to the smacks wfaich carried lobsters 
alive to Portland, BoBton, or New- York. The influence of this new 
brauch of fisber; on the vesael fisheries waa very considérable ; for 
not only did the lobsters — canned or fresh — corne into direct 
compétition with other sea products, but manj of the beat fishermen 
(ireferreâ to Btay at home and catch lobsters rather than to incur 
the discomfort of séparation &om their families and expose them- 
eetves to the greater péril and uncertaintj tbat attend fishing on 
distant grounds. fiesides, lobster ûshing generally gave larger re- 
toms to the average âsberman, wbile eacb man became a small 
capitalist, being the owner of his equipment of boat, cars, pots, etc. 
"The industry of salmon canning was begun on the Sacraœento 
Riïer, Califomia, in 1864, and on the Columbia Kiver two years 
later. Altbough litnited in its scope at tbe start, it soon gren to 
immense proportions, and during the Beventies tbe pack rose to 
huodreds of thousands of cases, with a value of millions of dollars. 
At first the products were chiefly, if not wholly, exported to foreign 
countries, but for many years the west-coast salmon bas been in 
nearly every grocery in the country ; and whether in near or remote 
markets it contends for supremacy with the mackerel, tbe cod, the 
herring, or other food species tbat are products of our eastern sea 
fisheries. 

"Nor sbould mention be omitted of the fact that car loads of 
fresb salmon and sturgeon are now sbipped east Irom tbe Columbia 
KiTer and Puget Sound, wbile car-loads of fresh halibut are sent 
from Seattle to New York, and even to Gloucester, the head-quart- 
era of the New England deep-sea fishery. 

"Starting in the seventies, the sardine-canning industry of 
eastern Maine bas reached large proportions, and great quantitiea 
of yoiing herring, formerly of little or no commercial value, are now 
put upon the market in an attractive form for food. Tbey do 
3omething more tban to compete with imported sardines, for tbey 
are cheap as well as wholesome, and it is not difficult to believe 
that they supply in some measure tbe demand for sait mackerel 
and sait herring that formerly was such a well-recognized feature 
of OQT fish-markets. 

D,g,i,.,.d.:, Google 



— 34 — 

"It is only just to say that the récent great development of 
the shore fisheries in varions parts of the country, and the couse- 
qnent increase in the supply of fresh fish placed upon the market, 
due to causes already alluded to, hâve had a materiaJ influence on 
the demand for sait fish. i 

"From the heginning salted cod, hake, poUock, cusk, tnackerel, 
and herring hâve been the chief products of our océan veasel fish- 
ery, and any marked change in the demand for thèse must neces- 1 
sarily be felt by the indnstry. I 

"It is true that welled amacks in southern New England forui- 
erly found profitable employaient in carrying live fish and lobatera 
to New York. Connecticut sloops of moderate tonnage were often 
seen, forty or fifty years ago, on the spring mackerel grounds from 
oflf Sandy Hook to Block Island. Their crews angled with Unes 
attached to pôles, and when mackerel were caught they were deftiy 
swimg on board and dropped into the well of the vessel, where 
they were easily kept alive until the smack completed her fare and 
reached her destination at the great metropolis. But the catch so 
disposed of was comparatively insigniflcant, and bore small propor- 
tion to the immense quantities of salted mackerel. It is only in 
récent years, since the use of ice for préservation is better under- 
etood, that hundreds of barrela of thia delicious fish hâve been mar- 
keted fresh in a single day, and destributed throughout the coun- 
try. Nor is it longer necessary for vessels to always seek the 
larger markets. Â moming's catch of fish takcn ofT Montauk, Block 
laland, or Gay Head can soon be landed at Newport or New Bed- 
ford ; on a flying train or swift steamer they rerich Boston or New 
York in a few hours, and the dawning of the following day aeea 
thèse sea treasures, bright and tresh, being used at T Wharf or 
Fulton Market to fill customers' orders — and perhaps — whirled 
away on the swift steam driven express to meet the demand of the 
hour, whether it corne from nearby points or distant Chicago or 
Omaha. 

"The fresh-halibut fishery, which was begun in the moat primi- 
tive manner sixty years ago, ultimately developed into a large in- 
duatry; and though it encountered many vicissitudes, it sometimes 
employed as many as forty or fifty of the finest schooners. Lately 
it bas fallen off somewhat, and its relative importance ia less now 



— 35 — 

than formerly, though the character of the vessels engaged in it 
and the fact that it is vigorously pursued througbout the year give 
it a conséquence it otiierwise might not hâve. 

"Fishing on the inshore grounda for cod and haddock — chief- 
ly for the latter — which were carried fresh to market, began in a 
limited way about fifty or sixty years ago. The aœall vesseh 8«p- 
plying the detnand at Boston and vicinity ûshed largely in 
Massachusetts Bay, wbile tbose sailing &om ports on Long Island 
Sound generally irequented grounds near home and carried their 
catch to New York. 

"It was not, however, until after 1870 that tbis branch of sea 
fishery grew to large dimensions. Until that time, and shortly 
subséquent thereto, the haddock âshery was pursued on the inshore 
groands, the vessels rarely going more than twenty-five or thirty 
ailes from land. But compétition led to greater ventures, and 
abûut 1873 the trips were extended to Qeorge's Bank. Since then 
more distant banka bave been visited; the fishery has been pursued 
vitb the utmost courage and diligence; the swiftest and most sea- 
worthy vessels conatitute the large fleet employed in winter, and 
the catchea arriving at Boston in a single day often aggregate 
npward of a million pounds, and sometiœes reach a total approx- 
imatjng double that amount."*) 

This will, in part at least, indicate the influence on the deep- 
sea fisheries of the growing demand for fresh fish. But the fol- 
loaing, extracted from the article already quoted, will throw a 
stroDger light on the same subject, and will suggest how compétition 
and changea in taste demand constant vigilance to meet the require- 
ments of the bour, and to maintain industries upon a paying 
basis. 

"But the great competitor of the deep-sea fisbing-vessel, 
«hether engaged in the sait or market fisheries, is the pound-net, 
tlie increased employment of which in récent years bas been one 
of the most remarkable phases of the fisheries of the United Statea. 
Tbe introduction of this haa led to almost phénoménal conditions 
in Bome sections, notably in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. 



*) "Décadence of the New England Deep-8ea FisherieB", by Joseph Willidni 
CoUiDi. Harper's Magazine, Marnh, 1B97, 



- 36 — 

"Au attempt was made in 1858 to iotroduce pound-nets in 
this région, but much préjudice was encountered, and the occurrence 
of the war shortly after delayed the employment of this form of 
apparatuB. The fisheries of the Ghesapeake wai-e of little importance 
prJor to 1870; they were engaged in only for a few weeks in spring 
and fall, and the catch was chieây obtained with band-lines and 
drag-seines. Even as late as 1880 it was historically recorded 
that only "162 pound-nets were fished in Virginia waters, with 
two others located at Crisfield, Maryland, just above the Virginia 
Une." When it is stated that ten yeai's later, in the two atates 
of Virginia and Maryland there were 1670 pound-neta, and the 
total catch of food âsh in those ststes for that year, in sU fonuB 
of apparatus, reached the vast aggregate of 67,656,041 pounds*), 
the eâect of this coast âshery on the markets will be apparent, 
especially when it ia known that practically ail of this immense 
product — that would load a fleet of three hundred large fishing- 
vessels, and about hatf of which is taken in pound-nets — is sold 
fresh, and includes the choicest species, such as shad, Spanish 
mackerel, striped bass, bluefish, sheep's-head, etc. When delicious 
Potomac shaâ sell for less than ten cents each, as during the 
présent year (1896), it is eaay to understand the difficulty of suo- 
cessfully competing with them. And this was more than psrallelled 
by conditions in 1893, when many tons of living weakfish — one of 
the best of our food fishea — were turned eut into the open sea 
from the retaining-pounds of Rhode Island, because over-supply of 
fish was so great that the price for them at Fulton Market was 
not sufËciently higb to pay the cost of transportation and leave 
any balance to the âshermen. 

"Similar and only less startling statistical statements might be 
made concerning New Jersey, so conveniently near the large cities 
of New York and Philadelphia. The great fisheries of the North 
Carolina sounds and the catches obtained in pound-nets on Long 
Isknd, or in certain sections of southem New England, are also 
far too important factors in iufiuencing the supply of food ûsh tO' 
be omittedj if a detailed discussion were possible. 



*) l-n 1897, the total ontpat of fishery product» of thew ttates, inohidlng 
o^sierB, cnutacean», etc., reached the vaxt total of 335,171,661 ponnda, practi- 
cally ail of which was sold trenb. 



— 37 — 

"But while we may be content with only the alightest référence 
to thèse localities, which contribute their millions of pounds of fish 
to the gênerai supply, we must not neglect to notice tbe fisberies 
of the Gfulf States, which hâve recently experienced a phénoménal 
advance, from Florida to Texas. 

"Between aixty and seventy years ago Connecticut fisbermen 
began supplying tbe Havana market with âsh taken in tbe Grulf of 
Mexico, cbicfly on the grounds off the shores of Fiorida. Tbeir 
catches of snappers, groupers, etc., were taken alive to Havana in 
welled smacks, and disposed of at remunerative priées. In time 
tbis business fell largely into the hands of résidents of Key West 
fishermen- Finally it had to he practically abandoned, becauae of 
the prohibitory duties levied in Cuba, Attention was then turned 
to supplying to the markets of the Nqrth the large variety of fine 
fish which are taken in Gulf waters, and especially the red snapper. 
About 1874 parties at Pensacola made attempts to organize the 
red-anapper fiabery on an improved commercial hasis. Tbe success 
met with led to the subséquent participation of other tirais, and 
nltimately to the spread of tbe business to other points. 

"Shipping fish from the Gulf shores rapidly dereloped, and 
8oon extended so as to embrace nearly every favorably situated 
locality toucbed by the raiiroad, and to include many of the choice 
'varieties of fish taken in that région. 

Although it bas not been found practicable to operate pound- 
neta, tbe catch by lines, seines, and gill-nets ia large, the food fish 
reaching a total, for the région, in 1890, of 37,980,434 pounds. 
As in other cases, this excludes oysters and other shell-fish, as well 
as cmstaceans and edible reptiles, which constitute a large per- 
centage of tbe food taken from the waters of thia section.*) 

"But the Great Lakea hâve a still more important influence. 
Lack of transportation facilities, the sparsely settled condition of 
moBt of the lake région, and gênerai ignorance of modem methods 
of réfrigération made it impossible to fully develop the fishery re- 
sourcea until recently. Consequently the fisberies of this section 
aerted comparatively little influence half a century ago. Practically 

*) The total weight of flahery prodacts from thia région io 1897, was 
84,801,175 pounds, exclusive of weight of abells. 



— 38 — 

ail the flsh taken in the early daye, except those locally eaten, were 
salted- Thus, while the settlers along the lake shores could obtain 
BUpplies for family use, or for local distribution, the induatry of 
âshing did not attain marked distinction until alter 1S50. This 
will be evidenced by the fact that the largest annual shipment of 
lake flah by canal — tben the chief transportation agency for such 
products — irom Cleveland, Toledo, and Maumee, prior to 1860, was 
only 17,792 half-barrels. The adoption of other methods of pré- 
paration, a few years later, and the utilization of swifter transporta- 
tion, caused a marked iucrease in the distribution of lake âsb. 

"The pound-net was introduced on Lake Erie about 1850, and 
a few years subsequently its use developed rapidly. The adoption 
of the pound-net was followed in about âfteen yeara by the inaug- 
uration at Sandusky of the proceBs of artiâcially freezing fisb, so 
that they could be kept in a frozen condition Irom fall until the 
next summer. Tbis made possible the distribution of lake fish, in 
a thoroughly fresh condition to the most distant parts of the 
United States. Subsequently freezing houses were established at 
tbe leading fishing centres on the lakes, and they increased in 
number at Sandusky, some bavtng a capacity of from ten to twenty 
tons per day. Steamers were also built to operate immense gangs 
of gill-nets, and for some years the iJevelopment in this branch of 
lake fishery kept pace with progress in other directions. Not only 
do iced fresh fish from the Great Lakes meet those of the East 
in spring and summer, but the frozen products of thèse "brothers 
of the océan" stoutly contest for control of the raarkets in winter, 
and force their way even into New England. The energy and com- 
mercial enterprise exhibited by the lake dealers are most remarkable, 
and if thèse were supported by sucth unfailing sources of supply 
aa can be drawn upon by those engaged in deep-sea Sshing, it is 
évident tbe latter would meet even sharper compétition in the future 
tban in tbe paat. But tbe limit to wbicb the lakes can be safely 
drawn upon for âsh food haa long ago been reached, and the well- 
recognized falling off in abundance of the most désirable apecies 
indicates that, even with the utmost fish-culture can do to assist io 
maintaining the supply, no greater compétition can be expected 
from this région tban exista now. But this bas a marked influencer 
as will be easily understood when it is stated that the total pro- 



— 39 — 

duction of the lakes in the last census year amounted to 117.086,568 
pounds of food flsh — enough to load about six hundred âsliing- 
yessels larger tlian the average sailing from New Englaiid. 

"Nor should we lose sight of ihe river fisheries, which, under 
tlie saine impulses that bave caused the conditions on tbe coast 
and in the lake région, bave recently been actively pursued. As 
a conséquence many tbousand pounds of tish are sbipped from 
points in the Mississippi River basîn, where no commercial fishery 
existed a fuw years ago. The product of this river fishery will 
aggregate millions of pounds annually. It not only takes the place 
locally of salted sea fish, but competes with the latter for supre- 
macy in the great luarkets of the Mississippi Valley. 

"Thus it will be seen that whereas, to a large estent, the pro- 
ducts of the New England deep-sea fisheries had a monopoly of 
the markets of this country prior to 1850, the conditions then ex- 
isting hâve changed radically. Consequently thèse products of the 
Atlantic fishery must now meet and compete with the salmon, atur- 
geon, cod, and halibut of the Pacific; the white-fish, trout, pike, 
percb, and cisco, or herring, from the Great Lake région; the 
catfish, buffalo-fish, and other species from the rivers; the red- 
finapper, pompano, and many other choice varietiea from the Gulf 
Coast; the shad, Spanish mackerel, striped bass, and blue-fish from 
the région extending from North Carolina to New York; and alao 
frozen smelts, herring, and fresh salmon from Canada, not to speak 
of Canadian-caught cod and mackerel, which are so extensivelj 
marketed in this country. 

^It maj be incidentally mentioned that in addition to tbe 
growing scarcity of whales, and the rivalry of other industries, the 
whalefisbery industry bas suffered from a remarkable décline in the 
priée of oil, due to the compétition of minerai oils and other ma- 
teriala which take its place- The influence of this is such that 
whales are now often hunted for tbeir bone alone, since in some 
cases the oil is not thought sufficiently valuable to warrant saving 
the blubber and trying it out. 

"The menhaden fishermen bave also keenly felt the resuit of 
tbiB change, for the success of tbeir industry dépends chiefly on the 
price of oil. Thus, though tbe average catch of fish, per vessel, in 
récent yeare is larger than it was in former periods, the business 
18 frequentlj unremunerative. 



— 40 — ' 

"It ia highly probable that there wjU always be demand for sait 
cod, mackerel, and other fish that come from distant Northern 
fleas. But the question of cheapening the product by increasing \ 
the catch per man or per veasel will ever be a vital one in this 
compétitive battle, where sentiment is not a factor; and a problem 
Bcarcely second in importance is the introduction of new or improv- 
ed methods of préservation. 

"The limit of human poseibility seems to bave been reached 
în the matter of capture of sea fish; for it is difBcult to conceive 
of more exertion being made or of greater risks being taken. The 
ose of steam-vesseh may increase the catch of fresh fish, as we]l 
as the Bcope of the market fishery. But even now the supply often 
exceeds the demand, and steamers are not available to the ealt-fish 
industry. 

"However, eargoes of berring bave arrived from Newfoundland . 
that were artificially frozen on board the vessels, and the question 
arises as to vrhat extent, if any, this method may be applied to 
the cod or mackerel taken in summer on remote ûsbing'grounds. 
Canning the products on board the vessels may also receive con- 
gideration in the not distant future." i 

From the foregoing, which constitutes the briefest possible 
glimpse at some of the salient points of the matters discussed, it 
will be seen that, while the fisheries of the United States bave ad- 
vanced materially in the past two or three décades, changes are 
constantly going on. We may, therefore, reasonably anticipate that 
the high courage, energy and détermination which bave alvrays 
cbaracterized the prosecution of thèse industries, united with con- 
servation of abundance of food âsbes, through fish culture, and the 
application of that intelligence which avails itself of ail opportun- 
ities, may lead to vastly greater résulte in the future, and may 
render possible the fuU realizatîon of the wonderfui resources of 
océan, Iake and river, that nature bas so boijntifully provided for 
the people of my country — a matter which will continue to be of 
growing importance as tbe population increases, and the question 
of food aupply develops into larger proportions than it bas yet 
aseumed in the western hémisphère. 



iv, Google 



n. 

OM fiKÏÏNLIl&ET 

ÏOR UBTIKLINflElf ÀJ LE NORSKE FISKEBIEE Ofl FOR 

ÏOBSaiEISEir AT LEEES TiGRLIER. 

F18KEEIKON8ITLENT J, 0. Dahl. 

Mine Herrer! 

Det vil faave vakt Opm^rksombed ikke alêne bos de Fiskeri- 
kjndige indeti vor fgeti Nation, men ogsRa hos udenlandske, at 
TJdbyttet af de norske Fiskerier, saalangt som de omfatteB af vor 
Statistik, i en temmelig lang Âarrœkke ikke bar steget i nogen 
nœTnevserdig Grad, idet Udbyttet, regnet efter EaavarenB Vœrdi, 
bar holdt sig omkring en 22 à 23 Mill. Eroner og Taerdien af de 
eksporterede fuldt tilvirkede Fiskevarer til 40 à. 46 Mill. Kroner, 
dog (ued lidt Stigning for Eksportvserdiens Yedkommende. Idetbele 
altsaa en Tilbagegang i Forhold til den staerkt atigende Befolkning 
i Fiskeridistrikteme. 

Sammenligner man dette med, bvad andre Nationer med stor 
FîskeriTirksombed kan paavise gjennem sin Statistik, kan man 
vanskelig frigjere sig for en Tis Bekymring for, hvorledes Forholdet 
vil komme til at udvikle sig bos os. 

Nu er det vistnok saa, at flere af de Nationer, med bvem vi 
nsermeBt kommer at sammenligne os, dels, som Eanada og de for- 
enede Stater, kan opvise en ganske 'anden Progrès i Folkemœngdens 
ForflgeUe end vi, — bvormed ogsaa felger en almindelig Stigning 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



î Bamtlige NsBringsveie, der passer for Nationen og Landet — deh, 
som Tyskland, kan anfore Fiskeriet, soin en Nœringsvei, man i 
de sidste Tider bar lagt sœrlig Vind paa at opeUke, men man kan 
ogaaa tydelig se, at vor Tids store Fremskridt i Kommunikationerne, 
i mekaniske Hjsetpemidier af aile Ârter og i Viden om og Kjend- 
Bkab til Havet og Fiskebankerne iâetheletaget hos flere Nationer 
spiller en ganske anden Eolle end hos os og har betinget et raskere 
Fremskridt hos dem end hos os. 

Fer jeg gaar videre vil jeg dog tilf0ie, at Forholdet vistnok i 
Virkeligheden er fordelagtigere, eller rettere sagt mindre ufordel- 
agtigt, for 08 end Statistikken udviser, Denne, der ligeoverfor 
EksportvEerdien og ligeoverfor vore med Opsyn og Underretninge- 
vffisen udstjrede Hovedfiskerier maa ansees for at vœre sœrdele» 
omhyggeligt udfert og gjiar vort statistiske Bureau ^re, omiatter 
nemlig ikke og kan, paa Grund af vor Fiskeriadministrations ringe 
Udvlkling i denne Retning, heller ikke omfatte Sturstedelen af de 
betjdelige Vœrdier, som forbruges i Fiskeriies egne Husholdninger 
og omfatter heller ikke synderligt af den betydelige Fiskemœngde, 
der kjabes og forbruges i vore Kystbyer og paa andre mère tœt- | 
befolkede Steder. | 

Naar man betœnker hvor mange Bosteder, der paa vor lange i 
KystBtrœkning med aile sine Fjorde og Sunde, 0er og Nœs ligger 
direkte ved et raere eller mindre fiskerigt og som oftest velbe- 
skyttet og nœrdybt Hav, og som omtrent aile bar Baade og Fiske- 
redskaber, vil man forstaa, bvilket rigt, i Regelen velforsynet og 
oftest let tilgjsengeligt Forraadekaœmer dette Hav tilbyder, og ti3- 
lige at det benyttes meget og hvilket vœrdifuldt 'lïlskud det giver 
en Msengde Husholdninger i By og Bygd. Og denne Del af vore 
Fiskeriers Udbytte er ikke alêne meget betydelig i og for sig, 
men visselig ogsaa af en Stigen baade i Yserdi og Mœngde, som 
de fleste neppe vurderer hoit nok. 

De fleste andre Landes Statistik medtager i Regelen netop 
dette eller ialfald store Dele af dette hos os i det Tsesentlige ikke 
medtagne Kvantum, og den til disse Landes eget Forbrug med- 
gaaede Fiskemsengde udgjsr den aldeles overveiende Del af deres 
hele Fangst. 

Ved de Forsag, jeg har gjort for mig selv til Sammenligning 
ai' de forskjellige Landes Fiskerier, er jeg derfor kommen til det 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 43 — 

Eesuttat, at det er en Umulighed at anstille en korrekt Sammen- 
ligning mellem de forskjellige Lande med den nuvœrende saa for- 
skjelligartede Statistik sora Grundlag. 

Jeg Bkulde derfor anse det for en Gevinat for den inter- 
nationale Fiskerikundskab idethele, oni man engang og om ikke 
for Isenge kunde blive enige om fselles internationale Régler for 
Fiskeristatistik, noget, som gjennem Forsamlinger som denne ikke 
skulde kunne ansees for en Umulighed at faa istand. Om der 
saaiedes i det her omhandlede Forhold ligger en Lettelae af de 
nedtrykkende Betragtninger, som vor Statistik BEetter os i, er 
der imidlertid alligevel i denne den alvorligste Opfordring til at 
se paa vore Forholde med uhildet Blik, for at finde ud, i hvilken 
li^tning de Bestrœbelser b^r gaa, der maa danne Grundlaget for 
den fremtidige Udviklïng af vore Fiakerier og for Forhsielsen af 
deres Vœrdier. Her til kommer den Kjendsgierning som en end 
Btaerkere Opfordring. at vore Fiskeres Aarsindtœgter giennemsnitlig 
er mindre end flere andre Nationers. 

Tager vi Norges Fiskeriforholde i Betragtning, vil vi finde 
Gierdeles mange Fordele, sammenlignet med endel andre Lande, 



En nœrdyb, ofte ogsaa velbeskyttet Kyst, hvor Fiskeriet kan 
foregaa i forholdsvis ringe Âfstand fra Havnene. 

Meget lange og forgrenede Havstrœkninger, der giver Bum til 
mange Fiskere. 

Et kjaligt Sommerklima og en'nieget modérât Vinterkulde. 

Ingen Havis langs vor vidtstrakte Eyst nordenfra lige til Lindes- 
naes, sel? i de streengeste Vintre. 

Mindre af Taage langa Landet i de egentlige Fiskedistrikter 
end paa flere andre Landes Banker. 

Udenom Kysten fra Nordkap til forbi Stat en fortl0bende Raekke 
Hafbanker, som ialfald tildels har meget Fisk, om de end for andre 
Dele ikke er fuldt kjendte og vistnok tildels ogsaa mindre âske- 
rige, meu som paa Orund af sin Nœrhed ved Land kan drivée uden 
det kostbareste "Ddstyr. 

Ikke af mindre Fordel er det, at vi har garnie og gode For- 
bindelser med fjemere liggende Markeder, der er godt oparbeidede 
'ed dygtige Eksporterer for Vaxer som Klipfisk, T0rfisk, Tran m. m. 
og at vi har en n0iBom og baadvant Fiskerbefolkning, der bar viat 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 44 — 

àt de kan bruge de Redskab^r, Bom de har anerkjcndt, paa en 
admœrket Maade. 

Saa maa nœvnes de store Fiskerier efter Stîm- og Vandre- 
fiskene, som Torsk og Sild, hvilke vort Land har havt saalangt til- 
bage i Tiden, som Menneskenes Kundskab rœkker. 

Som en Slutsten paa denne Liste, at vi har en let Âdgang til 
àt skafFe god og billig h paa overmaade mange Steder. 

De Mangler, som nu klœber Ted tof Fiskeribedrift, vil jeg 
ëammenfatte nnder folgende Hovedpunkter: 

Vi har ikke lagt den fornedne Kraft paa Produkternes For- 
bedring, SEerlig hvad der dermed maa gj^res allerede fra Fangst- 
eieblikket af. 

Yi har endnu ikke taget os tilstrsekkeligt af Ferskfiskhandelen, 
bverken til de borte fra Fiskeridistrikterne Hggende Dele af vort i 
eget Land eller til de nsermest liggende Udlande. I 

Vi har ikke udviklet vort Fiske paa Havbankeme, hverken i 
Nordsj0en eller paa vore langs de nordvestlige Kyster af vort Land 
liggende Banker, i den moderne Form, som vore Nabolande nu 
gJ0r paa det kraftigste, men vi bar dog en god Begjndelse pan 
Sondmere og ÂaJesuud. 

Nutidens starste Hjselpemiddel for Fiskeriet, Brug af Is, er 
endnu ikke knsesat, bar endnu ikke faaet sin rette Plads, bverken 
hos Fiakere eller Kjebere. I sœrlig Sammenbœng med dette sidste 
ataar den Kjendsgjeming, at vi endnu kun i ringe Grad udnytter 
vore forskjellige Fiskesorter i Forhold til den Vœrdi, de har i de 
nterliggende âskeforbrugende Lande, og heller ikke altid paa de 
rette Steder for bver Sort og Sterrelse. 

Paa enkelte haederlige Undtagelser nser er heller ikke Udnyt- 
telsen af Affald og Tilvirkning af Biprodukter udviklet inden vore 
Fiskerier, men endnu i sin Begyndelse. Derfor har vort Land 
mange Henseender endnu ikke den udviklede Fiskeriindustrî, som 
det burde bave, og som kunde skaffe Tusinder af Mennesker, der , 
er mindre skikkede for selve Fiskeriet, sit Livsopbold. Vi har , 
dog en god Begyndelse i Stavanger Hermetikfabrikker og andet. 

Endelig har vi heller ikke taget Nutidens saa b»it udviklede 
Kommunikationsmidler saameget i Fiskeriernes og sœrlig i Fersk- 
âskbandelens T^eneste, som det er Ânledning og Opfordring til. 

Jeg kunde sige: Grundlaget for Udviklingen af de norske 
Fiskerier og for Forhoielsen af deres Yœrdier er Atjuwrlgende og , 



demEest at hœve disse MaDgler og gribe Sagen aaa an, at vi sanx-, 
tidig dermed udnyttede de Fordele, aom vi har og som er paavist. 
Eadskjent der her ar al Opfordring til at fatte sig i Kortbed, bvcr 
det i en international Forsamlîng som donne gjeelder sserlige Be-, 
tr^ninger Tedkomiueode Norge, saa maa jeg dog gaa Doget nferr 
mère ind paa nogle af de praktiske Gjeremaal, som efter min. 
Heoing staar i a0ieste Forbindelse med Fremgangen. 

Takket vœre TOrt gode tempererede Elima og de tidligere omr 
talte gode lokale Forholde, bar vi hidtil idetbeletaget leveret en 
koukurrancedygtig Vare i Klipfisk og har domineret i Torfisk, 
Dagtet det er Skik og Brug i vort Land îkke at skgte Fisken — 
â.e. drœbe den under selve Fangsten — men at lade den „sjflld0", 
og endskjont vi kun i tIsbo G-rene af vor Tilvirkning vadaker Varen 
med Ombu fsr den baenges til Torfisk og n^esten atdrig far den 
saltes til Klipfisk. Knhver Fagmand, der har befattet sig hermed, vil 
haTe erfaret, bvormeget mère velsmagende, holdbar og smuk slagtet 
Dg vadsket Fisk bliver, end den selvdade og uvadskede- 

Det ligger derfor klart for Dagen, at kan vi holde os nogen-, 
luQde oppe i Konkurrancen med de Lande, der leverer Klipâsk, til- 
ïirket af slagtet eller af »ieblikkelig efter Fangsten tilgjort Fisk, 
og som vadaker sin Fisk fer Saltningen, nu naar vi ikke slagter 
og vadsker, saa maatte vi kunne levere de bedste Varer i Verden,. 
med Hensyn til fint Udseende, Velsmag og Holdbarbed — ait i 
Forhold til Fiekens naturlige Kvalitet — hvis vi slagtede den og 
ïadskede den. 

Det er meget almindeligt, at man ligeoverfor Forslag om. denne, 
Heform siger bos os, at man ikke bar Tid dertil, at det ikke kan 
gjflrea for det store Fiakes Skyld, at det bbver for dyrt. 

Jeg betienker mig ikke paa at sige, at dette er Indbildning, 
der af hïenger af gammel Vane og garnie Aibeidsmethoder, dsr kan 
fûrbedres. Fiskerne fisker de fleste Dage forholdsvia lidet Fisk, 
der med Letbed og uden at Dagen blir for knap for det hele Ar- 
beide kan slagtes, og Kjoberne vil de allerfleste Dage ikke bave, 
fiildt Arbeide, saa Vadskning oft«. vilde kunne udfares uden at 
Dagsarbeidet derved hindredes iuldfflrt i fuld Udstrœkning. Endelig 
aiaa vel det at kunne hœve en stor UdfflrsetBvares Godbed og derved 
dens Eenomé og Afsœtning vœre, VEerd. b^^de den Umage og de. 
Ht foregede Udgifter, aom dette i travle Tider vil foraarsage. 



— 46 — 

I samme Stilling staar Eenlighed og ellera forsigtig Behandliog 
af vor Sild. I Sœrdeleshed er den Keform, at vore Garnfiakere 
under aile Omstœndigheder, hvor det paa nogen Maade er mulig, 
tager Silden af Gamene allerede uuder disses Tr^kning, af grund- 
lieggende Vigtighed for denne Vares Kvalitet, det er ogaaa kun, 
bvad aile vore Konkurrenter gJBr. 

Disse Reformer i Behandlingen af al Fisk og Sild burde vare 
Ojenstand for det inderligste Samarbeide mellem Fisker og Tilvirker. 
Den sidste burde fordre hos den ferste den grundlœggende Del 
af god Behaudling fï-a Fangsten kom i Baaden, og en nier Fremtid 
Tilde da visaelig give begge Farter Lbd for sit Arbeide, 

Ferskfishkanâelen burde belst s ami es i sterre Foretagender, 
enten disse nu kom til at bestaa af Âktieselskaber elier man 
paa anden Maade samlede de enkelte Handlende til visse faelles 
Formaai. Kun da kan man anskaffe sig ordentlig de moderne j 
Hiœlpemidier, der krœver storre KapitaJ og aom er absolut nsâven- ' 
dige for denne Handels ordentlige Trîvsel, saasom Opsamlerdamp- 
skibe paa Fiskepladsene, egne Transportdampere, Omisningpladse 
m. m., og kun da kan den Fordeling af Vareme finde Sted, der 
skafier hver Fiskesort derhen, hvor den skattes hfliest og derfor , 
betales bedst. Kun derved kan Vareme fordeles efter de enkelte 
Forbrugs sted ers Behov og ikke udover denne. Kun derved kan eu 
jœvn Opai'beidelae af Fiskeforbruget i vort eget Lands mange fra , 
Sjeen liggende Trakter finde Sted og kun ved en velordnet Forsen- ■ 
delae og Fordeling af Varerne kan vore Byer og andre Steder for 
en tœttere Befolkning faa den rigelige Tilfersel af et saa aundt og 
nserende Fedemiddel, som god fersk Fisk er, til billjge Priser, hvad 
der i vort Land og andre Lande er af stor Betydning baade for 
Velvsere og 0konomi. FerekfiskliandelenB Udvikling er efter min 
Overbevjsning for os den vigtigste Reform, fordi det er den Gren 
af vor Fiskerinœring, der ligger lœngst bagud og den, som har den 
stsrste Fremtid foran sig, samt- den starste Betydning ior baade 
Fiskerne og Forbrugeme, 

Den vil forhoie Vœrdien af hidtil lidet eller slet ikke benyttede 
Fiskesorter og ^'flre store Grene af vor Fiskeribedrift langt mère 
indbringende end nu. 

Kveitehandelen og Kveiteforbrugets store Stigning i vore storre 
Byer giver os et sikkert Tegn paa, hvortjl Ferskfiskhandelen kan 



— 47 — 

udrikles hos os, trods at Prisen nu i ÂlmiDd«lighed er adskillig 
beiere for Forbrugerne, end den under mère udviklede Forholde for 
denoe Handel *il blive. 

Og Haand i Haand hermed, eller rettere noget foran, maa 
Brtigen af Is blive aluûndelig, uden hvUket en moderne Udvikling 
ikke alêne af Ferskâskhandelen, mea ogBaa af Harfisket, af Fiske- 
riindustriens forskjellige Brancher og af en rationel Udnyttelse af 
Biprodukter, er en Umulîghed. 

Aile burde rette eine Bestrsebelser derhen, at der overalt inden 
vort Lands Fiskeriegne blev 1b at faa kjebt, billig Is, god Is, Is i 
MEengde, og at Brugen deraf blev almindelig. 

Det er den st0rste af aile Reformer hos os, og den bedste og 
sterste Del af det Orundlag, hTorpaa Udriklingen af vore Fiskerier 
kan foregaa og den abeolute Betingelse for ForbBielsen af deres 
Vxrdier. Det er nemlig Tidens bedste og billigste Bevarelseamiddel 
for den ferske Fisk i den kortere Tid, der hengaar indtil Fisken 
overgaar enten til Produktion al Varer, bestemte for den fjernere Af- 
sietning og den lœngere Opbevarelae, eller til Forbruget som ferak Fisk, 

Brug af la vil gjere den opblomstrende Hermetikindustri mulig 
i sterre Udstrœkning end nu, og kun derved kan Havûsket blive 
mère regningssvarende og derfor tillige komme til at drives i starre 
Udstrœkning. 

Alt dette er jo intet nyt. Forlœngst er det i fuld Gang i 
Tore Nabolande, som med sine udmserkede Jernbanenet og ved Brug 
af Is skaffer den ferske Fisk Adgang til de fjemeste Dele af sit 
Indland. Mensteme og Eksemplerne har vi fnran os liggende, og 
der ataar kun igjen at anvende dem. Forevrigt er vore lokale 
Forholde i heieste Qrad gunstige for disse Reformer, nu naar vi ser, 
at Yor tidligere stprre Afstand fra mange B^orbrugssteder er for- 
kortet i al anskelig Grad ved de vel udviklede Kommunikationsmidler, 

Men Sammenslutning af Folkets forskjellige og nu altfor delte 
ErEefter med Eapitalen maa til, og Forstaaelsen maa komme op af, 
at her gjselder det at rette Blikket mod Fremtiden og grundlœgge 
denne i Nutiden. 

At arbeide alêne med Blikket for Dagena og Stesonens aller- 
Dsermeat liggende Interesaer vil ikke kunne bringe oa lœngere frem 
«nd vi nu er. 



.;, Google 



— 48 — 

Yderligere detaillerede FaavismDger af mange andre Tiug, gaa- 
som hvilken Fordel Udnyttelsen af Âftald og af visse Bîprodukter 
Tilde kuade bringe, og bvilken ADdel den dertil knjttede industri- 
elle Virkaomhed kunde faa for vort Folks Velfœrd, og ait hvad der 
aogaar Udrustningen og den rigtige Udklœkningssag tU jeg aistaa 
fra, som krœTende en for stor Del af den ierede ForsamlîngB Tid. 

Jeg beder ogsaa om Tilgiyelse, fordi jeg bar foredraget disse 
alêne mod vort Land rettede Betragtninger i en saa international 
Forsamling, men ânder en Smule Berettigelse dertil i det, at visse 
Hovedprinciper for Udviklingen af Fiskerinseringen altid vil vare 
fselles for aile Nationer, og at der under aile Omstsandîgheâer er 
den store Sag fielles: 

Gjennem Fiskeriemes Udrikling at skaffe aile Folk et godt 
og sundt Nseringsmiddel i tiltagende Msengde og til jffivne og 
billige Friser. 



D,g,i,.,.d.:, Google 



m. 

TEE PRACTTCAL SCIEIÏTIFIC INTESTI&ATI05S IN 
LOFOTES. 

0. NOBDOAABD. 

Lofoten ia a gronp of Islands that stretches in a southweBterl^ 
direction out from the Norwegian Mainland, north and south of the 
6Sth degree of Latitude. The arm of the sea that séparâtes the Islands 
from the Main Land is called the Vestfjord; its Contiauation, the 
Ofotenfjord, pénétrâtes far into the country. As iar as historicat 
tradition goes back, that is: at least one thousand jears, there 
haTe heen on the inner side of the Lofoten Islande regular annual 
fiaheries of cod, which hâve during the first months of the year 
migrated up to the banks in order to spavn. 

For many centuries the fishing was only carried on by means 
of plain hand-lines, then eink-lines came into use, at last the 
fîahing nith nets and seines ; the original method of using a hand- 
line is still in use, though the two latter methods are chieûy em- 
ployed nowadays. 

In the course of time the fishermen hâve formed several thé- 
ories about this fishery and the circumstances connected with it. 

In 1859 a regular supervision was established, which reported 
to the govemment department on every year's fishing, and now it 
became more and more évident that it was a national duty to try 
by scientific investigation to clear up at least some of the dark 
questions in connection with this fishery. 



A'OO^Ic 



— so- 
in the jear 1864 professor Q. 0, Sars began his biological in- 
vestigations in Lofoten, and already the first report contained matter 
of uQUSual interest for the understanding of the development and 
life of the cod. Mr. Sars found that the spawn of the cod âoated 
in the water; there was thus a great difTerence between cod and 
herring in the way in which the roe was shed. Because however 
the diecovery of professor Sars wa3 onlj published in the Nor- 
wegîan language, it did not attract the attention it deserved. Later 
on it was proved that a number of fishes, as the gadus species, tlie 
pleuronectidae, mackerel, sprat, like the cod shed their roe in t1ie 
open aea, where consequcntly the development took place. As a 
conséquence of thèse scientiâc discoTeries hatching stations hâve 
been established for sait water fishes, and if it is proved that thèse 
practical establishments really also are doing practically usefiil work, 
we hâve consequently bere an instance that scientiâc discoveries 
hâve not been fruitleas. 

If we look at a chart showing the depth curvee of the sea i 
round Norway, it will be seen that Lofoten is surrounded by an ' 
extensire bank plateau that can feed large quantitiea of fish; espe- 
cially the declivity of the banks towards the deep bottom of the 
océan offers TCry favourable conditions. It may be worth noting 
that at Lofoten and Storeggen, where the lai^est cod fîsberies t&ke 
place, the banks hâve also the greatest extent. ! 

The scientiflc investigations in Lofoten hâve been of a hydrograph- i 
ical and biological kind, but I cannot hère enter upon anj detailed 
treatment of them. Professor Sars has given large contributions 
to the knowledge of the life of the cod; throngh the works of the 
govemment survey and the Norwegian North Atlantic Expédition a 
rather clear picture has been obtained of the physical nature of 
the banks (see the charts), and a great number of température 
measurements bave been untertaken in order to clear up the pos- 
sible dependence of the arrivai of the fishshoals upon the varying 
températures of the water strata of the sea. On the Lofoten 
banks the winter condition of the sea-water in difierent depths 
may shortly be characterized thus: At a depth of about 2(W 
mètres the température is fi — 7 " C- and the degree of 
saltnesa nearly 35 pro mille. In the overlying strata there 
are great variations, which no doubt dépend upon meteorological 

hnl,.. A'OOQlC i 



— 51 — 

relations; constant off-land winds driving the Qord water ont over 
the banks, whereby température and saltnesB are lowered, whereas 
off-sea winds hâve the opposite effect. That the adjoining Çords 
really contain a considérable layer of comparatively cold water 
appeared from observations I made in the Ofoten Fjord in Pebruary 
1897. Down to 100 m. the temp. was 2"C., and saltness 33,54— 
33,61; at 150 m. temp. 6,0" C, saltness 34,82%o; at 300 m. 
iemp. 6/ 1, sait. 35,02 "/m. 

Accord ing as meteorological changes appear, there will one 
jeiir be more of the colder water on the âshing banks than an- 
other year; and the question then is what influence this circum- 
staoce bas on the catches. The température measurements of the 
first year seemed to show that the thermometer might be ueed by 
Gie fishermen with good results. It is however quite a common 
thing that too much importance will at first be attributed to the 
bearing of scientific diacoveries upon practiciil life. People will look 
for assistance and împrovement where such are not actually at 
hand. I therefore thînk that the few statements given by fishermen 
about the help derived from the thermometer during their work, 
cannot be looked upon as being of any importance. Besides it 
caonot by denied too, that 5 degrees as the best température for 
Ssbing bas been made doubtful by the investigations of récent years. 
Captain Gade found in 1692 that good catches were made in water 
of 4, 5, 6, 7 " C, and I bave shown that about the middle of March 
1897 the fishing in the district of Henningsvâr to Balstad went on 
in water of 3 degrees. Thus in the month of March, when the chief 
Ëshing takes place, tbe thermometer can be of no guidance to the 
fishennan because the scope of 3 to 7 " C is too large. Small 
catches of cod I hâve also seen being made in water of about 2 
degrees, in the Ostnes Fjord. The fishermen state as a common ex- 
périence that the cod at the beginning of the fishing season most 
often stay on the edge of the fjord in rather deep water. The 
reason is supposed to be that the ^nh does not like to go up into 
the colder water of the banks. There may be something true in 
tbis, but it is also possible that the stay of the fish on the edge 
for Bome time before spawning is caused by t.he greater quantity 
of food to be found there. It bas been supposed that the cod 
•InriDg tbe spawning time eat next to nothing, and it is true that 



-M- 

a great number of the stomachs examined hare been found emptf 
and contracted, but thia may as well be caused by want of food 
as by want of appetite. It is bowever certain that there are sev- 
eral évidences that the cod eats even shortly before spavming; itis 
theretore likely that it stays were tbe largest quantity of food animais 
are présent, that is on tbe edge. Towards the spawning titue the ûak 
goes up on the bnnks to shed its roe and milt, nhen the âshing 
of course takes place in more ahallow water. That the température 
has any essential influence on the migration from the edge to tbe 
Bpavrning grounds I do not think can be maintained after the 
observations made till now. From the reports of the chiefs of tbe 
service of supervision it appears that in some years large shoals 
of cod aiready at the beginning of the Beason migrate into tbe 
^ords and baya where the fishing then goes on in comparatirely 
shallow water. Ât the same time the appearance ia stated of some 
"aate" (that is food animais), for instance herrings or cuttlefish, 
and it can scarcely be doubted that the disturbances in tbe normal 
migration of the cod hâve been cauaed hy this "aate". This how- 
ever also proves that food ia of more importance than température. 
According to dr. Knipovitch tbe cod does not occur eaat of the 
White Sea, température of course putting a limit to tbe horizontal 
distribution of the speciee, and the conclusion may no doubt be 
drawn that the cod does not pass in a vertical direction the limit 
of température that puts a stop to its horizontal distribution. It , 
may thus be considered certain that the cod does not stay in the 
great depths outsîde our coast where the température of the water ' 
is below zéro. The cod cannot be characterized as an arctic fish, 
it is bound exclusively to the so called warni area, it does not 
pass beyond the zéro limit. 

If we apply this to the Lofoten fisheries, it may at once be- i 
observed that the température at the usual fishing stations is never- I 
zéro, but aa a rule 2 — 5 degrees above zéro. So far the tempér- 
ature of the water should consequently never be a hindrance to the 
fishing. Such a conclusion, however, must be made with a great 
deal of reserve. If we take it as a fact that zéro ia the lower 
limit for the accommodating power of the species, it does not directly 
foUow that individuals, usually living in water of 4 — 6 " C, will 
voluntarily go up into water of a température that cornes near to- 

r.niP,. .A'OOQlC I 



— 63 — 

the limit that puts a stop to the horizontal distribution of th« ape- 
ms. I do not, however, think that between the migratioDB of the 
■cod and the physical conditions of the water strata exista that close 
dependence which the investigations of récent years seem to hâve 
proved in the case of the herring. An ahundant prevalence of food- 
animals certainly contributes far more to keep the cod gathered in 
one place than the circumatance that the water is 5 " C. Nor is it 
unlikely that fluctuations in the fisbing, at least partly, can be at- 
tributed to changes in the amount of lower animais on the banks. 
Bottom trawling in one and the same place one year after another 
lias produced facts that indicate that tbe bottom fauna in some 
degree changes character. Our knowledge of thèse things, however, 
is TSry insuffîcient. 

It ia not at ail unlikely that the quantity of food on the banks 
is snbject to considérable changes, and it may be that the greater 
or amaller meagerness of the fisli is a direct conséquence hereof. 
It also seems to me likely that when large shoals of fish enter 
npon a limited extent of banks, a regular grazing ofF of the bottom 
will take place. As further it is very questionable whether tbe re- 
generative power of the bottom can restore tbe loss in one year, 
such a grazing-off may be suppoaed to influence the fishing of the 
fbUowing year. By perusing the reports of the chiefs of the super- 
vision I hâve also formed the idea that the centres of the best 
fishing catchea hâve heen constantly moving. 



Captain Joseph W. Collins: The questions eo ably discussed 
liy Mr. Nordgaard, are among the most important that science has to 
ieal with in connection with Btudies of the habits of fiab, a correct 
knowledge of which is so often of vast conséquence to great commer- 
■cial figheries. They not only concem Norway, even granting the vaat 
relative importance of its fishery industries to îta citîzens, but ail coun- 
tries having sea flsheries may dérive advantage from such reecarohes, 
when they are conducted properly and with the object in view of ob- 
taining knowledge that, though scîeiitiâc in tbe higbest sensé, still 
tafl a direct practical hearing upon the prosecation of fishery. We 
ire living în an âge when, it ia to be hoped, science may, as in this 
instance, be hamessed to the chariot wheels of industrial progress ; that 
it may find îta higheat ambition gratified — at least in one direction 
— by nsing its power in solving problema which, though apparently 

i.,,i, " ,L'OOQlC 



— 54 — 

l6H8 conaequential than some others, becauae they Beem to apply chïefly 
to people of humble calling, nevertheless mean much to the well- 
being of humanity in gênerai. I believe in going at tbese questions 
in a direct manner, aa bas been done in tbis instance, and gatbering 
information where alone it can be obtained, and tben drawing there- 
trom deduclions oi practical value. Thia is much better than an end- 
less amount of closet essays, baeed chiefly on Hieory, with the résult- 
ant conséquence tbat every effort ïs made to bend and twist facts to 
suit the théories. It ia well enough tbat justice should be blind, but 
science, eapecially when dea)ing with fisheries, should be open-eyed 
and alert, not too much given to theoriziog, but searching with inde- 
fatigable zeal and energy for the truth, and, beat of ail, for that par- 
ticul&r truth that may lead to a wider apphcation of knowledge to the 
daily affaire of Ëahermen. 

The influence of température ou tbe movements ot fish is a welt 
establiahed fact, and a study of température in connection witb obser- 
vations on contemporaneous movements of fiah is important. 

Still, ae bas been pointed ont, other things, snch for example as 
the présence or abaence of food, mast necessarily materially affect the 
movements of iish. Regarding the habit of feeding displayed by the 
cod during the spawning season I can aay from peraonal observation, 
aa a practical fisherman, that I bave aeen hundreds of cod — poaaibly 
thouaands — caught with hook and Une on the Gteorge's Bank when 
they were in a gravid condition, and the egga and milt ran freely from 
them when they were thrown upon a vessel's deck. The epawning sea- 
son of the cod continues for week s or months, tbe eggs ripening 
slowly and being extruded from time to time as they reach the pro- 
per stage. 

In my judgement, as a result of my observation, the cod feedi 
during the spawnîng season, and the fact that it is often found witb 
an einpty stomach during the reproduction period probably indioates 
only that the overraastering instinct of procréation prompts it to remain 
on choaen spawning grounds even though the supply of food is inadé- 
quate and bunger results. It is well known, howerer, that certain 
anadromous species take no food during the spawning season, and it is 
quite probable tbat, even in the case oE a âsh so celebrated for its 
voracity as the cod, considerate nature may make it less sensible than 
at other times to the promptîngs oi appetite. 

But tbe nearer we get the truth in regard to thîs matter the 
better prepared we shali be to deal with the important questions relat- 
ing to Ihe fisheries 



.i-,:,C00c^lc 



55 

FiSKBBiKONBULENT Dahl : Det er muligt, at jeg kommer med 
en Bemœrkning, som er overflitdiggjort ved, tvad Hr. Nordgaard 
sagde. Jeg kunde ikke rigtig falge med altsammBa — meu jeg vil 
lillude mig at gi0re opmserkBom paa, at uoder Lofotâsket og andre 
QydeËskerier hos os kommer mas aarlig i det Tilfœlde, at Fieken efter 
at hâve s0gt ind paa gode Fangatsteder, isœr naar de faar Form at 
Fjorde eller lignende, pladaelig forlader disae, f^r Gydningen er fuld- 
brigt. Jeg vil bare sige, at jeg tror, det er at den atorste Betyd- 
Ding med Hensyn tU de Unders0geleer, som foregaar nordpaa, at man 
er BVîert opmerkaom paa aile de Tilfœlde og giver dem den méat 
videcakabelige Uiidera0gelae, som i Farten kan skaffes; for i hvert 
enkelt aaadant Tilfselde vil vistnok Unders0gelseme kuime iremdrag» 
mange intéressante Ting til Belysning af Torskens Yœsen og Forbold 
iBr og under Gtydningen. 



.;, Google 



IV. 

OM EEDSSTIIire a TOID MA EÏMITISK, I BHK 

HEDLAtra nSK. 

FiSEEBISKOLEBESTYBEB Fb. BaCEBB. 

Mine Herrer! 

NBtionalekoDoinieii fordrer, at et Laod bedet mulig skal nd- 
nytte den Arbeidaenergie, som det er i Besiddehe af. 

For st kunne gjennemfsre dette, maa Midleroe til Arbeids- 
krtefterneB Tedligeboldelse Tiere billige og let tilgiœngelige. 

Det meoneskelige, aandelige eller matérielle Ârbeide tr^enger 
i Lighed med enhver Maskine Nsering for Yedligeholdelae, og det 
Land, der ei selv frembringer det fornedne bertil, maa ved inter- 
Bationale eller Land og Land imellem afsluttede Overenskomster 
S0ge at regulere Forholdet bedst mulig. 

Det bar visf sig, at den hermetiske Industri paa aile OmiaB' 
der, hïor det gjœlder Nœringsmidler, i de sidste Aar bar gaaet 
fremad i betydelig Grad, og det ikke mindst for de Produkters 
Tedkommende, der stammer ira SJ0 eller Ferskvand. 

Der foreligger et rigt statistisk Material, der beviser dette, 
men jeg skal ikke forlfenge Tiden med Talrsekker, da jeg anser 
dette for unedvendig ligeoverfor denne Forsatnling. Hermetisk be- 
handlet Vare, de saakaldte Conserver, bar indtil nu vœret anseet 
for at bave Anvendelse alêne blandt de bedre stillede, og det ^ar 



— 67 — 

ogsaa for starste Deleo Delikatesser, derfor Luxusvare, der var 
Ojenstand for denne Behandiingsmaade. 

DeQ amerikanske Hermetikindustn, og nu âere andre Landes, 
bar imidlertîd fiildsteendig brudt med denne Opfatning. 

Det har âaaledes vist sig, at hermetîsk Behandling ogsaa egner 
eig for Massenedlsegnjng af de billige Fiskesorter, og at Blik baade 
er den billigste og den sikreste Emballage. 

Saaiedes konserverede Fiskevarer passer desuden for aile Kli- 
maer, de kan koncentreres, er lette at transportere, samtidig Bom 
Fiskens NœringsTierdi og naturlige Smag berares, bvorfor Metboden 
muliggjer en udstrakt international Udbytning. 

Det paa denne Maade behandlede Baastof vil desuden inden 
Importlandets Orœndser Uunne danne Grundlaget for industriel 
Udnytning efter de eiendommelige nationale Sraagsretninger. 

Den nuvœrende Udstilling her i Bergen beviser i bai Grad 
disse Paastande. 

Naar saa er Tilfteldet, bar det vœre vor Pligt i st^rst mulig 
Grad at lette Indlandsbeboerne Adgang til billig Fisk, og derfor 
88ge at rjdde vœk Hindringeme berfor. 

Den Forudsœtning og det Grundlag, der tidligere for de ber- 
metiske Varers Vedkommende bestemte Toldsatseme, er ikke lœn- 
gere tilstede, og Ârbeiderbefolkningen har berettiget Krav paa at 
binne anvende Fisk som Xjed yed den daglige Emaering nu, da 
denne overalt, hvor ikke unaturlige Skranker er reist. med Lethed 
kan konkurrere saavel i Pris som Nœringsvîerdi med andre Fade- 
midler. 

Det bor heller ikke oversees, at billige Fiskespiser ogsaa har 
sine anerkjendte Virkninger saavel i hygienisk som fysiologisk og 
psykologisk Henaeende. 

Det skal indremmes, at der paa &rund af de mangebaande 
TilsEetninger, som enduu benyttea ved den hermetiske Induatri, 
stiller sig praktiske Vanskeligheder for ensartede eller ophœvede 
Toldsatser, men disse Vanskeligheder er dog ikke sterre, end at 
de, ved en Smule god Vilje, kan overvindes. 

Foruden dette at en sterre indenlandsk Industri vil kunne op- 
li)«lpes ved lettet Import af hermetisk Fisk, maa den Omstœndig- 
hed, at enbver Husmoder faar Anledning til at indkjabe billigt 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



Fiskestof, og da kan tilberede dette i eget Kjekken og efter til- 
vant Smag, ikke Bsettes ud af BetragtnÎQg. 

Ved Gjennemgaaelsen af de forakjellige Landes Toldtarifer, vil 
man, naar Ëngland, Belgien og nogle af Kolonierne undtages, fiode 
Toldbeskatnmgen paa preserved Fiak i bai Grad hemmende. I 
Tyakland er den 60 Mark pr. 100 Kilo og i Holland 50 pCt. ad 
valorom, altsaa omtrent afat^ngende for al Import. 

I vor nerveopslidende Tid danner vore Fiskes Kjed, ved sine 
let opleselige Nœringsstoffe, et nedvendigt Erstatningsmiddel, hvis 
AnTCûdelse burde lettes Befolkningen mest mulig, det burde derfor 
komme dertîl, at Nationeme indremmer, at billig Fisk er ligesaa 
nedrendig eom bîlligt Bredkorn. 

Kvis jeg fandt Tilslutning, ville jeg fremsœtte Forslag om en 
UdtaleUe saalydende: 

„M0det udtaler at den haie Toldbeskatning paa hermetisk ned- 
iagte Fiekeprodukter, hvilken de âeste Lande endnu opretholdefr 
burde — i Befolkningens egen Literesae — seges reguleret." 



Lttdt: Det forekommer mig, at det vilde vaere heldigt, at man 
slutter sig til, hvad Hr. Backer har sagt. Det er atvîvisomt en for- 
fierdelig stor Hemsko for Udviklingen af vore hermetiBke Tilvirkuinger, 
at den h0ie Told er lagt paa Varen i forskjellige Lande. Skal den 
Sag arbeide sig rigtig frem, saa mener jeg med Hr, Backer, at det 
vilde viere overordentlig heldigt, om man kuude finde Midler til ial- 
fald at gj0re det mnligt at indftfre hermetiske Sager i andre Lande. 
Jeg t0r heller ikke driste mig til at frems^tte aoget bestemt Forslag; 
men jeg mener, der er saa mange her, bvem deiine Sag intereaserer, 
at der maatte veere en eller anden, eom kunde Bt0tte den Tanke, Bom 
Hr. Backer har udtalt, og som )eg finder aldeles korrekt, og mener, 
at man burde tiltrœde. Der er maaske saa liden Interesse for denne 
Sag endnu, at den ikke finder den Underst0ttel9e, som den efter min 
Mening bnrde bave. 

Pb^sisentek: Forsaavidt Hr. Backer skulde 0n8ke at ireniaEett« 
Forslag til B«solution, vil Herreme bave bemerket, at saaduit ForsUg 
efter Programmet maa forelseggea Organiaationakomiteen. Hr. Backera 
Forslag maatte i Tilfeelde gaa den Vei, og maatte trykkee paa fiera 
Sprog saaledea, at Kongressens udeulandske Deltagere ogsaa knnds 
g]0re sîg be^endt med Sagen. 



— 59 — 

Ludt: Det eyiiee jeg âere tilstedevserende maatte elatte mg tû. 
Backeb : Maa Forslaget indleverea etraks ? 
PassiDEHTEN: Nei, det er ikke n^dvendigt. 



I. Af Hr. Pr. Backer blev senere freraaat falgende Forjlag til Eesolution 
Antedoing Toldsatseme pas FiskekonBerTer : 

Den internationale Fiskerikongreu, iamlet i Bergen 1898 udtaier : . 
,Da de almindetige Fïskearter — preserved og blikemballeret for Trans- 
„port — ikke Itenger kan betragtes som en Jjuiiwvare, men na leverea 
„biUig nok til at indgaa i Arbeiderbefolkningene daglige Erntering, lige- 
„BOm saaledea behandlede Fiskeprodukter mer og mer vil tjeue som 
„Baastof for induitriel Behandling i de Lande, hvor de indferes, er 
ndet Qrundlag, bvorpaa disse Produkter i flere Lande bidtil er told- 
.beskattflt, forrjkket, og Toldaatseme bar derfor regoleres til at komme 
,i et rimeligt Niveau ined BDdre PiHkevarer." 
Tidea tîllod dng ikke at dette Forslag blev taget under Behandling. 

Sekretœren. 



.;, Google 



V. 

HOW CATÏ THE SAIE OP flLIJE BE MABE MOEE 
PEOPITABLEÎ 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FISH SlUE AND FI8H GLUE STOCK 

F. Kahbs.*) 

Of al] the beapB of refuse tbat must be turned to bettor 
accouot, the waste from the fisheries is surely large enough to 
sttract our attention. We hâve along the coast — from the i 
codSsheries alone — small mountains of heads and hundreds of 
tons of bones, skins, tails, ans and bladders, ail of which is either 
thrown away or in a few cases made into guano. This is excellent 
material for glue, and glue is wovth more than guano. 

But I know the manufacturer will tell us that it îs more 
diffîcult and bj far more expensive to sell the glue at a reasonable | 
price, than it is to sell the guano. This applies to ail glues, and 
for ail of them we can ask the question: How can we get rid of 
our glue in quantities, at reasonable priées and with less expense 
than heretofore? For ail glue manufacturera ând it now ver; 
troublesome and costly to sell what the; make, and that is wh; 
the production of hoth ordinary hard glue and liquid fish glue doea 
not increase as rapidly as other industries — nor as quickly asit 
ought to. 

I. PSEBENT SbLLING MbtHODS. 
What I shall say hereafter applies to ail kinds ol glne, liqnid 
fishglue as well as any of the dry glues. The sale ot either ts 

*) Contents copyright by author 1899. Permission to translate «id rapriil 
the paper will ba given on application to Hr. Ingvar Klingenberg, ChrûtiEUi- 
«und N. and Trondhiem. i.,,i, .,L'00'^IC 



— 61 — 

done in precisely the Bame way, and ail of them snffer from the 
same cause: lack of correct méthode for the détermination of 
their value. 

That is why this business is languishing, which we may fully 
anderstand if we consider the waj glue is sold. It is very simple: 
only by weight — so much a pound — that is ail — for nothing îs ever 
stated aftowt the quality; no analysis is given, no test is ever asJœd 
for and no eertificate goes mth the boy trr with the barrel — absolutely 
nothing but the verbal assurance tbat the glue is good and of course 
better than the one the client bas been using, and of course 
cheaper too. It is hère quite gignificant, that the seller for the 
judgment of his product is supposed to leave bimself entirely at 
the mercy of the buyer: be admits thereby silently — as the client 
tîiinks — tbat the latter knows more about the glue than he himself 
who produces it. 

The resuit is that a cabinetmaker without tecbnical knowledge 
and with the aid of mère rule of thumb metbods feels himself called 
apon to pass judgement on the matter in order to satisfy bis 
employer tbat the latter really gets wliat he looks for, namely a 
better article for less money than heretofore. 

It would be sometbing similar if a new brand of guano waa 
sold with the understanding, that it sbould absolutely give a better 
crop than anythiiig formerly used, at the same time leaving the 
judgment in the hands of an ordinary farmer, whom we sbould 
allow to give a verdict— even without being assured of a proper 
préparation of tbe soil — and with the omission of a comparative 
trial. Would it be easy to dispose of guano in sucb cases? I 
thiitk not, and it would of course cost a great deal of money to 
get customers and to keep them where sucb loose methods were 



1. BUYEB TS. SELLEB. 

While the cabinetmaker knows his own skill, he is also dimly 
aware of bis lack of real knowledge, and he can therefore only 
say he thinks tbe quality of the glue he bas worked up was good 
or sometbing similar— but whether better than his own or more 
economical, that he cannot feel sure of, and if asked how much 

i.,,i,^.. A'OOQlC 



Iietter and how much more ecotiomical he can never anewer in 
plairi figures. 

Still, be is fully aware, that there is a distinct différence 
betweeD BtickinesB or adhésion (or covering capacity) on the one 
side and Btrengtb or cobesion on tbe otber side, for that muchhis 
practical expérience bas taught him. 

In this prineipal point the consumer is ahead of the giue 
manufacturer: the latter has not yet leamed to màke this différence. 
To him stickiness (adhésion) and strengtb (cohésion) is one and 
the same thing. He tbinks be can judge botb if be rougbly estim- 
âtes the sliflness of a glue jelly — one part of glue to say either 
four or eigbt parts of water bj the so-called cup-test. 

I cannot in tbis paper in détail criticize tbe ordinary jelly-test 
of glue; but I shall give a few reasons wby it should be abandoned. 
Sesides being crudu and deceptive, it gives only an estimate of 
tbe comparative cohésion and not of tbe relative adheaive powers 
of glue. Hereto cornes that the tests of such thîn solutions as even 
1 to 4— -or 20 %— distort the comparative results observed because 
tbe différences felt in thèse thin solutions dwindle down very much, 
when W6 corne up to sucb proportions — 30 to 50 % — B,e are used 
for practical trade purposes. 

But as the principle in tbia test is wrong it will in tbe long 
nin be impossible for the glue dealers still to adhère to it, and 
that is wby it muât be cbanged. 

The présent state of affairs then is this : While the glue con- 
sumer bas a defined idea of tbe existing différence between covering 
capacity and strengtb in glue, tbe man who makes it has none. 
As both differ in regard to tbe principles underlying their tests, 
tbey must corne to différent results — and then distrust each other. 

The client would like to know bow much more economical or ' 
bow much better the goods offered him are than those be now uses. 
But strangely enough, tbe seller is not able to give any definite 
information about bis own goods — nor even to make a distinction 
"hetween the questions asked. And — mark it — of the two it is the 
tnyer wbo bas the niost correct tbeory for the judgment of tbe 
goods— not tbe one who sells it. 

Under thèse conditions tbe sales are always settled on the 
tasis of talk alone as far as concerns the trade with tbe consumera. 
h.ji, " .A'OOQlC 



— 63 — 

A good talker and a skillful manipulator of human nature— and 
that Ib what a glue salesman must be — twists the words and deals 
with îmaginary facts. He conceals hia own ignorance and drives 
with hia victim a bargain, where he ia always sure of so and so 
Diiicb profit. It is easily understood why: the organized trade 
based on some one universal nile has alwajs its own members to 
fall back on, if need be; pitted against tbis the one single man 
Laying no recognized methods corering hia purchaseB must alwajs 
lose. And wbile the tests generallj used by the dealers are very 
faalty and misleading, they are better than none; they give withal 
an indication of the truth or at least enough of it to enable tbe 
dealer who tests to get the best of those buyers who only rely on 
so called practical résulta and don't test. 

2. THE CHANGE NEEDED. 

We bave seen how tbe salient point bas been overlooked in 
the gluetesting as it is now practised by the trade. As the jelly- 
test ia no true indicator of adhésion in glue, tbe présent System 
must be abandoned not only because it is faulty and crude but 
because it is also deceptive: This bas caused many a salesman to 
make statementa which the buyer knows to be absolute impossi- 
hihties.*) 

Such talk créâtes in tbe intended victim a suspicion; he will 
Tiever feel certain of what be baa bought— ^aa he knows it was ail 

') I hâve heard it «tated by glue salesmen that f. inst. one glue take» four 
^mes as inuch water as another, and this assertion is invariably baeed on th« 
lesult-î of a Bocalled '■'cnpteBt" or jellytpst. It oflen occuvs with such testa that 
one gluejelly, I part to lay 16 part» of water, actually feels atronger than the 
jelly from another sample made up say 1 part of glue to 4 parts of water — and 
the aalesman mahes the statement on basia of what he has feit and seen 

But the consumer to whom he is talking knows such a statement to be 
*ionf: cheve in no glue whïcb will allow liim to use it with four times ite 
ii*n weight of waler — uiuch lésa with fonr timea us much water as be might 
«se with his own glue — it would then be too thin. The consumer works his 
glue warm, he needa a certain "Body" of î* for his wort — while the saleaman 
thinka of a cold jelly. Borne way or otlier ihe former feels that therc i" a 
différence in their thinkiog and where he expeoted to reoeive information he 
i« met with an absnrd statement and a woeful lack of understanding in regard 
to his own practical work. Of course he looses ail his confidence in the man 
Mil feela himielf supei'ior. 



, L .OO' 



gic 



— 64 — 

Bettied on talk and not on banis of facts and figures. That is why 
the average consumer becomea sceptical and why he bujs lomâwhere 
else the next time provided some better talker cornes along. 

Merit counts of «.ourse in tbe long run; but even if based on 
the most excellent qualities and backed up bj a good name, it 
means very iittle for the glue as hng as no tests are stamped m 
the bag or on the barrei in plain figures guaranteed hy the vendor. 
That would sell the glue quicker and with less expense tban coald 
the beat talker in the world— and this is what the glue manufact- 
urers first of ail must do; they shouîd tell the pvhlic, what the Kxad 
qualities are of the glue they maJi^. 

Would anybody nowadays buy guano without analysis, or 
petroleum without test, or alcohol without knowing the exact 
percentage? Hardly, Yet, this is exactly what is done with glue 
to-day, ail over the world; it sells "quality unknown!" 

But both the manufacturer and the buying public must change 
their présent attitudes before the glue trade can be reorganized. 
The manufacturer should study the nature of bis own product and 
leam better how to analyze its qualities. He should do it to make 
a good product and in order to produce the varions grades for 
différent purposes and so to meet the manifold requirements ofhis 
customers. The more so as he knows bis présent testing system 
to be faulty, misleading and far from complète. But he knows also 
that it. enables hira to get the best of the average buyer. "Ergo, 
he thinks, it is good enough" — specially if the buyers don't knoff 
too much. 

But this reasoning is not at ail correct, Tbe buyer bases hîs 
criticism on practical résulta only; he judges his glue first of ail 
on basis of adhésion: that is, he estimâtes the amount of work it 
will do. Often he succeeds in making a guess at it; let the resuit 
be Bomewhat off from the truth, it does not matter, he is on the 
right track: his task is always to compare one glue with another 
in order to discover how much more work from the one — hov 
much leas from the other, or hmv much more glue of one and how 
mueh less of the other — to do the same worTc. 

Tbe principle is hère correct, but the methods used are not 
worthy of tbe name even. Hia practical expérience tells him every 
day that his work is satisfactory ; he feels he knows why and he 

i.,,i,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 66 — 

thinliB fae knowB it ail, and lie flcoffB at better methods as long as 
nobody is found who can teach him aomething — for he knovs also 
tbat the one who sells him the glue has an entirâly wrong view of 
it ail, and lie ia more than willing to back his own expérience 
against unpractical théories. 

The glue- consumer worbs always the same way: he uses bis 
glue warm, in a certain thickness (to the best of his knowledge) 
—and he knows that to get sucb a glue-solutioa he must take 
more hard glue of a poor grade and lésa of a good grade. Tbe 
grade — good or poor— dépends in bis eyea just on this, and if he 
could only find out exacUy and positively this one thing about 
erery glue saniple, he would also know to a cent the value of such 
a glue for his own work.*) 

H. The New Testing System.' 
Hère is then what gluetesting first of ail must tell: how mueh 
of either or any grade is needed to get the same practical results^ 
What we must détermine is consequently not the stiffiiess of a 6 
or 10 "/o glue-jelly wben cold, but the percentage necesaary to 
make a bot liquid glue solution ready for practical work with any 
glue we want to buy. Ând this glue solution sbould always bave 
the same amount of adbesiveness, bave the same body, bave the 
same "stick" to ît, or as tbe technical expression says: tbe same 
amount of viscosity. In other words the object of our testing must 
be to ascertain for any one glue saraple the équivalence of adhésion 
of meh a sample as eompared to any or ail other samples if tised 
for tte same practical purpose.**) 



*) It must be remembered, that what ia needed is above aU a, pliyaical 
aiialjaia. We mnst for glue deteiinine phyaical facta such as adhésion, strength 
and "eetting", and it htks long ago been conceeded by ail experts, that s. 
cheroical analysis is of no value wbatever for the détermination of stick and 
«trength and practical working value in glue for ordinary trftde purposea. 

**) It is Immaterial what spécial thickness may be chosen as tbe standard; 
the main point is to put ouraelves in the position of a tradesman, who aiwaya 
Dsea glue for one certain and defined purpose. The resuit will in that casa 
«very time refer to the ^ame — rtnd show the sample tested as having a certain 
jield for this purpose — and ail other aamplea wiil vary as to yielding secoriJ- 
inj to quality. If aiiy other thicltnees was chosen as the standard the 
proportionate variations and the relations oi one grade to another would 
1)« practioally tbe same. 



— 66 — 

If we had etudied the real nature of glue as an adhesive, or 
if we had followed up the expérience and the facts known to the 
glue consumer, we should long ago hâve abandoneâ the fallacious 
jellytest, the resuit of which never haa tallied with practicnl 
expérience. 

1. EQinVALKNCT OF ADHESIOK. 

When basing our tests for glue-value on the viscosity test of 
hot glue we get something différent from the results indicated bj 
the jelly tests. By adopting the former (alao called the flow test) 
we put ourselves in the position of the tradesman, we prépare our 
glue for a practical purpose, and we test it warm ready for use. 

First we détermine how mnch of it is needed in order to obtain 
a certain adhésion. Then we prépare (on baais of the figures 
obtained from the lîrst test) another solution of the glue we are 
examining; this time we make it of standard adhésion and 
once we hâve fulfilled this prime requirement, %ve ean proceed io 
détermine the further qualities of the glue in such a solution, where 
then adhésion or sttckiness is the satne far ail samples. 

It is only in this way we find it possible to explain the other 
qualities (and their relations to each other) as are strength and 
what la csJled "aetting". What ia more, the results wenow obtain 
in the laboratory tally everywhere with the practical results and 
with the expérience of the trade, in each and every case, That is 
in itself proof enough that both the methods employed and the 
work done are aubstantially correct, 

I ahall hère aketcD the methoda pursued in ray own laboratory 
and describe the varioua stages shortly and without going too far 
into détails,. 

First of ail is determined the equivalency of adhésion for the 
sample. This test ia done by the aid of a viscosimeter and in 
auch a way that the figures obtained enable me to find out exactly 
in what percentage the glue must be made up in order to obtain 
from it a liquid, hot, glue solution ready for uae in the thickness 
choaen aa standard for ail. That is I détermine the equivaiency 
of vïscosity for the sample as compt-red to any or ail ofKer samples 
and express it as a percentage of solution. The resulting figure — n 
— indicates how much glue I need in 100 weight units of liquid 



— 67 — 

glue, the différence 100 minus n — being' the water needed to make 
up the Bquiâ of standard thickness. 

The resnlts of more than three thousand samples examined in 
Hiy laboratory dsring the last three years show the limita to be 
from about 29 7o np to nearly 60 Vo- That ia, the beat glue I 
baye examined will in a 89 "/o solntion hâve the same adhesiveneiB 
lor practical purposes aa a 60 Vo Bolution of the poorest. 

2. ECONOMIC YALUB. 

From the figures aboT» quoted it ia eaay enough to détermine 
the real économie value of the glue. If we multiply the price 
aaked with this percentage figuie the product ahowa the cost of 
100 weight-unitB, pounds or kiloa, of glue solution ready for use. 
With a price of say 18 cents a Ib, (or kr. 1.47 a kilo) for the 
best and BVa cents (or kr. 0.45 a kilo) for the pooreat glue the 
use of either will cost our client: 

for the best 29x18 = Doll. 6.22 per 100 Iba. liquid 
" " pooreat 58x67, = " 3.18 " " " " 
or in Skandinavian money: 

for the best 29x1.47 — Kr. 42.63 per 100 kil. liquid 
" " poorest B8X0.45 =" 26.10 " " " " *) 
Though more than three times as high in price tbe best glue costs 
only about 64 "/o more to uae, than the poorest glue, provided 
both are bought at fair priées and somewhere near their real values; 
(it must be added however that- this is the case only with a very 
small minority oi consumers, because most of them prefer to rely 
on their own lack of knowledgc rather than to consiilt an expert 
when glue shall be purchased.) 

3. UKITS OF COHESION. 

If adhésion is the only thing our client wants the figures quoted 
settle the question in favor of the cheapest glue. But in most cases 
we must alao consider the strength of tbe gluesolution after we 

') We bave hère in eaoh case 100 Ibs. liquid glue oi tlie same adheaivenesa 
—but that doee not mean that we also hâve the same liquid quantitj ofboth. 
Tbe 58 per oent sohition being the heavier will be somewhat less in bulk than 
the M per cent solution. But the différence is so amall and in practica work 
tbere are ao many other factora that will influence the roflulti (as . inst. 
«vaporadon and othei-s that this small error can be ignored. 



hâve gÎTen it standard adhésion (which is the prime requîrement 
oC thfi liquid glue when testing). 

Forinerly this test for strength bas been made by a practicat 
application of the liquid on wood or in a joint of Bome kind. This 
Wiis inlended as a fui) test of the glue as far as saine was un- 
derstood ; generally it was called a strength-test. 

Such tests were of course unreliable, as is eaaily pointed out: 
wood is as a ruie weaker than glue and the test proves rather 

this fact than any other; 
turthermore is the grain of the wood not the same in al) test 

pièces ; 
nor is the surface ever given an even smoothnesB ; 
no attention is paid to the pressure given ; 
nor to an even drying of the test pièce; 
nor to the température of the gluesolution when applied to 

make the joint; 
nor to the quantity of liquid glue coated on. Âll theae and many 
more conditions would hâve to be equalized if a trustwortby 
resuit sbould be obtained — 
and tbe main requirement, the equivalency of adhésion in the 
liquid used, which should be the first condition for Uie test, 
is absolutely ignored. 
. But ibère is another way, very simple and very effective, to 
détermine tbe strength of a glue solution. When applied to a 
joint, or on a surface, the liquid glue immediately congeals— or seta 
as the tradesman says. 77ië strength of a joint is then equal to the 
strength of the congealed glue itself, and this strength we can aacer- 
tain by takin^ a crush-test of the gluejelly. Of course this test 
must always be done at a certain température, the same for ail 
samples. The resuit of such a test will be pounds or kilos of ré- 
sistance to a certain measured surface. I call this units of cohé- 
sion, or résistance, or strength. 

In our ezample hefore quoted I hâve found at 6&" F. ^ 18.3°' 
0. the crusbing strength of the best sample to be abont 25 pounds 
as against only 5 pounds for the low grade one. I bave tbea 



- 69 — 

put the cohésion an 25 unitB for the one anH as 15 uiiîts for the 
«ther.*) 

Thèse strength figures exptain fully why the une sbould cost 
more than the other; the gréais strengtk makes it worth mon'. We 
learn hère further that the most adhesive glue ia also the strongest 
at ordinary room-temperatiire ; but this ia not ao in ail cases by 
any means. Wbile adhésion and cohésion as a rule corresponds 
in glues of the same kind, if the glues are normal, the relations 
between thèse two qualities will on the whole Tary according to the 
"make" and the raw material frora which the glues are made. 
Some glues — apecially if alightly damaged — will show great vari- 
ations, f. inst.: a very high degree of adhésion and no strength 
■whateyer. 

Where strength is needed the cohésion test must consequently 
always be very carefully made and the resuit considered in the 
light of what the glue is to be used for. What to choose, and where 
to draw the line, can only be decided upon by the aid of this test, 

4. CONGEALraO POINT. 

The third teat we need is for finding how the glue "sets", 
whether "quick" or "slow" as the "tradesman" says. The cabinet- 
lïiaker means hereby the quick or slow congealing of the glue, for 
Then the jelly is formed and feels solid^then the glue is "set" in 
the joint and he can proceed witb bis work. 

In this way glues set "quick" or "slow", the setting depending 
mtirely upon the congealing p<me.r of the glue- This power we can 



*) A few worda in regard to the point ot teraperatare at whiob the cruali- 
ing test is made. The point ehould be one aomewhat aboTe tbe average yearlj 
température of our raoms in ordet to represert conditiona under which furn- 
itnre and wooden flïtni-es ae a i-ule are placed. To tate suob teat at the freez- 
ing point ie absolutely wrong, for glued work is hardly ever ueed in the open 
sir. The point for tbe test sbould rather be the bighest average température 
of summer or such a one as is found undei' tbe ceilinga of oui- parlois, as aU 
faney frame work mnst stand suoîi a beat or fall to pièces (whicb it often does). 
There s another reaiion for taking the test at the température qnoted. 
If we take it at a lower point we are liable to get misleading resutts because 
Ihe low-griide glues, witb a bigb peroentage o. dry glue In theïr solutions, in 
crease ao rapidly in strength, aa the temperatiCTe goes down, that already be- 
tween 41 » F. (7.7 » C.) and 40 • P. (4.4 » C.) they begin to equal and oven 
«upats the higher grades in apparent strength. 

r..<:,iP,.. -.vCoOc^lc 



measure by détermination of the congealing point of the solution; 
the higher this point the qnicker will the glue congeal at ordinary 
Bhop température, and the lower this point tbe slower will the glae 
set. The extrêmes I hâve found to be for ordinary trade goods 
between 91 " F. for the quickest and 76 *• F. for the slowest one. 
This leaves a space of about 15 degrees F. to be divided up inUi 
"notchea" or setting "grades". 

As the congealing point can be verified with even less vari- 
ation than 7/10 of one degree F. we can establish a acale with say ' 
ten "notches" for the grading of ail glues, from the "Ebttra Extri 
Quick" (XXQ) to the "Extra Extra Slow" (XXS) with Buch names 
or letters as we may cboose to give for eacb intermediate stage, 
and we can be reasonably certain to bave an error that is emaller . 
than one of the "notcheB". ! 

But to be précise we should give the aetting point itself; that 
can at will be referred to such a grade-name as we may choose, or , 
aa the trade may want it, only that instead of the tbree vague de- ! 
signatioos "Quick", "Médium" and "Slow" we can give at leaat ten | 
reliable shadings. 

We hâve tbus in three seta of figures ail we need know about 
a glue, provided it is a hard glue. If it is a liquid glue— andthe 
fishglue is generally liquid — we want something more. What we 
must know of it in addition to the other figures is the amount of 
dry glue présent in the solution, preferably stated as a percentage; 
that would enable us to judge this glue as impartially as the hard 
glues and that is ail the buyer can ask for, 

5. THE TE8T-BËP0BT. 

When summed up in a report the three tests of a gluesample | 
should show: j 

a) Adhésion or stiekiness — expressed aa the percentage of viacos- 
ity-equivalency for ail saraples; the figures will hère vary between 
28 7o and 60 %, and tenths of one percent should be stated. 

{>) Economie value — figured out by multiplying the percentage 
figure given above by the purchase price paid for a weiglit 
unit, pound or kilo. This gives the cost price of one hundred 
weight-units liquid glue ready for use; it enables the buyer to 
make his cboice on basis of economy. The présent qualitiea 



— 71 — 

and ruling market pricea in tbe United States pat the cost of 
100 Ibs. liquid glue m the pot, ready for use, at about Doll. 
5.22 for tbe beat and at Doll. 3.19 for tbe poorest grade. 

c) Cohésion o'- drength — quoted as units of strengtb for such a 
solution as indicated under a. This test must always be taken 
at the same température, preferably at say 65 degrees F. 

d) Congealing point as indieator of the setting for such a solution 
as stated in a. Instead of this point may be iised such a 
term out of a séries running from "Xtra X Quick" to "Xtra 
X Slow" as it may be appropiate to give to the différent 
grades, as formerly pointed out. *) 

For the two samples quoted the exact figures for the différent 
qualitiee above mentioned are according to my test book as follows: 

Nr. pr. Ib . a. b. c lat 65 F ) d Setting Gr«de Mark. 

2942 I 18 ct8, I 29.3% | J>ol. 5.22 I 25 units 1 91.7 F. Xtra X Qniok=XXQ 
2924 I 6Vii " I 57,8" | " 3.19 1:5" | 77.5 F. Xtra X 81d»=XXS. 

If put up thia way the results of any nuraber of samples ex- 
amined are easily compared, and it will be a very eaay task to 
sélect glue if tbese figures are given to tbe buyer. For the pur- 
pose of marldng it on the package some form as the lollowing 
Tould be acceptable: 



29.3 7o I 65 flt 66<* F. 57.8 Vo | 15 at 65° F. 



% I 91.7 "F. 7o I 77.5 " F. 

For the liquid glues we need furtber know: 
e) Ihe percentage of dry glue in the liquid. 

If the sample was a liquid glue of some kind the opeo space 
to the lefl undemeath the percentage figure (for the equivalency of 
adhésion) might be used for the figure telliug the percentage of dry 
glue in the liquid. In this shape the test certificate would be very 
compact and could be easily marked on any package.)** 



*) Both in regard to atrength and setting doea tbe argument of note 3 
ipply; hère too will tbe workîng o' one glue bear the same relation to nll others 
nhether -we choose a» standard a liquid of a somewhat thicker or thinner flow, 

*•) In those trades wliere .glue ia mostly u»ed — ainong the wood-worker» 
—the thiokneea ol tbe liquid for ioiniug pnrposes mne rather uniform. and as 

hnli... v.L.OO^IC 



m, What Rational Tbstihg Leads To, 
Whatever we ehall do to improve the testing of glue and to 
ÎEtroduce the reforma needed in this branch of technical science, 
it will be absolutely necessary to build the testing system on this 
one basis: the equivalency of adhésion. Only then the other teste ■ 
become intelligible and even possible. 

So far this matter has not before now been brought to the 
Attention of the public, at least not in its présent shape. It was 
only quite recently that the necessary researches were finished, and 
a.B ail of this is of vital importance to the glue trade in gênerai 
and to tbe ôsbglue makers (wbo ail sell a liquid product) in part- 
icular, I hâve not hesitated to gîve this Gongress a description ot 
my new testing system and the methods I use. It is of course 
quite impossible hère to go further into détails; that will be done 
filsewhere, and for thèse who want to know more about this sub- 
îect I shall be pleased to answer fiirther inquiries.*) 



tbJB thickasBB h»f been cboeen as the standard, ibe figures obtained will bi! 
directl; applicable to tbe practical work of a majority of such sbope. 

Sbould the glae in certain caseï be ii<ied thicker or tbinner f. inat. foi' 
veneer work or for paper work, the peroentage figure for tbe equivalency ol 
adbeiion, as qaoted in tb^i test certifloate, can be made tbe basis for tbe prnc- 
tical préparation of gluea in aucb trades by simply correcting tiie figure given, 
thereby making it leier to a liquid glue of a tbinner or tbicker consisteticy. 

Where a thinnei- glue is needed, aay for paper work. abont flfleen percent 
of tbe figure quoied) nbould be dedacted and wbere a tbicker glue ig needed, 
or veneer work, a round twenty-five percent abould be added. For iiiet if we 
bave a glue testing 40 per oent. tbis glue sbould be made up for paper work 
in this way ■ 

(40 1 36\ I 
I = 40 — fi = 34 »/n (instead of 40 %). 
100 ^ "' "" 

And thiB dedticiion bolds good for any glue, because any and ail would huve ! 
to be made up lu the saine tickiteiis for this purpose. Agsîn if we shonld make 
ît up for veneering we sbould hâve to add 25 per cent 



40 -i- ( I = 40 -4- 10 = 50 ",„ (inatead of 40 O'o). 

and as sbown above, thia wonld bave to be done for ail glues. 

Of course such correctiona will vary for the différent trades; but by Con- 
sulting an expert it can easily be determined once and fbr ever for any fectory 
in question. 

') Leiters addreased to Fkimah Eahrb. analj^t of glue, 108 Broad fitiset, 
New-Tork will always reach me. A aomewhat larger édition of this paper 
bas been pubbsbed sepai'ately. and can be obtained tbrongb Ed. B. Qiertaau, 
Bergen, or through any bookstore. Prlce Kr. 1.60. 

r..<:,iP,.. v.L.OOQlC 



— 73 — 

Let U8 now consider what the résulta will be if we test our 
glues as advocated in this paper, and if we mark the tests on tbe 
packages, and sell ail glues with a full guarantee of thèse tests : 

a) First of ail it will be impossible to sell glue on talk alone and 

b) tbe consumer can on sight sélect tbe best values offered and 
the grade most suitable for hîs purpose. 

c) The buyer can with auch tests before him prescribe the prépar- 
ation of glue for practical work in the shop, the proportions 
of glue and water being indicated in the test report; 

d) this prevents misuse and waste. 

e) If used as aelling arguments such tests will prove beyond the 
shadow of a doubt the real value of the high grade glue, 
tbereby referring each grade to its own proper market. 

/) Sales can be made readily and at a small expansé as under 

such conditions anybody and everybody will he able to judge 

tbe article and ita real value. 
g) It will finally make glue of any kind a staple article, which 

can be as readily disposed of in any market the world around, 

as alcohol, petroleum, guano or any other tested article. 
We hâve then at last — but not at least— a further benefit 

from rational testing: 
h) smaller expenses with the sale of glue. 

It is easiiy seen why: with the backing of rational tests the 
salesman can work easier and sell more. He can tell the customer 
mj plainly whether the glue he wants to sell is better than what 
lis client is using and alao whether it is more economical; he can 
tell it bimself, he who buys — for the testa are made so that qual- 
itj wid quantity are both expressed aeparately.*) 

Hère is really the Tcey to the System and hère we find the rea- 
STO why the former testing methods toere failures: they hâve not 
indimied in pîain figures adapted to the practical wants of the trade, 
the main physical quality of glue — namely its adhésion — apart 
p'<M (fte seeondary one, namely its strength, and for this latter one 
reîiaife tests tvere nevm- given. 

] I hâve repeatedlj' mentioned the aeJling expenses as Bomething to ba 
^afled 80 it is. I hâve known several oaaes whei-e ihe eipenses hâve 
araontited lo over 25 par cent of the total amount of the sales— and eurcly 
•omfbody either pays or loses thia amount. 



As a basis for tbe §ale of glae such test work as hère ont- 
lînsd ÎB not yet used directlj or knowingly (if 1 may use Buch axt 
ezpresBion), neither in the United StateB nor 11 Europe. Only în 
ona single case is tbere an indication that the testwork is done on 
bflsis of adhésion and with such solutions as are used on an aver- 
age in the woudworking factories for practical joining pnrposes.*) 

The question: how can we increase the profit on glue? ii 
then answered thus: 

a) best of aU by adopting a rational teating System and 

b) by selling ail glues under certain quaranteeà tests. 

That is the onîy way to make glue a staple artiele, and to work for 
that should be in the interest of erery gluemaker. 

Ânotber point that should urge bim to do so is the fact that 
onlj througli a rational teating System is it possible to ascertain 
the value of a liquid glue such as the consumer uses it. For it is 
from the work of the consumer and from his requirementa ani 
needa that the gluemaker can learn what he ought to make and 
where he can sell his product most profitably, The thousands of 
workshops where glue is used afiord an abundant, inexhauatible | 
field for such study, and ijf the gluemaker once fully nnderstands 
the wants of the consumer he can easily satisfy Mm. And this 
immense field has as yet hardly been snrveyed even. 

Tt must howeTer be admitted that witbout the aid of a rational 
tefiting System and without the aid of trained men the exploratioa 
of this field was not an inviting task. Now the System is hère— 
for thoae who c&re to adopt it — and modesty forbida me further to '■ 
point out the man. if somebody wants to hire help in this matter.**) ■ 



*) I refer bere to tbe gnuimg of the well bnown Ai 
famona Peter Cooper. 

**) It muât not be Jost aigbt of thaï the syatem bere desoribad fully en- 
ablea a (al^sinan to teet and iudge any kind of liquid gilue right in the pot as 
be findB it — wltb the aid of a amnil eet of Uiola auch as he can cany in s 
aatohel. Tbe immédiate teating wîU tell bim the percentage of glue in the 
solution and the yiaeoaity of it ; with the further aid of my tables be can swilj 
compute tbe percentage for the equivalenoy point of adheaion and that is ail 
he needa know in order to offer hia gooda. Anotber advantage it the one 
derived from tbe tabiea giving the âgureii for preparing any glue of aDjr gni» 
in aiiy deaïred Tiacoaity or thickneai ; that make* it poBoible for the aeUer ta 
meet the requirementa of almoat aU trtidea. 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



IV. About Fibhslde In Paeticulab, 

For the manufacturer of fishglue it ie necesBary to do some 
more work than heretofore. Specially must he try to make a mors 
Tsried product, whidi can be done by working up separately the 
slduB and the £na for one grade, the bones for another and the 
heads for a third ose, etc. 

In Bome places there is a chance of getting large amounts of 
boD6s with the bladders on and thèse latter give an excellent glue 
that will bring a higher price than any other fishglue. 

It neceasitates a small extra expense to separate the stock 
when it cornes in ; but that is ail we ueed do if we want to follow 
the hints given above. Besides it will pay handsomely to do so; 
it gives variouB qualities for variou» purposes and that is needed in 
fîshgliie as well as in other glue. 



1. NEW BDYEE8 FOE FISHGLIIB. 

W'iiile the sale of liquid fish glue never will corne up to the 
amount paid for dry hide or bone-glue, it is certain that it can 
be largely increased if the manufacturer will try to win new markets 
and more clientB. The présent exhibition gives many examples 
&om the most varied industries where fishglue is used, as are : 

leather-belting, 

straw-hats, 

cycle-saddles (iron- fram leather cover), 

table-oilcloth, 

gummed paper, labels and shipping tags 

photo-engraving etc. etc. 
For ail thèse purposes fishglue is now used in large quantities, and 
g^ples of such work done with âshglue is now hère on exhibition. 
Hese trades comprise quite a large number of buyers ail of which 
are outside the thousands of cabinet-makers and wood-workera whoBe 
products need glue of some kind as a component part. 

Another large field is open for fishglue in ail the fînishing and 
sizing establishments, where wool. cotton and other textile products 
are dressed and made ready for shipment — and there are many, 
many more if we only look around. 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 76 — 

The drawback to fishglue is that it sets very slow; but that 
ia also what makes it specially valuable for certain classes of work; 
80 much 80 that for thia very reason should it be used as a mix- 
ture with other glues, wherever it i8 necessary to counteraxît the 
brittleness of the high-grade quick aetting glues. That indicates a 
new and very extensive market for fishglue with ail the manufac- 
turers of liide- and hoDcglnes. They will ail some day need it for 
the purpose of mixing it with their own in order to make certain 
grades ot slow setting glues baving both Btrength and elasticîty.*) 



2. ABOUT FI6H-WASTE A8 GLtlBBTOCK, 

Wherever the ready-made article — the fishglue — might be kept 
ont by the harrier of a protective duty, there the raw material will 
be the more readily looked for and accepted. 

For the gluemakers everywhere will in any case want the raw 
material (the fish-waste) as gluestock, and the dryîng and curing of 
it for such purposes will in time hecome a paying industry of 
its own. 

SpecialJy along thia line are the prospects very good. There 
is really often trouble with the quick setting of oiir présent higb 
grades of glue— and once our gluemakers art; "on to" the improve- 
ment hère suggested, they will ail become heavy buyers of either 
fishglue or fish-waste for mixing with their own product, 

I know the fish-waste will soon corne in demand and before 
long it will become a well paying business to handle it~it is not 
much of a task to dry and to cure the skins, heads and bones 
in some simple way, so as to make it an article that eau be trans- 
ported with but little outlay to the gluefactories of Europe and of 
the United States. 

To thie chance I muât cali spécial attention: it should be tried 
at once. Both the fishglue manufacturer and the fisbproducer, who 

*) Compared in settiog wjOi the glowast eetting ordinary glue, the averag* 
flshglae will set fullj one time an miioh more slowly as does the aloweat setting 
ordiDarj' hide- or boneglue set if compared to the hast and qnickest setting 
glue of the same bind. That makes our range of setting more than double 
"what it waa, enablîng os with fishglue to obtain congealing pointa aoywhere 
ftom SBj 55 degrees F and npwards. 



can dispose of either readj glue or raw material, ought to offer 
their goods to the gluemakers ail over the world. But specially 
will it pay our fishproducers and our âshdealers to look up thèse 
addresses; they will ail aome day offer money for fish-waste, and 
tliâse buyers will, when they buy, take large quantities. 

3. BOMETHING TO COBBECT. 

While I am dealing with fisbglue I must point out something 
I think hurts the sale of this article, as it causes many failurea. 
«herever fisbglue is used — specially in cold weather. 

The instructions on the gluecans generally state, that "the- 
glue need not be heated at ail — and if too tbick thin it out with 
Tioegar." It is this alatemènt I think ought to be altered. The truth 
is that fisbglue like ail other gluee works the better the warmer it 
is, partly because beat maies it thin of fiow and so enables the 
surface more readily to absorb the glue and to retain it, but ehiefly 
for the reason that the affinity of a glueliquid for any surface (that 
ii its "adhésion") is the greater the warmer it is. Of course it 
ean he worked at ordinary température, say around 60" F. (ISYs^C), 
but the chances are then not in favor of the best results, and a 
drap of 10 degrees F. (or ah. 5" C.) will make the glue thick like- 
moiasses, which must resuit in a weak joint. If we now try ttf 
remedy the excessive thickness (when the glue is cold) by thinning 
i^ out, that adds Airther weakness to the glue with the same resuit 
—a poor joint. 

We sbould therefore alter thèse instructions, saying that glu& 
sliould always be perfectly liquid, when used, and never he put on 
cold surfaces, further stating that the best température is around 
120 degrees F. (ab. 5(1" C), and that the glue should never 
be used colder than 85 F. (ab. 30" C.)- At this température it 
should be just thick enough for ail ordinary purposes and that 
precludes the possibility of getting a good resuit with the same 
glue at 60" F. (10" C.) spedally if we try to make it answer the- 
purpose by adding vinegar or water. 

I admit that the small glasses sold for housebold purposes 
oay perbaps not be so attractive to some buyers, if they read that 
tte glue sbould be warœed before used ; but the sale of this small- 



— Ta- 
boulé article ought to be of Becondary importance, tmd in the long 
run it will pay better to give ail bayera, even the small ones, tbe 
best article and full correct inatructions. 



V. CONCLCBIONS. 

To 8um it up I recommend 

A. FOB THE 1BADE IN OENEHAL. 

1. The adoptation of the testing System hère deseriied for ail 
ghtes whether liquid or dry —on basis of equivalenqf of adhésion 
(or viscosity) with addiUimal détermination of cohésion {or stren^tb) 
and congealing point {or setting) for sueh liquid solutions lahich 
ail hâve the same viscosity. 

3. The abandonmeot of tbe jellytest (or cupteet) as basis for 
the valuation of the glue. 

3. That ail glues should be sold under guaranteed tests, 
«omewhat on the lines indicated in this paper. 



B'. FOB THE FISHOLDE TBADE 8PECIALLT. 

Those who manufacture this article I think will ail finâ it 
advisable : 

1. To adopt the same tests as are used for other glues, and 
:to market their goods on basis of such tests. 

2. To State for ail liquid fîsh glues how much dry glue tbe 
solutions really contain. 

3. To offer the âshglue to various new trades hère indicated 
And specially to the manufacturers of ordinary dry glue ail over 
"the v.orld. 

4. To manufacture Tarions grades of fishglue. Specially would 
it pay well to ronke glue &om the âshsounds. This can eaeily be 
doue by working up the various raw materials separately. 

5. To alter the laulty instructions generally printed on the 
-Gfins or glasses containing fishglue. 



■A'OOg le 



C. FOB ALL FieH PR0DCCEB8. 

I tbink it will be well worth their wbile to save ail the refiise 
and to cure it so as to make it marketable aB giuestock, specially 
bones where the sounds or the bladders aj*e still attached. Sueli 
stock is very Taluable and wiil fetch an extra price on account ot 
the excellent glue that can be made from this material. 



D. TO ALL QLUB CONSUMEES. 

A few words to this verj numerous class. It is fully as mnch 
in their intereat to study this paper as tbe comparatiTe few for 
TThom it is directly wntten. Tbe adoptation of the selling methods 
hère described will on an average save not less than one third of 
the annual glue bill for any consumer 

We need the help of ail thoae interested in order to introduce 
reforms and to do that the consumer can help us very effectiveiy — 
simply by giving up bis own préjudice, the main point of which is 
that he really belieyes he now knows ail about glue, and tbat he 
is fiilly able to test it, at least for al) bis own purposes. 

Wbile it was quite natural tbat be once was led to tbink that 
""he knew it ail" and tbat be always could get the best of a glue 
sa) es m an, we must not forget to state, rigbt bere, (and rery 
■eoiphatically too) tbat it is just this unique pigheadedness, which 
i' the very cause of the présent state of affairs. In fact it seems 
correct to say that it is tbe only reason for it; because nobody 
can for a moment doubt, that tbe gluemakers would long ago hâve 
abandoned their fallacious notions about glue testîng ifUicœnsumers 
in/ a careful study of the matter had shown tkem that they were 
less ignorant. 

Once the buyer bas a chance to get ail tbe information be 
needs, and once he sees how tbe figures given apply directly to 
bis own wants be will certainly admit, tbat he is tbereby a gainer, 
uni tbat a reliable pbysical analysis is more than be can expect 
from a master mecbanic or from a cabinetmaker. 

Yes, he will some day find ont and admit that euch figures 
(as found in a testieport) enable the workman to do better work 
and prevent tbe waste of material. This once recognized he wiU 

hnl,.. A'OOQlC 



certainly give the tested glue the préférence, and be glad to pay 
for it a better price than he can afford to give for unknown goods 
witbout any test certificate. 

Of course the gluemakers bave their blâme too, and 1 am goîng 
to speak plainly about this matter to ail. They know their preBcnt 
System of valuation to be faulty; but tbey fancy that it enables 
them to make a guess at the leal value of glue; that makes it 
good enough, tbsy think. Withal it remains a stubbom fact that 
glue is a difficnlt article to sell with reasonable proât and that the 
selling expenses eut deep into the surplus; but tbey dont w&nt 
to acknowledge that thia is so because it bas been diffîcnlt to 
ascertain the real value of glue and to judge itcorrectly for practical 
purposes. 

Stit) that is the cause of it ail ; make it easy to iudge the 
glue, and it will be easily eold, and if that is so imth dry or ftanf 
glue it applies of course with tenfold force to liquid fishglue. As 
we now bave for the glue trade a rational testing system applicable 
to ail glues, it is time that talk should go ont and facts finall; 
corne in and be made the basis of ail business transactions of this 
trade. 



.;, Google 



VI. 

THE SPECraC fîElTtTT Or HEEBIN9 ABB 

THE EEIATIOB BETWEEN THIS ASD THE AMOÏÏBT OP 

ÎATTT MATTEE CONTAINEI). 

DlBEKT0R HeNBIK BuLL. 

We ail know that herring may be of différent quality accord- 
ing to the conditions of food and to the aeason when caught. Now 
I think it may be regarded as a fact that the quality principally 
dépends on the quantity of fat contained in the herring. If this 
is 80; to détermine the quality of the herring ia to détermine its 
quantity of fat. Thèse déterminations hâve hitherto been rather 
a troublesome matter, which could be settled only in the laboratory 
of the chemist. 

In the following I will try to explain to you a new casy me- 
thod, that can be ueed by any ordinary peraon, and to give yoa 
the outlines of the principles, on which the method is founded. 

When I started thèse investigations I thought it might be pos- 
sible to find a practical method, if the statement were true, that a 
fat herring has a lovier speeific gravitij than a lean one. The cor- 
rectness of this rule was then ascertained. 

In order to avoid errors I decided to use for thèse expérimenta 
only freah herring and, before determining their apeciâc gravity 
and their amount of fat, to hâve heads and intestines taken away. 
A large number of herring were examined in this way, and it was 
proved that, as a rule, fat herrings bave really a lower spécifie 
gravity than lean ones. As you may see from the liât of the re- 



ealta, tbere are only a few ezceptiona to this ruie, and theee can 
partly be accounted for as expérimental errors. BeBides, the ex- 
<;eption8 are of no importance, as the différence becomee reduced ' 
to nearly nothing, wheii a large number of berring Ib need foi a 
single experiment. Only in case of herring caught in spring and ; 
containing roe and milt, it was found that the spécifie graïitj | 
jndicates about 3 % more fat, tlian the berring really contains, 

This being so, we may say that we can détermine the amouDt 
of fatty matter and therehy the quality of the berring by ascer- i 
taining the spécifie gravity. Now, to take the spécifie gravi^ of I 
sotid matter with suflicient accuracy reqoires a good scale, some 
arithmetic and some little time. 

Consequently, in order to make the method practicable aod 
popular, it was necessary to invent an easy method. I mean to , 
hâve done so in the following way. I 

If the results of the experiments be plotted in the usual gra- < 
phic way, the horizontal showing the decreasing spécifie gravity, and ' 
the vertical the percentoge of fat increasing from to 100, ve 
may render the results of each experiment by a single point, wbicb 
at the same time shows the spécifie gravity and the percentage of 
fat thu8 ascertained. 

In that way we are obtaining a namber of points, al) of them 
lying in the immédiate proximity of a straight line, whicb viill 
eut the horizontal at a point, indicating a spec. gravity of 1,075, 
and the vertical at a point, indicating a spec. gravity of 0,915. 
This means, that a herring without any fat at ail has the first men- 
tioned spec. gravity of 1,076, and a fictions herring, consisting only 
of fat, would hâve the lower spec. gravity of 0,915; this is realK 
very near the spécifie gravity of herring-oil (0,925), and 1,076 that 
of usual white fish. 

At this point it becomes of great interest to us to know how 
great a percentage of fat corresponds to the spécifie gravity of 
water. The graphie table tells us 47 %. In other worda a berring 
containing 47 % of fat, would neither rise nor sink if placed in 
water. This is an essential point bearing upon the construction of 
the apparatus, by means of which the spécifie gravity of the her- 
ring has to he determined. It is nnderstood, that one liter of wa- 
ter weigha exactly 1000 grma,; if we fancy one liter of berring of 

hnli... v.L.OOQlC 



V 


'i' \ « 




ItII-1 


s 


P'!<* 


v^ 




\ 


î î - ^' 


ï 


r^if 




î 'fi 


:s !; 


î ■ il 


\ 


î'-ïl 


::: :!^ <^ _ __ 


o»»8e § 


îSe ■*- 




^ ^^^ 




i 




\<^^~' 


- 1' 


iz . 




( \ o a 




^ %' 


» 


jS^ 






^ '" 1 








^' ,,--' 








Sa » 




^t' ' - 1 




-"^3 




^f'- 




^v 




^?- " 




" 'S a.» 1. 








^\' L 




^\^ 




^ r 




'S 1 




_,\ 








».s; 








\i 






DisilirrM.;, Google 



47 % of fat, the weight of this, 
having the same spécifie gravity 
as water, would as well be 1000 
grams; but if we take one liter 
of lierring containing no fat, the 
si)ecific gravity of which ie 1,075, 
tbe weiglit of same would be J075 
grains. If we weigh this same 
quantity of herring wben immer- 
sed into water, the weight will be 
the différence of its weight in the 
air and of the water it replaces, 
equal to 1075 -h 1000 = 75 
grams. 

The apparatus useâ has the 
construction shown by the en- 
graving ; you eee it is a kind 
of balance; I will use this bal- 
ance to take the spécifie gravity 
of one liter of berring, and sup- 
pose it to contain no fat. If I 
immerse it into water I sball 
hâve to balance it with 76 grams. 
But as the herring contains some 
fat, we actually see that the 75 
grams are too mucb; about 60 
grams will be sufficient. But I 
can also make it balance with 
tbose 75 grams by reducing the 
lengtb of arm on which thèse 75 
grams are working, Now sup- 
pose that instead of thèse herring 
containing about 16 % of .fat, 
we were having still fatter herring, 
containing say 25 7o of fat, the 
weight of one liter of the same, if 
weighed in water, would only be 
about 40 gr., and we would hâve the 



Oï 



■V, Google 



— 85 — 

to move the 76 grains still further on towards the turningpoint of 
the scale. And if we were having a liter of herring of the same 
spécifie gravity as water, the weiglit of the saine, if weighed in 
water, would be 0, and I shoiild be obliged, in order to obtain 
eqailibrium, to move the 76 grams quite to the turningpoint of the 
balance. We see that, when working with herring entirety devoid 
of fat, we are obliged to leave tbe 75 grams at the end, and, if 
working with herring containing 47 % of fat, to place it exactly 
on the middle of the scale: The fatter the herring, the further we 
shall haTe to move the weight towards the middle, the leaner it is, 
the more we shall hâve to approach it towards the end. 

And now you will understand that if we divide the distance 
between the end and the middle of the balance into 47 equal parts, 
tbis graduation will give us a means, by which to eslimate the 
tatness of the herring. The point where we bave to place the 
Keight indicates directly the percentage of fat contained in the 
herring. Thus far we bave worked with one liter of herring only, 
but I hâve done so simply in order to be able to explain to you 
more plainly the construction of tbe apparatus. But in the appli- 
cation of the same we ai'e not limîted to a certain volume, or a 
certain number of herring. We may use one or two, or even as 
many as thirty at a time, the apparatus always giving very exact 
résulta. I will explain to you how this is accomplished. To use 
a short expression we may cal! the moving weight the rider. 

Now you will understand tbat ail dépends on our being able 
to change the weight of the rider according to the weight of the 
herring used. 

For one liter of berring of common fatness, weighing 1060 
grams, we had to use 75 grams for tbe rider, for an unknown 
weight of herring, X, we shall consequently bave to use - - " ■ Now 
we can easily find tbe value of this rider X without knowing tbe weight 
of the herring by using a spécial balance, tbe length of the arma 
of which are given the relative proportion af 1050 to 75; tbe rider 
compared with the weight of the herring, will then be of reverse 
proportions, viz. 75 to 1060. 

On the balance figured on p. 84 and 87, there is sucb an arrange- 
ment, 80 as to be able to ascertain weight of the rider according to the 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 86 — 

above mentioned conditions. I faang the herringe on the short amt 
(b) and place a rider, which is yet too ligbt, on the long one; in 
order to get equîlibrium I hâve to add more weight to the rider; 
this done, I hang the herrings on the extrême end of the scale (c) 
and weigh them, while they are totally submerged in water. 

In order to obtain equilibrium again I change the position of 
the rider. The point, where the rider then cornes to rest, indicates 
the percentage of fat cuntained in the herring. 

In order not to leave you in an error, I mnst etate that we 
should commit a fault bj simply graduating the length of the arm 
of the balance into 47 equal parts; the résulta thus obtained would 
not be quite trne, because the proportion given between the long 
and the short arm is bound to be a variable one according to the 
spécifie gravity of the herring actually used, for instance 1040, 1060 or 
1070 to 7B. Now this fault can be ohmitted by graduating the balance 
in a slightly différent way. It would take too much of your valuable 
time to show how this graduation bas been obtained. The correct- 
ness of the apparatus dépends principally on the length of the 
short arm; this can easily be ascertained by hanging 1050 grams 
on the short arm and 75 grams on the end of the balance indicat- 
ing " of fat; now there must be equilibrium, if the balance is 
correct. I will not omit to state that the apparatus just described 
can easily be altered so as to allow the détermination of the spé- 
cifie gravity of other solid matters, for instance of potatoes. Tbis 
would no doubt give a very practical method for the détermin- 
ation of the amount of starch in potatoes, of greïit value to the 
manufacturera of starch. 

I hâve also constructed another apparatus for determining the 
spécifie gravity of herring, viz. the amount of fat contained. It 
consists, as you will see, simply of a pièce of glass pipe, both 
ends of which are shut, the lower one heing provided with a hook 
on which we hang one kilo of the herring, that bas to be examined. 
The whole heing placed in water, the apparatus will sink to a cer- 
tain point. The upper part of the apparatus being graduated from 
to 30 %, we hâve simply to note the place to where the appa- 
ratus sinks in water. This place indicates the percentage of fat 
contained in the herring. This apparatus would be very convenient, 
if we were not compelled for eacb experiment to use ezactly one 



Wnigliing herrings before 



Weiehing hevrings iii water by clianging position of rider. 



kilo of herring. This being the case I prefer the first described 
apparatus. Both of tbeni hâve been specially constructed for (leter- 
mining the amount of fat in heri'ing; but it bas 
*been proven that they can also be used for sprats. 
No doubt tliey can be used for tbe détermination 
of the percentage of fat in any kind of fishes; 
but there the grafluation will very likely hâve to 
be altered- 

I hâve tried to détermine the percentage of 
fat in cured herring by means of tbe spécifie 
gravity of the same ; but ï did not succeed because 
tbe spécifie gravity is varying not only with the 
quantity of fat contained, but also witb the quantity 
■of sait absorhed, and tbe last factor will allways 
be a changeable one. 

1 tbink time will show that tbe money value 
wf herring will prove to be variable according to 
ita contents of fat. Tberefore il will be of import- 
ance to the fisherman as well as t« the mercbant, 
to know the contents of fat of new-caught herring. 

The conséquence will perhaps be that a buyer 
■oî cured herring will require a statement as to 
the contents of fat. 

The mOBt rehable way to learn this would, I 
tbink. be, if such statements could be made by 
officiais, and thèse statement were at once trans- 
mitted to the diiferent centers of trade. Of course 
it would as well be of interest to get similar 
information as to the contents of fat in herring 
caught in other countries; l)ut first of ait we must 
start to get the best and quickest information 
relating to tbe produce of our own country. 

Captain Collins : I bave found much interest 
n the instructive paper read by Mr. Bull and the 
valuable esperiments be has shown to tliis congreas. 
Beeults such as he liaa attained appear to me to 
be the correct application of scientific effort to the benefit of tbe fisb- 
«ries. I see no reaaoïi why thèse are not eminently nraçtical. U, 



'TS'cff? 



— 89 — 

therefore, the ingénions device invented by Mr. Bull can be utilized 
on a largti scale to deteriniiie the fatness of herring or other apecies 
of fishea, the market value of which — other conditiona being equal — 
dépends upou the amount of fat they contaJn. a great advance will 
hâve been made. It will then no longer be necesaary to dépend upon 
the crude methods heretolore adopted ter separating iish into grades iu 
accordance with their fatneas, but the question can be determiiied 
with nearly absolute scientific exactneas — practically with tbe sama 
accuracy that the weight of any object can now be aacertained. 8uch 
a reault ia most important and désirable, for, under proper direction, 
it will eliminate uncertaînty, increase tbe confidence of the conaumer 
and correapondingly enhance the demand for âsh products. 

DiEiGEsiEN: Jeg vil for mit Vedltommende kun tilf0ie til de 
BemserkDinger, som er gjorte af Er. Collina, at jug er af samme Me- 
Ding aom ham, at disse Expérimenter, som er gjorte af Hr. Bull, og 
de Principer, aom ligger til Grund for dem, de tror jeg, naar de kan 
gjennemf0ree i Praxis paa en Maade, der gjar dem let anvendelige for 
den almindelige Mand î det almîudelige praktiske Liv, kan blive af 
overordentlig ator Betyduîng. Jeg er ogaaa af den aamme Mening aom 
Er. Coihna, at det er et Emue, aom fortjener at tages under Overvei- 
else paa kommende internationale Kongresser for cm muligt at faa 
iataud et Samarbeide mellem de forskjellige Lande for Anvendelaen af 
disse Principer i Fiskehandelen. 

BabClay: I agrée with Mr. Collina aud the président. I should 
like to add that even, if the âahermen and the curera should not be 
able to uae the described apparatua, it would in my opinion be of 
very much use to the intereeted parties if the fiahery offlcers oould 
report the fat percentage of the fish, eapecially the herring in their 
télégraphie reporta. 

De. I. B. FuLLAETON aaid that so far as he had heard Mr. Bull, he 
considered that the new instrument which might be called a Earengo- 
neter. might be iisefnl not only irom the atandpoint of science but 
alao from the practical side lu ao far aa it woold enable buyer and 
seller to aecertain the amount of fat in the herringa. It waa urged 
agamst science that so far as the fiaheries were conoerned it too often 
laoked a practical application; but no auch objection could be taken 
to Mr. Bulla new simple method. Herringa differ very mach in the 
qaantity of fat which they contain. In Scotland the fineat herring 
"waa the Lochfyne and West coaat summer herring, but the Lochfyne 
herring contained ao much fat that it waa impossible to cure them be- 
fore the month of September. It would be eminently uaefiil if some 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 90 — 

sucli aimple instrument as tbe Harengometer were iised at différent 
parts of the coast, so tbat particulars of fatness could be given Ui th» 
fshcurer, fisb aaleeman and fish buyer. But we must remember tbat wn 
at présent hâve a classification for berrings wbich are cared, and fishe^ 
men and curers know from the practical standpoint tbe characier of 
tbe herringa and in a rongh way tbeîr fatness or otherwise. 

I should like Mr. Bail to extend bis investigations and give as 
similar tables of fatness for otber âsb such for example as the cod 
and otber North Sea fiabes. 

Mb. Bull replied to several speakers and said in support vi 
Mr. Barclay tbat it would be of great use, especially to the fish caren 
and saleamen, if the fishery offlcers could report tbe percentage of fat 
of the herring in their télégraphie reports; be did not thinh it adviceable 
to postpoDo tbis innovation until it could be ascertained whether or 
how far the fatness of tbe berring would alter tbe classification |of 
cured berring. Expérience in trade woold soon show wbether tbis new 
point woold bave to be regarded in the classification of berring or 
not. Eeplying to Dr. Fnllarton, Mr. Bull thougbt tbat an investigatiDii 
of cod in this respect would give poor resalts as tbe* percentage of 
fat in tbis fisb is always very low. Bat mackerell and other fatty 
fishes would veiy likely be more iuteresting in this respect. 



.;, Google 



vn. 

SIIDESS TASDEINftEE Off 

DE BIJEOPJIISO SULEnSKEfilKES PEEIOMOITET») 

FlSKEBIINSFEET0B FbEDBBIK M. WàLLBM, 

Om SildeQS Vandringer har der i Tidernea Leb vseret opstillet 
flere Hypotheser. Se har dels gaaet]ud paa at forklare det ind- 
byrdes Forhold mellem de forskjellige Landes Sildefiakerier, dels 
segt at belyse det enkelte Lands forakjellige Sildefiskerier i Aarets 
L0b og Qed gjenneiu Tiderne. De praktisk-yidenskabelige UndersB- 
gelser, Bom i vore Dage har beskjaeftiget sig jmed Sildefiskerierne, 
ejnes mig i enkelte Dele at hâve taget Bit Udgangspunkt i disse 
Kldre Forestillinger, og med Hensyn til Sildens Vandring og „Silde. 
perioderne" ladet Fiskernes traditionelle Opfatning ofte faa atarre 
Betjdning end de efter mit Skjen kan gi^ea, ligesom man af det 
aarlige FangstkTaDtums Sterrelae har gjort for driatige Slutninger. 

Jeg vil farst give en kort Oversigt over enkelte af de 
méat kjendte Hypotheser og nogle traditionelle Opfatninger ved- 
rarende Sildens Vandringer for dertil at knytte endel Bemierknin- 
ger, og dernœst fremholde, hvilke Foreteelser ved Sildeâskerieme 
man, efter min Mening, hurde akjœnke aterre Opmserksomhed ved 
de praktisk-videQskabelige Undersogelser, og hvorledes enkelte Slaga 
Obaerïationer, af forskjellige Grunde, har fart og fremdelea vil fare 
til Imivisende Resultater. Ved det sidste sigter jeg sserlig paa de 
Baakaldte Sildeperîoder, naar man har villet hygge Theorien om 

•) Foredraget holdtes paa norak, leilighedsvis og ved forskjellige Afmit 
gaT«i et Betnmé poa engelak. 

h.ji, " .A'OOgIc 



— 92 — 

■dem eller Beviserne for deres Tihtedevaerelse i fremtrîedende Gfrad 
paa det aarlige Udbytte af Sildefiakerierne, paa deres Historié fia 
aeldre Tider og paa Statistikkeii i vore Dage. 

De forate eller tidligste Hypotheser oin Sildens Fœrd gik ud 
paa, at Silden f'oretog, i aamlet Masse, en overmaade stor aarlig 
Vandring, saaiedes at den stadig befandt sig paa et bestemt Sted 
til en bestemi Tid af Aaret. Efter de Nedtegninger, der er gjort 
berom, skulde Silden saaiedes i Januar, ved Nytaar, befînde sig om- 
lient ved Kuba og Portorico. Derfra stimede Sildemassen, mente 
man, opover til Florida og Virginia og tilbrage Paaskon i Nserheden 
af Filadelfia og New York, saa streg den i Mai og Juni over til 
Grenland og Island. Deretter kom den ned til Skotland og ned i 
Nordsjeen. Derfra stak den en mindre Straaie over til Norge, gik 
derefter giennem Eanalen i September, kom nu atter ned i Atlan- 
havet i Oktober og November; Julehelgen tilbragtp. den i SaragOBsa- 
BJeen. 

Den nfeste Theori gik imod ait dette. Kfter denne skulde der 
tvertom vœre en hel Rœkke Varieteter, Racer og Stammer ved de 
forskjellige Kyster, lokale Former overalt. En fransk Videnskabs- 
mand havde paavist, at der var visse Forskjelligheder ved Silden 
i den engelske Kanal; herefter opstilledes forskjellige Varieteter 
ogsaa andensteds. Uden her at indlade mig videre paa dette, skal 
kun beniEerkes, at de Lserde i dette Stykke som i saa mange andre, 
blev uenige. 

Imidiertid blev der da ogsaa samtidig opstillet den Laere som 
fremdeles hyides, at Silden gjsr âere mindre eller ogsaa noksaa 
store Vandringer. Den Dag idag kan man hare af norske og'af 
skotske og af aile andre Sildefiskere i Nordsjisen, at Silden kommer 
derned paa sin Vandring nordenfra, Den garnie Theori var blevet 
betydelig modificeret; der opstilledes nu, at Silden bare kom frft 
Island ogNterheden afGronland, den anfartes af en „Konge", som 
■man kaldte Sildekongen, ogblevjagetafsted af enhel Masse Hval, Haï 
Sei og Ufisk idetheletaget. Man fînder dette anfart selv i de lœrdeste 
Afhandlinger fra garnie Dage, at Silden skal bave et" saadant „Jag" 
paa sin Vandring. Enhver praktisk Sildefisker mener endnu : „Vi 
faar intet Sîldefiske, fer Silden faar et Jag." Mod nsevnte Theori 
om, at Sildemasserne dannes af Stammer eller Racer, som staar i 
Tisse Lokaliteter, er blevet indvendt, at der ikke vilde vsere Hadî 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 93 — 

nok der til aile Sildemasserne. De m&atte absolut samies eller 
hâve sit Hjem i det etore dybe Atlanterhav og derfra foretage 
Vandringen til „Lokaiiteterne". Dertil vil jeg svare, at den Plado. 
som der er her ude i NordBJeen — f. Ex. i „den norske Rende" — 
er overmaade langt sterre, end Sildemassen trsenger. Det aarlige 
opSskede Kvantum Sild j Nordsj0en kai> anslaaes til 2,000,000 Ten- 
der; règnes de 2,000,000 til 100 Kg. pr. Td. — hvilket er ativt 
regnet — faaes 200,000 Tons eller 200,000 Kubikmeter Sild. An- 
tages, at en skikkelig Sild maa haye en Plads, som er 10 Gange 
dens Sterrelse, for at den kan Rvemme lidt omkring, saa bliver det 
2,000,000 Kubikmeter. Dette vil sige det samme som, at disse- 
2,000,000 Tflnder Sild, som man ikke tror, der ellers skulde vjere- 
Plads for, behever kun en HavBtrimmel paa 10 Mile langs Kjsten 
(Halvparteii af Âfstanden fra Stavanger til Bergen eller som Stjkket 
over Hustavigen med kun 20 Meters Dyb og 10 Meters Bredde.) 

Naar man betrngter det Âreal, som Silden har i Nordsjsen, 
maa man indr0rame, at den bar go^ Plads; ikke alêne de 2,000,000,. 
nien 2,000,000 til og mange Gange det. Saa for den Sags Skyld 
kan man gjerne antage, ut der er lokale Stammer og Kacer ved. 
de forskjellige Kyster i Europa og Amerika. 

En anden Theori, som er opstillet til Gunst for Race-Theorien,. 
BomFiskerne holder meget paa, er denne, at der er „mange Sorter 
Sild". Naar Fiskerne f. Ex. finder, at ikke aile Sild i Sildemassen 
er af samme Sterrelse eller har samme Smag eller samme Fedtge- 
halt i saltet Tilstand — de bedemmer ikke Silden saadan, som, 
Hr. Bull gjorde i sit Foredrag, i fersk Tilstand, men de bedemmer 
den qua Spegesild, som saltet Vare — saa siger Fiskerne, at denne 
Porskjel mellem Sildene skyldes en Sammenblanding eller, at der 
er forskjellige Racer, Stammer — altsaa mange Sortir Sild, men 
det Yed vi aile, at Forskjellen mellem Individerne af samme 
Stamme eller „Sort" Dyr ofle kan vœre meget stor, og at ikke- 
enliTer Afvigelse fra det normale skaber en ny Sort. Dette gjœl- 
der aile levende VEesener saavel i fri Tilstand som under Kultur; 
det gjœlder ogsaa Planter (Vinhandlere frerahieTer jo specielt visse 
Aargange som fortrinlige, visse Drue- eller Vinaar som f. Ex. 
1893, uden at „8orten" er blevet en anden). Som et Argument 
for, at det virkelig er forskjellige „Sorter" Sild, eller er forskjel- 
lige Racer og Stammer, her ude i Basinet, er ogsaa anfert, at de- 



— 94 — 

forskjellige „Sorter" Sild afriger saa ganeke betydelig fra hinanden 
i Form og i andet, saa det ian ïkke vœre Gamme „SiId". — 
Lignende indbyrdes Afvigelser findes dog ogeaa hos Skreien, i de 
store Stimer, uden at man heraf har draget den Slutning, at der 
er forskjellige Sorter Skrei. Det er noksom bekjendt, at en Gesel 
«lier en almindelig Arbeider ude paa Tyskebryggen dog kan ud- 
pege lokale pSorter" eller kan se, cm en Bundâsk imellem tusinder 
er fanget paa 0stsiden i Lofoten, eller paa Vestsiden, og det uajï- 
tet den samlede Skreimasse antages at komme fra Bamme nHjem" 
i Havet. — Man kan forevrigt fînde noget lignende ogsaa hoB 
Laxen. Inde i Sognel]orden er der flere LaxeeWe; i en af dem 
{Âurlandselvpn) er en strid Fos, og al den Lax, eom skal op her 
-og passera Fossen, er anderledes i Form og kraftigere end dem, 
som kommer i de andre Elve. Aile Laxe i Sognetîordens Elve 
har vistnok samme Beitesmark, og om de end er indbyrdes fors^el- 
lige, henregnes ingen til en „egen Sort". Om indbyrdes Uligheder 
hoe de forskjellige „Racer" blandt Nordsje-Silden fortalte en Iserd 
Herre af Forsamlingen mig igaar, at den ïar saa bestemt, efter 
bans Mening, at ban var kapabel til at slgelne en norsk fra en 
svensk, en dansk fra en tysk og en franskSild, samt at ban kunde 
afgjere bestemt, bvor enbver ham forevist Sild yar fanget. Men 
om dette Sœrprœg, disse Sorter skulde bave, skriver sig fra Bassi- 
net, hvori de midiertidig staar, og bvori de har emaeret sig, eller 
om det er ganske andre Ting, som er Âarsagen, kunde ban ikke 
forklare. Det faar blive en Fremtidens Videnskahs Sag at finde 
Ulighederne og dernœst lèse G-aaden. Tbeorien om sseregne Sorter 
eller specielle Eacer tror jeg dog ihke indeholder fornflden For- 
klaring om In divid- Afvigelser nés Oprindelse. 

Den nyeste Thenri om Sildens Vandringer hviler paa andre 
âlags Observationer. Man er gaaet anderledes tilvEerks med at 
fremstille den. De nyeste Undersegelser er ganske anderledes an- 
lagte end de garnie. De er videnskabeligt aniagte, foruden at de 
nu i den allernyeste Tid er blevne internationale og fremmes gjen- 
nem Sauiarbeide meltem norske og svenske og tyske og sammen 
med danske. skotske og engelske Videnskabsmœnd. Undersagel- 
-seme bliver derved mère alsidige end nogensinde fer, og der er al 
Udsigt til, at de vil bringe os intéressante Resultater, ligesom der 
-allerede er leveret et meget respektabelt Arbeide, Man kande 



— 95 — 

sperge, om disse Besultater skyldes nogen ay Opâagelse paa dette 
Arbeidsfelt. Ja, her er noget nyt. Og det nye er deh den nye 
videnskabelige Méthode, dels og fremfor ait er det Brugen af nye 
moderne Apparater, som Videnskabsmœnd efterhaanden har opfandet 
for dette Slags Arbeide. 

Da den bekjendte Videnskabsmand Axel Boeck begyndte sine 
Silde-Unders0gelser for 30 — 40 Aar siden, kjendte man ikke Dyb- 
TaDdatbermoiaeteret, kjendte neppe tit et praktisk Apparat for Str0m- 
maaling. De hiologishe Undersegelser var da i sin Barndom. 
Unders0gelser af denne Art var meget primitive, Videnskaben idet- 
heletaget kunde ikke kombinere disse torskjellige Udslag af Natur- 
krsefteme. Ved de store Atlanterbavs-Undersegelser fra England, 
Amerika, Frankrige, efter Boecks Tid, indfartes nye'Hjselpemidler 
i Underse^elaen af Havet og Fiskerierne. Man konstruerede Appa- 
rater og Instrumenter, hvorved man blev sat istand til at gjare ganske 
anderledes neiagtige og dybtgaaende Undersegelser ; „dybtgaaende" i 
Ordets aile Betydninger, baade dybtgaaende i Havet og i viden- 
skabelig Henseende, 

I disse Undersegelser er der naturligris flere Grene, 

Foruden Maalinger ved Dybvandsthermometeret og Strammaa- 
linger, er der foretaget andre hydrografiske og meteorologiske 
Observationer samt ogsaa Undersogelser af ren biologisk Art 
raed det Formaal at studore det hidtil lidet paaagtede Stof, det 
flttidrivende Dyre- oj;; Planteliv, Plankton, dette mœrkelige Havenes 
Nseringsstof, som flyder i Vandfladen, og hvis Tilstedevœrelse i de 
forebjellige Hâve eodnu ikke er fuldstsendig undersBgt, men hvorom 
der foreligger Besultater, som er heist mœrkelige og haist intéres- 
sante, og som uden Tvil vil kaste et nyt Lys ikke alêne over Fiske- 
Des Vandringer, men ogsaa over Gydningen og Udklaskning af Mg 
og over Yngelens Udvikling. Den liele Méthode for de nye Tbeo- 
riers Fremstilling er grundet paa den fuldstsendige logiske Betragt- 
ning, at vil man undersBge Silden og Sildefiskerierne, maa man 
fomeinlig undersege det Elément, kvori Silden fœrdes. Deri ligger 
Methodens Styrke. 

Men ved endel af de nyeste UndersBgelser, forekommer det mig, 
findes ogsaa svage Punkter navnlig i den Maade, hvorpaa enkelte 
Kesultater er udledet angaaende „Sildeperioderne". 



iv, Google 



Og herom vil jeg kortelîg udtale mig, fordi det kun er ved en 
gieusidig Udvexling af Meninger, at man ogsaa kan komme til et 
Résultat om, hvorledes der bsr gaaes frern ved Undera0gelserne 
i det heletaget. Man vil ved at gaa tilbage gjennem Tiderne se, 
at der stadig er opstillet saakaldte „8ildeperioâer" , og at disse Silde- 
perioder sages konatateret hoTedsagelig i Henhold til Udbyttet 
af vedkommende Sildeûskerîer. Dersom vi fremstiller det grafisk, 
saa gaar en begyndende „Sildeperiode" opad med det aarlig vox- 
ende Udbytte ; og den afsluttende Del af Perioden gaar nedad med 
det aarlig aftagende TJdbytte af Fangsten. Disse Slags „Sildepe- 
rioder", hvorved skulde angives og forkiarea SiMemassemes perio- 
diske Vandringer i Oceanet, har man ikke forladt i Redegj»relseii 
for de allernyeste Unrteraegelser ; ja, de staar endogsaa paa Titel- 
bladet af de allersidate Udgayer om Reaultateme. Det er saaledes 
et ganske aktuelt Spargamaal, ,om der vîrkelig lîndes noget, som 
b0r kaldes Sildeperioder. Min Paastand er imidlertid, at demie 
Periode-Theori, som alêne bjgges paa Sildefangstens aarlige, starre 
eller mindre Udbytte, kan blive aldeles miavisende i sine Eesulta- 
ter. Man fanger jo Silden efter ganske andre Hensyn end for at 
kunne konstatere Sildemasaemes Vandringer, eller hvorvidt Silden 
fœrdes ad nye Veie i Havet, eller hvilken Starrelse Sildemasserne 
monne hâve i de forakjellige Aar. 

Fra de ferste til de aidste UndersBgelaer har man stadig segt 
udtrykkelig at paaviae „Perioder" i Sildens Forekomet ved at pege 
paa det aarlige Udbytte af Sildefiskerieme. Dette er ingen Tidenskabe- 
lig Bevisfarelse, menerjeg; det kan vsere misvisende, Jegharnoteret 
mig forakjellige Data, som viser, at Sildefiskei-i og Sildeforekomst 
ligesom Skreifiakeri og Skreiforekomet kan vœre h0ist forskjellige 
og ikke kongruente Sterrelser. Jeg akaJ ikke her gjengive aile disse, 
kuD nogle faa. 

Enhver, som har staaet i naer Forbindelse med Fiakeribedrif- 
ten, vil jo vide, at naar f. Ex. Prisen for Sild gaar ataerkt ned, lad 
os sige om Hflsten, og isser om Vinteren, holder man snart op 
med at fiske. Fjorden kan staa fuld af Sild, ingen fisker den, 
naar det ikke lœngere hnner sig. 

For nogle Aar siden saa jeg saaledes oppe i en af de inderate 
Fjorde î Namdalen eu betydelig Maase stor prœgtig Fedsild, Men 
der blev bare fanget en 2 — 3 Maal af et Par Baade pr, Nat, — 



— 97 — 

fordi der da nœsten ingen Pris var paa Silden. Og aaa snart der 
ingen Pris er at opnaa for Fangsten, hotder man selïfolgeligen op 
Died at fiske. Men at der her da Btod en Masse Sild i Fjorden, 
og at Fangstudhyttet under andre Prisforkold vilde blevet betydeligt, 
det er nomtTisteligt. 

Et andet er dette, at der kan komme en Masse Sild under 
Kysten paa en Tid, da der ingen Folk er tilstede til at drive 
Fieket Eller Veiret kan TEere aldeles tilhinder, aaa man ikke kan 
tomme ud. Ikke at taie cm dette, at Silden ofte ikke kommer 
sadangt ind, at man kan tage den med almindelige Eedskaber 
eller med Not, eller tage Sild i store Masaer, som lanner Arbeidet, 
Ëfter den bidtil benyttede garnie Fangst-Methode kan man saale- 
des ikke tage Sild med almindelige Dri^garn, ferend den kommer 
Esalangt ind i Fjorden, at man kan ligge Natten over i aabeB 
Baad og drive, At fange Sild langt tilhavs hos os fra Fartoi og 
Dœksbaade tilherer nemlig den nyeste Tid. Det indieder ingen ny 
^Sildeperiode", Det er kun en ny Fangstmaade efter hollandak 
eller skotsk Méthode, hvorefter der drives med Gnrn en Kabel ude 
i aabent Hav, 

I garnie Beretninger lœses jœvnligt, at Sildemassen stod saa 
og saa mange Mil ude i Havet uden at kunne fiskes; her var alt- 
saa Forekomst af store Sildemasser. I Statistikken derimod fore- 
kommer ingen Sild, fordi der var ingen Sildefangst. Disse to Ting — 
Sildeforekomst og Sildefiske — er to haist forskjellige Ting; af 
fingen Fangst" kan ikke sluttes, at der ingen Sild er. Et mœrkeligt 
Exempel paa hvorledes Forekomst af anden Fisk og Fiskefangst kan 
arte sig paa tignende Vis, er et Tilfaslde fra Lofoten for nogle 
Aar siden. I 0stnjesQorden var der opfisket — jeg ved ikke 
bestemt hvormange Millioner Skrei. Men pludselig en Dag 
beretter Telegram derfra, at Skreien nu havde forladt Fjorden, 
det var „8vart" paa Line, svart paa Garn, svart paa Sn«re, 
svart altsammen. En eller to Dage derefter, da Fiskeme om- 
irent havde forladt Fjorden, (der findes ingen Stedor, bvor Fi- 
skerne kan huses, de maa ho i sine Baade,) begyndte man tilfsBl- 
digvis at pr0ve med Synkenoter. Og med dette Redskab bragtes 
op 3000 Fisk, 4000, 6000 osv. af mange Baade. Fisken var alteaa 
kun gaaet ned mod Havbunden; den fandt det ikke nadvendigt at 
konstatere sin Nœrvœrelse, hverken i Maskerne eller paa Angleme 



paa de almindelige Redskaber. Og der nede var den blevet roligt 
staaende. Hvormange 100,000 Torsk der saa i faa Dage blev ta- 
get op med Synkenot, erindrer jeg ikke. Men dengang var det 
blevet erkleeret af Fiskerne, baade mundtlig og i Telegram, at al 
Fisken var strflget sinVei, og Beriset var, at her var intet Fiske, 
her var ganske „sTart" for de almindelige Redskaber. 

Det er ktart, at den Omstsendigbed, at man intet faar paa 
sine Fangstredakaber, — en Dag, en Uge eller endog lœngere 
Tid — det beviser alêne, at man ikke bar kunnet fieke noget med 
dem; men ikke at der ingen Fisk ândes. Naar man derimod faiir 
Fisk paa Redskaberne, saa er jo dermed farst bevist, at der n 
Fisk, Det glemmes olte, at det négative Résultat beviser intet; 
det positive or det egentlig, man her kan bygge paa som Bevis for 
Sildeforekomst saavelsom for „Sildeperioder". 

Demaest er der forakjellige Ting, som vistnok ikke Videnskabs- 
mœndene har heftet sig ved, og som de vistnok aldrig vil hefte 
sig ved, men som Fiskerne og de praktiske Msend lœgger Mœrke 
til, og som faar sin Indflydelse paa nSildeperiodens" Bevismateriale. 
Disse betragter Silden som et „Iunefuldt" Vaesen, som snart har 
Lyst til at giflre Landgang, snart har Lyst til at stryge sin Vei. 
De omtaler Sildestimerne eom upaalidelige og Iitnefulde, som noget. 
jnan aldrig kan stole paa. 

Man kan vistnok i overfart Betydning taie om Innefiildt Silde- 
fiake, men det kan jo ikke forataaes derhen, at Silden snart bar , 
Lyst til at fare ind i en Fjord og snart i en anden. Der kan 
vistnok vfflre meget, som taler for, at Silden skulde bave Lyst til 
at bes0ge Norges Kyster, hvor den overalt betragtes som en nkjœr- 
koramen GJEest", som det beder i vore Aviser; men den har sand- 
synligvis ingen Underretning derom og agerer vistnok ikke den 
lunefulde Gjsest. Sildens Fœrd er afhœngig af ganske andre Ting: 
det er disse som er „]unefulde". Og selv om Silden skulde foie 
Lyst til at saîtte ind i en Fjord, saa vil der undertiden kanake 
vœre for koldt Vand for den, undertiden for varmt og undertiden 
vilde den ingen Mad fînde; kort sagt, der kan vsere mange Ting 
iveien, kun ikke Lunefuldhed hos Silden. 

Videnskabelige Undersegelaer vil dog aldrig komme til at sysle 
med denne Egenskab eller opstille „Perioder" i Henbold dertil. 



Det Program, Bom de videnskabelige Silde-UndersogelBer efter 
min Mening hurde fialge, skulde opstilte to ganake forskjellige Gtrup- 
per af Undersegelsen, nemlig en, som omfatter Forholdene i den Tid, 
Sflden Bvœrmer omkring paa sine Beitemarker, niedens en anden maatte 
baye det Formaal at studere Sildens Faerd i Gydetiden. Thi disse to 
Alsnît i Sildemassernes aarlige Bevaegelser aller Vandringer reprse- 
senterer ligesom to Faktorer i Sildefisket; de er saa hoist forskjel- 
lige, og de betinger ogsaa heist forskjellige Fiskerier, som forefal- 
der paa indbyrdes forskjellige Kyststrœkninger NB. fornemlig paa 
Norges Kyster. Det avenske SildeÊske derimod, det begynder og 
eoder paa samrae Kyst i Svœrmetiden. Og det skotske og det 
hollandske Sildefiske begynder og ender ude ved Havet; begynder 
for Silden svîsi'mer, fortsaetter hele Tiden og ender efterat den bar 
gydt. Dette er et eneste sammenbœngende, uafbrudt Fiskeri, men 
de store norske Sildeiîskerier er to adskilte'; Fedsildâsket er for 
sig og er noget helt andet end Vaarsildfisket, der foregaar, naar Silden 
gyder. Og Fiskerne betragter det sidstntevnte ikke alêne som et 
ganake andet Fiske, men de betragter, som far antydet, aelve Silden, 
Vaersilden, endog som en ganske anden Sildesort, som fœrdes og 
fanges paa en beit anden Kyststriekning end Fedsilden og Stor- 
silden. Sildestimerne „vandrer" til andre Dele af Norges Kyst for 
at gyde; de forlader de Strœkninger, hvor Fedsilden fœrdes og 
fanges om Sommeren. 

Om flere andre Fiske vides ogsaa, at de S0ger til andre Op- 
holdssteder kun for at gyde der. Naar Laxen f. Ex. skal gyde, 
S0ger den fra Havet opad et Vasdrag til Elv eller Vand, den seger 
et andet Sted hen. Ligesaa med Makrellen, hvad jeg dog ikke bar 
seet specielt omhandlet. 

Naar ,,Vaarsilden" skal gyde, paastaar man, drager den til et 
andet Sted, hvor den aldrig har vaîret far, og bror Sildefisket ellers 
ikke forefalder, Man mener, at andre Vœsener ter sig paa lig- 
nende Vis, om de end ikke bar sine aarlige „Vandringer". 

Forevrigt hersker der blandt Fiskerbefolkningen vrange Begre- 
ber med Hensyn til Fiskenes Gydepladse, og det er noksaa mœrke- 
ligt. Man herer saaledes de fleate Skreifiskere taie om en Gyde- 
plads paa Banlœrne for Skreien, uagtet det er faktisk, at Skreien 
^''^rig gyder paa Havbunden; dens Rogn og Melke flyder io i Over- 
fladen. Vandringen eller Valget af Gydeplads sker aldrig af Hen- 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 100 — 

syn til Bunden for Torskens Vedkommeiide. ADgaaende Silden 
har mail derimod Iieftet sig ved det helt modsatte Porhold, ved 
Biiskaffenhedeii af Vandets Overflade, mens det ligesaa er faktisk, 
at netop Silden gydei- paa Bunden. Den vaelger endog en speciel 
Slags Kaybund. Og i Uenhold hertil har man, TÎstnok med Eette, 
for at forklaie visse enkelte Silde-Perioders Nedgang eller Sildens 
Forsvinden, jœviilig fremholdt aom et Moment, at Bunden er blevet 
uren. Dette forekommer mig at vœre et plausibelt Koment, i aile 
Fald til Forklaring af „Sildeperioden8'' Baakaldte AfBlntning. Man 
burde vistnok unders0ge dette noiere, thi Qydniageii foregaar pua 
Havbunden, og denne kan i ganske kort Tid forandreB, og det sker 
ofte helt mœrkeligt. Saatedee erindrer jeg en Beretniog, jeg i sin 
Tid hlev meddeit, om Bunden i en Kanal ved Ëgersund, som bley 
gravet for at skaffe bedre Indlab til Havnen. Entreprenoren barde 
under Gravningen fundet en Masse Osters ved Bunden i Egersunds 
nordre Indl»b. Da han kom tilbage nœste Aar om Besten, og 
Dykkeren skulde udnytte den opdagede 0stersbanke, var 03terseii 
ganske forsvundet. Der var kommet en Masse Grus orer hele 
Lobet, og forst efterat bave gravet langt ned, kom Dykkeren til 
0ster8en, men nu var det — tomme Skal. Lignende Forurens- 
ninger forekommer vistnok mange Steder, baade der, hvor Silden 
gyder paa Havbunden, og der hvor Laxen gyder i Vandenc. Saa- 
dan Forurensning kan visselig medfere en Forandring i Sildens 
Gydepladse for en Lokalitet, men kan vistnok vœre uden sterre 
Betydning for, hvad der bestemmer Sildeperioden eller Fangatud- 
byttet for Distriktet foravrigt. 

Efter disse Bemœikninger om Forboldene ved Sildens Gydning 
under den norske Kyst, mener jeg, at det er nodvendigt, at man 
ved de internationale Undersagelser, som nu drives, og som jeg mener 
bar saa store Fordele, netop iordi de er internationale og omfatter 
flere Landes Sildefiskérier — at det er heist nodvendigt, at maa 
ved disse betragter de to omhandlede Perioder i Sildens Udvikling 
sœrskilt, hver for sig, og derhos betragter f. Ex. det akotske og 
det svenske Sildefiske under en helt anden Synsvinkel end det 
norske. Forboldene i Nordsjeen er ganske anderledes end bos o» 
ved vor Kyst. Sildens Gydetid paa den skotske Kyst falder saa- 
ledes i to forskjellige Perioder og Havdele. Et lidet nVaarsild- 
fiske" paa Skotlands Vestkyst foregaar naer den engelske Ortense, 



— 101 — /; ■ -::•;-;:;::;;. -, 

isier i Fjorden ved Ballantrae, i Februar og Marts til April, det 
ligner forsaavidt vort; Fangsten ender, naai- Silden er udgydt, og 
■er ellers a£ liden Betydning. Men under det akotske Nordsjafiske, 
det stBrste og vigtigste ved NordsJBen, er der stadig ,.full" (kjeiia- 
Dioden) Sild og senere tillige j-spent" (udgydt) Sild, liTilket viser, 
at der stadig udover Sommeren maa foregaa en Gydning; dette 
Fiske forefalder i Juli og fortssettes af engelske og hoUandske Fi- 
skere eydover lige til November, December. De skotske Fiskere 
kan levere baade „fu!l" og nSpent" Sild den hele Fiskesœaon. Vi 
lan det ikke. Del norske Sildefiske er liiaist forskjelligt derira, og 
Oydetiden koncentreret i Tîd og Sted. Og de videnskabelige Under- 
SBgelser ber tage sierlig Hensyn til disse betydelige Uoverensstem- 
meker ved Fiskerierne. 

Ogsaa hvad Skreieiis Gydetid angaar, kjender man noget lig- 
nende. Det er blevet anseet for afgjort, at Skreiens Gydetid er 
fra Marts til Aprit. Professor Hind, som har beskrevet Labrador- 
iisket, fremhEever, at Torsken deroppe gydertil en helt anden Tid, i 
Jiini og Juli ; ban fremhœver dette som exceptioneltog forklarer det ved, 
at Labradortorsken paa Grund af Isforholdene ved Labradorkysten 
ikke kan gyde i Vaarmaanederne, men vil udsœtte det, til der blir 
■en passende Temperatur i Vandet. 

Der vil naturligvis bos os blandt andet ogsaa blive anstillet 
Undersegelser af Forboldet melleni Fedsild og Storsild og Vaarsild 
osT., Baaledes at det efterbaanden kan konstateres, at disse Silde- 
■ benaevnelser ikke reprœsenterer forskjellige „Sortpr" Sild paa sine 
Vandringer — hvad enkelte mener — men tre forskjellige Alders- 
trin hos samme Sort. Det anser jeg for givet. Ligesaa bar det 
ogsaa blive paavist gjennem videnskabelige Undersegelser, livorvidt 
og bvorledes Overgangen sker fra Fedsild til Storsild og fra Stor- 
sild til Vaarsild, hvorved enkelte Fœnomener ved disse Fiskerier vil 
faasin Forklaring og disses Forhold til Sildeperioder ligeledes. 

De Njeringsdrivende ser maaske ikke Sagen nnder denne Syns- 
vinkel; de befatter sig med «Sildesorter" som Raastof til Varesor- 
ter (den saltede Sild som tilvirket Vare), som det sig hor og ber 
for dem, som handler med en Vare, 

Porskjellen mellem de nœvnte Sild kan undertiden vsere saa 
betydelig, at det for en overfladisk Betragtning ikke ligger nœr at 
antage „Sorterne" for Alderstrin bos samme Sort. Og at der i 



Aider skias s er ne i Virkeligheden ogsaa kan vise sig en indbjrdes 
overmaade betydelig Forskjel mellem Individerne, og at Individer endog 
af selvBamme Âarsklasse, ja af selvsamme Dags Udklœkning etler 
DOgen Tids Forleb kan blive haist forskjellige i Form og Sterrelse, 
derom kan der ikke viere Tvil. Som et ganske intéressant Exempet 
paa, hvor betydelig den indbyrdes Forskjel mellem Individer af 
samme Aider kan blive, skal jeg meddele felgende: 

Der var for en 15—16 Aar tilbage i Tiden her i Bergen et 
Âktieselskab for Laxeudklœkning. Blandt Bestyrelsens Medlemmer 
var ogsaa jeg. Vi skulde udstille endel af denne Anstalts Laie- 
yngel i London. Vi tog da en Liter eller to af den nogle Uger 
garnie Laseyngel og beholdt den ber i Byen i en Vandbeholder fra 
Vandledningen. En lignende Portion slap vi ud i et Vand ved 
Lillebergen paa Ask, og en tredie slap vi op i en Elv (ved Minde 
Jernbanestation), som beder Wergelandselven. Udslipningen skede i 
April 1882, I Oktober tog vi Yngelen igjen. Den Portion] Yngel, 
som var under vor specielle Varetœgt i Vandbeholderen, og som vi 
bavde trakteret med ait det bedste, vi kunde tœnke os, at en liden 
Lax eller 0rret kunde hâve Lyst paa, — den Portion toges altsaa 
op og maaltes og sammenlignedes baade med den fra Lillebergen. 
som var fodret og gjedet med Larvev af Fluer og lignende Delikates- 
aer, og tillige med den fra Wergelandselven, som havde gaaet for 
Lud og koldt Vand, "som havde kjsempet sig frem, kjœmpet for 
TilTserelsen fra feirste Dag, vi slap den ud, som dels havde maattet 
hytte sig for Fugle, dels for starre 0rret, og dels de endnu sterre ■ 
Gutter, som vilde fange dem. Det viste sig da, at af vore speci- 
elle KjffiledEegger gik der hele 28 paa 4 af dem fra Wergelands- 
elven. Disse var altsaa 7 Gange saa store som de andre fra 
vor Beholder. Dette Exempel viser, hvor lieist forskjelligt Se- 
skende af samme Kuld kan voxe op. Hvis de havde levet videre 
under lignende forskjellige Vilkaar, kunde de hâve udviklet sig 
saaledes, (saafremt de havde fortsat i samme Progrès i 4 Aar) at 
den ene var blevet en overordentlig stor Lax, og den anden en 
skindmager, som ingen vilde kjabe. Hvis det havde vœret Sild, 
vilde den ene — tœnker jeg mig — maatte vœre blevet en smek- 
fed Storsild eller en stor Kjttbmandssild, og den anden vilde kanake 
vseret blot en Bladsild eller en Femstreg ; men i Handelen eller som 
tilvirket Vare vilde lige garnie Saskende vœre tre „Sorter" Sild. 



— 103 — 

Saaledes mener jeg, at der gjennem videnskabelig Udredning 
bar vises, at man kan ikke bare ved at inaale Sterrelsen, veie eller 
sortere den enkelte Sild, konstatere, hvorvidt de tilherer samme Alders- 
klasse. Oe omvendt: en Fangst afSild paa samme Alderstrin eller 
af samme Kuld bliver samme Sort, selv om de maa sorteres fyr Hândet 
tjl tre Varemserker. Enhver, som har specielt ined Fedsild at beptille, 
Ted endvidere, at der undertiden kan gaa mange Aar hen, inden 
man faar ensartet Sild, samme „Sorf Sild i et Notstœng, en rig- 
tig god )evn Vare. 

De videnskabelige UndersBgelser vil kunne belyse dette Forhol(î 
£^ derved berigtige de gjœngse Misforstaaelser af forskjellige Sor- 
ter Sild fra Aar til audet. 

Spergsmaalet om der er mange forsk)eliige, stationœre eller 
lokale Stammer af Sild, eller om al Sild, der er ved Norges Ky- 
ster, tillierer en og samme Race, eller om endog den Sild, sont 
forekommer paa Skotlands Kyster. skulde staa i Forbindelse med 
den, der forekommer paa Norges, disse Spai'gsmaal skulde det end- 
videre vœre meget intéressant at faa undersegt; det kunde viaselig 
fore til vigtige Resultater og blive til praktisk Nytte for Silde- 
handelen. 

Nogen Usandsynlighed i, at Dele af Sildemasaerne ved Skotlands 
Ostkyst trak derfra over Nordsjeen til den norske Kyst sent paa 
Hosten eller om Vinteren, kan jeg ikke finde. Der er dem, 
som anser en saadan Forbindelse at vsere mère end sandsynlig, og 
som, saavidt erindres, statter sin Antagelse paa, hvad Professer 
R. Collett har skrevet om Havsnlen (Sula bassana, Briss). Denne 
Fugl, som i Regelen kun seea om Vinteren og under Vaaraild- 
fiket paa Norges sydlige og vestlige Kyst og her noksaa talrig, 
liHrer hjemme i Skotland og ha^kker ikke i Norge eller Sverige 
eller Danmark. Den felger Sildestimeme og emœrer sig meget af 
Sild. Og naar baade Silden og Havsnlen fœrdes om Sommeren 
Ted Skotlands Kyster og om Vinteren ved Norges Sydkyst, ligger 
det nœr at slntte, at Havsulen felger Sildestimer, som trœkker over 
Xordsjeen. Sandsyniigheden styrkes ved den Omstœndighed, at 
det er knn seldre, fuldt udfarvede Individer af Havsulen, som er seet 
paa vor Kyst, nsesten aldrig yngre Individer; det er formodentlig 
Dgsaa kun kraftige Individer, som kande klare sig paa en saa lang 
Fserd og var djserve nok til at felge Sildestimeme saa l^enge. 



— 104 — I 

Hvad nu specielt Forholdet mellem Storsild og Vaaraild angaar, 
har Prof. 6. 0. Sara givet en Fremstilling, aom for mig er fuW- 
stœndig fyldestgjerende. Og da den belyser en vigtig Del af fnre- 
li^ende Sp^rgamaal, skal jeg gjengÎTe Indholdet korteligen. Han 
paaviser f^rst, hvorledes Silden udvikles, fra det ene Alderstrin til 
det andet. Om Sominersilden siger han dei-nsest, at den er ikke 
mère end 3 — 4 Aar gammel, og at den endnii ikke har gyât. Den 
har ofle en total Lœngde af 270—280 mm. Forholdet mellem 
Hovedets Lcengde og Legemets H0ide er som 55 mm. til 53 mm.; 
Formen er trind og rund, Legemet har nu sin st0rste Fedme, 
Om Storsilden siger han videre, at den har en normal Lœngde af 
330^340 mm., enkelte Indiïider er sterre, men enkelte betydelig 
mindre — her er altsaa Antydning til et lignende „808kenforholii"' 
«om ved vor Laxeyngel. Af Prof. Sars er endog observeret Indmder 
paaindtil378 mm. Totallœngde. Formen er endnu temmelig trind; 
Hovedete Lœngde er hos et Individ af normal Sterrelse omirent lig 
Legemets Heide, Saa fortœller han vîdere, — hvad der ikke i vore 
Dage Isengere passer for dette Fiske, — at det foregaar fra Helge- 
land nordover til Tromsa, og at Stimer af samme Sterrelse og l'il- 
vikling har vist sig ogsaa ved den svenske Grœnse. 

Om Vaai'silden bemœrker han, at dette er den gydefœrdige 
Sild, og ved at maale den har han fundet, (hvad dev stemmer med 
mine Maaiinger), at Vaarsilden gjennemgaaende er mîndre end 
Storsilden og har en Normallœngde af 330 mm., saa der foraaavidt 
hvad Lsengde angaar, ikke egentlig kan siges at vîere en Udvikling 
fra Storsild til Vaarsild, aaafremt man dermed mener de samnie 
Kuld af Individer. Men Forklaringen bar vel sages deri, at det er 
paaetandet Opholdssted î Havet, at „Storsilden" har udviklel sig, 
har faaet en bedre Nœring og opnaaet en 8t0rre Lsengde. Han nîeraer 
ogsaa, hvad der for Fiskerne har en speciel Interesse, at der er. endel 
Vaarsild, som er steril, eller hvis Kjansorganer ikke er udviklede 
nnk til. at den kan forplante sig, det er den saakaldte StraaUild 
eller Solhovedsild, som ogsaa kaldes Blodsild. Den indfinder sig 
tidligere end Vaarailden og har sandsynligvis havt Station nœrmere 
Kysten. Paa Grund af dans Magerhed synes den lœngere og sma- 
lere end A'^aarailden, men ved at maale den finder man, at den bar 
Normallœngde. Dernseat omtaler han tvekjennede Vaar- 



sfld, som ogaaa er kjendt blandt Fiskerne; nordpaa kaltler mftn 
deiu Baaiiiger, det vil sige Individer, som er af to K)0n. 

En anden mindre paaagtet Eiendommelighed ved Silden paa 
den norske Kyst, hvorefter man paastaar, at der findes forskjellige 
Siklesorter hos os, er dette, at Silden fra de forskjellige Fiskeri- 
distrikter smager og lugter ganske forskjeliigt, eftersom den er fan- 
get paa det ene eller andet Sted. Det merkeligste i saa Hense- 
ende er den store Forskjel, mellem 08tlan(l33ild og Vaarsild og Fed- 
sild. Dette mener jeg hovedaagelig skyldes Nœringsforholdene, 
Siidena Ernsering der, hvor den har taget Kvarter. Dersom man 
tager en Fedsild i August — September Maaned, aabner dens 
Maye og traskker ud af Mavesœkkeii det fljdende eller Oljen og 
gnider det godt ind i HÊenderne, gaar der flere Dage, îer den 
Lugt gaar vaek, Det er œgte Fedsiidlugt. Den estlandake og den 
svenske Sild har derimod ingensomhelst „Sildelugt", kun almindelig 
Fiskelugt, medens vor Vaarsild har en udprœget Lugt ved sig, 
Naar denne 0stlands-Sild kommer som saltet Vare til Tysklaiid, 
klager man over, at den ikke har den rette Lugt, og den opnaar 
aldrig den samme Pris, kan neppe bydes frem paa samme Marked, 
eom sœrlig forbruger Vaarsilden fra vor Vestkyst. 

De forskjellige Fiskeriera Gang og Havstrflmmens Indflydelae 
paa Fiskeriets eller Sildemassens Forakyvelse og Flytning i Sœsonen 
er dernsest ogsaa et Moment, som burde underkastes en videnskabe- 
lig Granskning. Sildefiskets Gang og gradvise Flytning paa de 
forskjellige Tider af Aaret er haist eiendommeligt. Endel Fiskere 
er opmœrkaomme paa det, isœr Notebaseme, andre har kanske 
aldrig tœnkt over det. Det er saaledea en Kjendagjerning, at Fed- 
aildfisket f. Ex. begynder sydpaa og efterhaanden flyttes nordover. 
Man vil neppe hère i almindelige Aar, at Fedsildfisket slaar til i 
VeBt«raalen eller Tromse, fer et stiîtrre eller mindre Fiske har alaaet 
til langt S0ndenfor. Og dette Fedsildfiske pleier altid slutte farst 
sjdpaa, inden det er i Aftagende lœngst nordpaa. 

Denne antydede Porskyvning i Forekomsten af Sild og Silde- 
Ëske i Sommerens Leb ssetter jeg i direkte Forbindelse med Hav- 
etremmenes Forakyvning. Man vil finde, at Sildefiaket i Sommer- 
halvaaret forskyver eller bevœger sig nordover omirent i aamnie 
Tempo, som Golfstnammens astlige Straaler baier sig udover fra 
Eyaten. Det er paavist ved Prof. Mohns meteorologiske og hyd- 



— 106 — 

rografiske Obsenationer, hvorledes G-olfstrflmmen eller den Strem- 
stribe, som gaar langs Norgea Kyster, beier sig i Begyndelsen af 
Âaret œere indover mod Kysten men senerehen og efterhaanden 
b0ier sig ud(yver fra Kysten. Prof. Mohn bar maalt b«ade 
Stremmen og Temperaturen og bar paavist, at i August Maaned, 
da der er den haieste Temperatur i Nordsjeen, da boier Havover- 
âadens Isotherm sig mest udover fra Xyeten. 

Af Tegningen paa Pagina 107 (en Giengivelse af det under 
Foredraget foreviste Nordsjflkart) vil aeea, hvorledes Temperatur- 
Linjeme arter sig, og hvorledes de beies forskjeltigt, eftersom det 
er Sonnner eller Vinter. Den alraindeligste Temperatur i de skotske 
Farvande i Havets Overflade, boieate Somnierdag, eller paa den 
Tid, Sildefisket slaar bedst til der, er 12 og 13" C. Disse to Tem- 
peratur-Linjer er optrukne i Kartet. Demie IS^'s Linje gaar nord- 
ligst og saaiedes, at den baier sig liengst ud fra Norges Kyst og 
ligger ineget langt tilhava, hvor norsk Fiskerbaad aldrig er. Den 
anden Linje, IS^'s Linjen, sees at beie sig fra Skotlands Nordpynt 
ganske anderledes og mère ind imod Norges Kyster, hvormed den til- 
dels leber parallel lœngere syd end ferstnaenite Linje. Vinterens 
Isothermer i NordsJBen og nordover ligger helt anderledes, bar en 
belt anden Retning. Betragter man 5" Temperaturen, i Marts Haaned, 
sees, at den berorer Kysten netop der, hvor Silden og Torsken 
S0ger hen, eller den vestlige og nordlige Kystdel. Naar Tempera- 
turen gaar ned til 4**, er Linjen beiet anderledes, og den gaar da 
igjennem de Havstykker eller over aile de LokaHteter paa Kysten, 
hvor Torsken gyder fra Sendmar tîl Lofoten. Sjaen er da paa 
det koldeste bos os, Som en Hserkelighed kan frembœves, at naar 
Havet altsaa er koldest, foregaar G-ydnîngen overalt her langs den 
norske Kyst; og at demie Isotherm er trukket klods ind paa Kysten 
og tangerer ogsaa Lofotens indre Side, det synea mig at vœre et 
intéressant Fsenomen. Paa den anden Side er det ligeledes mserkeligt, 
at naar Temperaturen er sterst i Nordsjeen, naar der udenfor 
Skotlands Kyst hâves en Normaltemperatur paa 12 — 13" C, er S0de- 
fisket som bedst der borte, og da gaar den tilsvarende Temperatur- 
kiirve gaalangt tilhavs, beier saa langt ud fra den norske Kyst, at 
et Sildeâske paa Havet der ikke kan drives med de almiodelige 
norske Bedskaber i aabne Baade. 

D,g,i,.,.d.:, Google 



— 108 — 

Gjennem disse Temperaturkurver kan nstnok mange ret mœr- 
Ttelige Forteelser ved vore Sildefiskerier (og tillige ved andre Fiske- 
Tier) faa sin Forklaring, eœrlig det Forhold, at Sildestimer af Betyd- 
ning for Piskeriet, ikke fœrdes langs Norges Kyst fra medio April 
til medio Juli, tildels et sterre Spand af Tid. 

Den Forskyvning i det loiiale Fiskeri, eller den SvingDing 
og Forandring paa det ugentiige Fiskeri under Fisketiden, som 
Fiskeme er saa tilbeielige til at henfore til Maanens Indâydelse, 
Btaar Tistnok kun i Forbindelse med StrenisœtningeiiB Retniog og 
Styrke. Naar det er Nymaane eller Fuldmaane eller ferste eller 
sidste Kvartalskifle, som de kalder det — saa skal der ifolge den 
traditionelle Tro blive en Forandring, det vil eige: blive bedre 
Fiske. Forandringeme, som man liaaber vil indtrsede, er jo altid „For- 
bedring"'. Men neppe noget af de Tegn eller Mœrker, som Fiskerne 
bar for en Forandring i Fisket, glipper saa hyppigt som Maane- 
Mœrkerne. Nogen iisermere Omtale desangaaende vil neppe vaere 
-af sterre Interesse for Sagen, jeg skal derfor forbigaa dette. 

Efter disse Bemœrkninger om Porskyvninger i Sildefisket i 
L0bet af SîBsonen, vil jeg omtale, hvad der fra selve Fiskeridistrik- 
terne meldes om „Sildeperioderne" for de Inrskjellige Sildefiskerier. 
Jeg vil begynde med Storsildfiskerierne. 

For nairvaerende menés med nStorsildfisket" noget andet end 
tidiigere. Nu menés sserlig det Fiske, som i de senere Aar er 
forefaldt paa Bomsdalskysten, oghur vakt don storste Intéresse, fer 
var det et andet, paa H«lgelandskysten, som interesserede 8v%rt. 
Det var isœr i 1896 og ifjor — det begyndte egentlig i 1895 — 
at det nye Romsdals- eller Sendmersâske blev af sterre Omfang 
og foranledigede en betydeligere Virksomhed i Distrikteme; det 
eagdes, at Sildefisket var kommen ind i en bel ny Fase, og man 
mente, det var ganske nyt ukjendt Fœnomen, at Silden s&a sent 
paa Hflsten kom ind paa den Del af Kysten, udenfor Romsdals Amt. 
Man troede, med andre Ord, at en Sîldeperiode begyndte her. Men 
man oversaa eller glemte, at ingen kunde vide god Besked om 
dette. Thi den Maade, hvorpaa man nu fangede Storsilâen, fornem- 
lig IQor, og som var ganske ny, denne Fangstmaade var den egent- 
lige Anledning til, at man kunde konstatere, at Silden stod ude 
paa Havet, Den liele Drift ved Storsildefisket var heit forskjellig 
fra tidiigere. Det Bvrige eller Silden aelv, dens Forekomat paa 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 109 ~ 

lœvnte Kyststrœkning langt tilhavs, — det Tar derimod maaeke- 
ntet nyt, var ialle Fald ingen Begyndelee af en ny nSildeperiode". 

I en tidligere Tids-Periode — 1861—70 — forekom en lig- 
lende stor Sild, men rigtignok da paa et heit andet Kystatrgg,. 
lordpaa, og Fiskeriet her blev da regelmfessig drevet paa en helt 
inden Maade, det vil sige paa den garnie norske Maade. Silde- 
oiaseernes Forekomet karakteriseredes ogsaa da soin noget ganBke 
nji, noget overordentlig nyt, kort og godt: soin Begyndelsen af en 
oy „Sildeperiode", Silden var her lige nœr ved Kysten, inde i 
âkjsergaarden ; derfor kunde den fanges paa almindelige âarn. 
og i Not. 

FiskebefolkningenB Tradition om Sildeperioden i den Tid 
kommer frem i Amtmandens Femaarsberetninger. For Aargangen 
1861 — 66, udgivet 1866, siger Amtmanden i Nordland om Storsild- 
Sskeriet blandt andet, at der i den danske Regjerings Ârkiv skal 
6ndes Indberetning om, at ^Storsild har vtere fisket i Kordland 
Dmkring Midten eller i den sidste Halvdel af forrige Aarhundrede 
og navnlig omkring Aarene 1760 — 1T70. Men fra den Tid har 
den formentlig ikke vieret fiaket her fer i Aaret 1861." Der ligger 
aUaaa 100 Aar imellem disse Sildeâskerier, senbeetes i Nordland. 
Om Sildens Forekomst i disse 100 Aar, om Hovedpersonen, er 
intet oplyst, kunde intet oplyses. Der taies kun om Fisjceriet, 
naturligvis. Jeg tror ikke, mange vil mené, at denne Storsild plndse- 
lig havde forladt Kysten, og at dens Efterkommere fsrst efter 100 
Aars Forleb pludselig har faaet Lyst til paany at bes0ge Norge. 
Det maa hare veere noget ganske andet, som har vieret Âarsi^en 
til denne nye Sildeperiode. Det sees dog ogsaa i selve Beretnin- 
gen Antydninger til Trivl om Sildeforekomstens Nyhed; det heder, 
ati 1861 viate Storsilden sig i Aarets sidste Maaneder at staa flere 
Mile fra Land udenfor Lofotens og Vesteraaiens Nord- og Vest- 
Kyst .... ,.Efterhaanden (o: i felgende Aar) kom den tilayne 
sydligere paa Âmtsdistriktets Kyst, og i 1863 viste den sig ved 
Trœnen og ved Mykeerne i Keda"; i 1864 og 1865 Isengere syd, 
Ted Vega; i 1864 viste den sig endog ved Sulen (Froaerne) i det 
Trondhjemske, ved Halten, Hitteren, Smelen. Talgseen, Grip og 
Stemmet. Nu er vi altsaa kommet ned til Romsdals Amt, til den 
Kyststrœkning, hvor Storsildfisket er blevet drevet ifjor og Aarene 
Btrax fer, omtrent et kvart Aarhundrede efter Nordlandsfisket. 



. v, Google 



— 110 — 

Saa heder det videre — man lœgge Mterke tâl disse Ord — : 
^Medens Storsilden fi-a 1864Beiiere aairisthar vist sig paa de sidst- 
nœvnte Steder lige tii 1 870, ïides dog der intet FUke at hâve funâH 
Sted." 

Unders0ger man Statistikken, staar der altaaa: lutet FiBbe. 
Underseger man praktisk paa Havet, bedder det: En Masse Sild 
aarris i 6 Vintre. Saaledes er det, Sildeperiodens Historié bliver 
inyttet til Fiskeriet, ikke til Sildens Forekomst! 

„Dette Fiske" „har vœret forbeholdt Nordlande Amta Kyst- 
strœkning og Fjordene i Senjen" — det vil med andre Ord alêne 
«ige, at Silden kun paa deti Kyststrsekning gik saa tangt naer Land, 
At man fik Tag i den ved den — garnie Fangstmaade. Det er 
hflist sjelden, man finder den Slags udferlige Beretoinger. 

Det er et andet Moment red det nordlandske Storsildefiskeri 
1861 — 1870, nemlig den regelmteBsige Forekomst af Silden, som 
Klerhos bereres i Beretningeme. Âar efter andet yiser den sig su 
at sige paa en bestemt Dag, paa en bestemt Lokalitet ved Eysten. 
Amtmanden bar nemlig om Storsilden meddelt lignende Optegnelser, 
som vi bar om Vaarsilden. Og af Âmtmandsberetningeme erfares, at 
ogsaa ber var en regelmsessig Forsky^ning i Ssesonens L0b. 

Som jeg tidligere antydede gaar Fedsildens Forskyvning under 
JB'isket stadig nordover, ligesom G-otfstremmens Ketning da efler- 
haanden beier ud fra Kysten. Om Storsild/isket ved aile, som dri- 
ver det, at ogsaa det forskyrer sig, men i modsat Betning, sydover, 
Jigeuom Golfstremmens Retning paa den Tid af Aaret bsier sig ind 
mod Kysten. Amtmanden bar ûere Aar efter hinanden specielt 
berettet om, hvorledes Fisket forskjev sig nedover Nordlandakjsten 
sydever. Beretningen er neiagtig affattet. Storsildâsket for Nord- 
land foregik fra Oktober til Udgangen af December. I Vesteraaleri, 
altsaa i det nordligste Distrikt, viste Silden sig o: Silde&sket he- 
gyndte fra 8de^l4de Oktober, og varede til omkring den 2ûdf 
December, I Salten — tsengere syd — foregik Fisket fra 29de 
J^ovember til 24de December. End Isengere syd o: i Mel0 og Rode 
fra 29de November til Aarets Udgang. I Lovunden og Aasvser — 
sydligate Kyststreg — derimod fra Begyndelsen af December ti] 16de 
à 30de Januar. Veeteraalens Skjœrgaard forlader Storsilden Ugen 
far Jul; i Salten holder den sig ved Jul; og ved Nytaar staar den 
«ndnu ved Aasvœr. 



En anden lignende officiel Beretning ândes, hvori der ogsaa 
tydelig fremboldes den atore Forakjel melleni et Sîldefiske og 

Sildemasaernes Forekomst. Det er i en Aarsberetning, efterat Stor- 
sildfisket var forbi, Der siges ber, at eiterat Storsildfisket aidste 
Gang havde slaaet til i 1874, havde Fedsildfisket tiltrukket sig en 
slBrre Opmœrksomhed, 

Hermed bebudes Begyndelsen til et nyt Fiskeris Opsving, eller 
om man tîI en dj Sildeperiode ; dette forklarea naermere saaledes, 
at det egentlig ikke var Silden, men Fiskerne, eller Soringer fra 
Vaarsildfiaket, |som var kommet til Nordland med Neter, og de 
haTde 0velae i at drive Sildefiske om Vinteren. De bavde bedre 
Grêler og flinke Folk. Dette var Âarsagen til dun nye Sildeperiode 
for — en anden „Sorf Sild, Fra den Tid voxte Fedsildfisket 
ganske overordentlig, beder det, aom om Forekomsten af Sild voxte 
som Felge af den sterre Forekomst af Fiskere. 

I Forbindelse med denne Udvikiing af Sildefiskeriet omtales et 
andet, tidligere her berert Spergsmaal, nemlig om hvorvidt Storsild 
tilslat bliver til Vaarsild, eller om den gyder, Det bac Amtmanden 
sBgt at faa Greie paa. Han siger, at der er delte Meninger om det, 
oj^ saa meddeler han felgende h0ist karakteristiske Gjengivelse af 
FiskerneB Mening. 

„Er Storailden og Vaarsild en samme Sort, eller er de forskjel- 
lige? Aile mener, at de er samme Sort, men at de bar hver sit 
Hjem." (De betragter altid Silden aom bavende sit Hjem, og at den 
saaledes er jevnlig paa Reise i et eller andet ^rende om ikke 
3om i garnie Dage, rundt hele Verden). De tror, den kommer fra 
et bestemt Sted, og at den soger derben igjen. „De mener," beder 
det i Beretningen, „at Storsilden har sit Hjem i Nordisliavet, og at 
Vaarsilden har sit Hjem et andet Sted." Man har gjort den Er- 
faring, nat Storsild har i Mai Maaned vferet fange* paa Romsdals 
Kyst, men da i en ynkelig udmagret Tilstand, og dette har gjort, 
at man bar anaeet den at vœre -- Vaarsild. (1er efter endt Gyd- 
uing har vœret paa nordgaaende til sit Hjem." Dette er blandt 
Fiskerne et af mange Udtryk for, at Silden paa den norake Kyst 
g)'derkun paa Vestkysten, og at det kun er Vaarsilden, som gyder. 

Imidiertid siger han senere, at der alligevel er observeret 
Storsild, aom bar gydt udenlor Vaege og Brerasten, og naturligvis, 



— 112 — 

dette, at man har seet, at Storsild virke]igt har gydt, er jo et posi- 
ttvt BevJs, Boni slaar all(t de andre négative af Markeo. 

Med disse Beintei kninger og PaaTisninger antager jeg at bave 
godtgjort, hvor nedvendigt det er for de videnskabelige Under- 
a0gelser ikke at stole for meget paa de atatistiske Opgaver eller 
deri se deii vigtigste eller eneate Beretning om Sitdens Forekomst 
fer eller nu. 



Det er af de nyeste Undersogelser, aom dog hovedsagelig har 
vseret rettet paa den gydende Sild, Vaarsilden paa vor Vestkyst 
{og 0stlandssi1den paa vor Ostkyst), paavist et engere Forhold 
mellem Hawandet og Sildens Yandring. Man bar paavist, at naar 
Vaarsiidfisket slaar feil eller Fangsten glipper, saa skyldes det — 
hvad ogsaa jeg har tœnkt mig maatte vœre Forklaringen — Hav- 
str0mmene og de Vandlag i disse, som er skadelig for Sjeens Fauna. 
Det efter min Erfaring mest skadelige Vand, f. Ex. isœr for £g 
ng Yngel, er Tinevandet fra Sne og la; dette drœber hurtigt allé 
Mg i en LaxeudklskningskasBe, ikke fordi det er koldt, (thi et 
Islag i Kassen gjer ikke saa meget), nien fordi det er luftfattigt i r 
hui Grad og derfnr kvœler ait Liv, 

De svcnske og de norske Uiidersegelser, med Hensyn til Hav- ; 
vandets Beskaâenhed gaar ud paa dette, at naar der kommer et 
koldt, tuftfattigt Vand fra OBtersJBen — en „baltisk Str^m" — nœr 
under vor Kyst, og Silden staar der, saa viger den undaf. Naar 
derimod Bankvand, Oceanvand, som er mère aalt og varmt, strem- I 
mer indover til Eysten, saa slaar Fiaket meget bedre til. Dette er I 
poBitiv Faavisning af Havstrammenes Indflydelae paa Silden- ïlan 
er derved kommet ind paa Betragtninger over ^Sildens Elément" 
og over Perioder i dette Eléments, Havets, Forhold fra Aar til andet 
ogi Lebet af Sœsonen. I de senere Aar har m;»n flere n>serkelige Exem- 
pter paa Felgerne af Veiromslag under Sasonen for Vaarsiidfisket, og 
den formodentlig samtidige Kantringaf Havstromœenpaa Vestkyaten. 
Saaledes indtraf et stEerkt og pludseligt Omslag i Midten af Febrnar 
1897 ; pcraonlig erfarede jeg det paa en Beise fra Kristiania tilTrood- 
hjem, I Hamar havde vi om Formiddagen 25 Graders Enlde, da vi om 
Aftenen kom til Trondhjem, regnede det. Samme Omslag var 



— 113 — 

forfigaaet paa Vestkysten ; Bagens Telegrammer nik ud paa, at det 
var blevet et voldsomt Sydvestveir udenfor Eyeten ; og et Par Dag» 
eftfir forefaldt storartet Vaarsildefiske. , If0lge Fiakerbefolkningens 
Traditioner i det nordligste af Yaarsilddistrikterne skal et godt 
Fiske ffllge paa en brat Overgang til Veatenveir. I dette Stykke 
stemmer Traditionen godt med de vîdenskabelige Undersegelsers 
Eesultater. Naar Hawandet Bœtter ind luod Kysten under Vaar- 
sildfisket, slaar det til ; naar det aœtter ud fra Kysten, saa minker 
Fisket og Silden forsTÏnder tilslut. Det rnserkeligste Exempel paa,. 
hïorledes Silden netop under Vestenveir sœtter i de alleratorste 
Stimer og allerlœngst.ind i Fiordene, baves fra 1863, Den stargte 
Forbauselse rakte det den (rang, at Sildemassen pudselig viste sig 
kngt inde i Hardangerfjorden i Februar .og Marts. Og ved at se 
igjennem Opsynets Journal for Aaret bar jeg fundet, at i de 27 
af de 28 Dage i Februar var Uveir og Storm fra Sydvest eller 
SïEert Hav og Vestenveir. I 14 Dage var det Euling ifia S. og 
Sydvest, og i 13 Dage var det Vest-Nordveat og V.N.V., kun 
1 Dag blœste det Ost-Sydost. Silden, som ellers pleier at bold& 
sig udeiifor Kysten paa denne Strœkning, gik nu tangt inde i: 
ïjordene, op til Titelsnœs, udenfor Beimmelfiord, og blev fanget 
i temmelig store Masser derinde. Hele Tiden var der oprgrt HaT 
udenfor; Vinden stod lige paa. 

Den af Fiskeme lœngere sydpaa gjennem Traditionen over- 
leverede tildela ogsaa af Axel Boeck hsevdede Opfatning lyder der- 
itnod anderledes og er noksaa eiendommelig. 

Han siger i Henhold til denne: „Af stor Betydning for Vaar- 
sildens Gang er derimod Vinden. Som ovenfor (i bans Beretning) 
iiiifert — siger han — har der vœret paastaaet, at den skal gaa 
nifid Vinden og saaledes S0ge ind til Kysten med Fralandsvind 
"S ud fra samme med Faalandsvind. — — — Den avenske 
Zoolog Eckstrpm bar anfart, at Vinden driver Silden, naar den 
har lettet sig fra Havbunden, hjaelpelws ind til den Kyst, mod 
tïilken den tilfœldigvis blœser. Herom har jeg den mest grundede 
Tvil," siger Axel Boeck, som nœrmest helder til den Opfatning, at 
Stimene gaar ,,mod Vinden". Saa nœvner han, hvorledea Fralands- 
stonn kan paavirke Silden, og dernœst kommer han til felgende 
Karakteristik : 



*-,;, Google 



— 114 — 

„Er Indsîget saaledes begTndt aom sseâvanligt inad Utsiie- 
^brâen forbi Fserkingstadeeme, og SiMen gaar inad Rendene mod 
Skudesntes eller HTitiDg80erne, Baaledee at nogle Straal allerede er 
;kommet frem derhen, som Fortropper for deo store Masse — ter 
Silden, naar der opstaar Storm &s Sydvest, der bliver staaende 
fra den Kant en lœngere Tid, ikke trœkke sig hen til de ssedrau- 
lige G-ydepladse mellem Syre og Skute; men den forbliver Dde 
paa Fjorden og afventer roUgere Veir." 

Han mener altsaa, at Silden skal hare god Vjnd for at konme 
til Land. Og saa siger ban senere: 

^Veâvarer Stormen fremdeles, kan man ogsaa se saadanae 
Fortropper trœkke forbi Karmeens sstlige Side opôver mod Koper- 
Tik, hïor isaafald kan fanges éndel Sild ved Sœl» og Levé, Bliver 
endelig Silden saa at sige kjed af at vente, gaar den ofte op 
Seillflbet, og den sterste Fangst gj0res da paa den anden Side af 
Skute, op til KoperTÎk." 

Han nœvner et Par Aar, hvori ban finder Bekrœflelse paa 
det, saa nœvner han et Par andre Aar, bvor det aldeles ikke 
bolder stik. Men at den Optatning, som Boeck her bar, ikke 
svarer til den mère almindelige Tradition i Stavanger og Hange- 
aund, bvorefter ikke Vinden alêne, men Yeiret gj0r Udslaget, derpaa 
kan man finde en ganske karakteristisk Bekraeftelse- Selv erin- 
drer jeg fra mine tiuttedage, at naar man talte om godt Silde- 
veîr, saa var det ikke Sydvest eller Paatands- eller FralandsFJnd, 
men ogsaa noget ganske andet ved Veiret selv. Dette nVeirtegn" 
er saa godt karakteriseret af en meget kjendt Forfatter, Alexaoder 
Eieltand i "Skipper Worse", at jeg maa gjengive lidt ber. Han 
iort.œller nm enVinternat, bvordan den var, og fortssetter saaledes: 

„SIen Vintematten kjender ogaaa til et andet Liv i den lilie 
begmorke By. Det var ved Juletider eller strai over Njtaar, 
naar Nordvesten gik med Snebyger hver halve Time og stjerneklart 
imellem. 

Da kunde der pludselîg komme indover BjÇorden en Baad, 
en til og nok en, saa en liden Skaite og saa et Par Baade igien- 
De seilede bver til sin Kant inde paa Havnen; famlede sig frem i 
iMarke til Fortainingsringene indunder Sahusene paa Brvggerne. 

En Mand sprang iland og lob, ait hvad han kunde ind i 
Byen ; de store Sestflvler satte Elefantspor i Snelaget, som dœkkede 
Salen efter den sidste Byge. ^, LiOOQlC 



— IIB — 

Ysgteren loftede Bin Lygte og R(ia paa Manden. Hans Stevler, 
haiiB Buxer — ja helt op til den gule Sfdvest skinnede som 80IT 
af utallige blanke SmaaBtiemer. Vfegteren Btnilede, og da ban var 
«n gammel lun F^r, og da han just var paa Hjemet udenfor 
Skipper Worse paa Torret, saa raabte ban: 

nVinden er Nordvest; — Silden er koiranen!" 

Flere Baade, flere Smaafarteier kom ind; det klirrede bist og 
lier af Ânkere, Bom falât. Der blev dundret i SjobuBTseggen ; Folk 
kom op og 10b med Ljgter, SjebuBderene i ferste Etage rêves 
tilside, ogLjset faldt over Mœndene denide i Baadeii og over dec 
gohglinBende Mcengâe deilig, trind Vaarsild. 

Oppe i Byen blev der banket paa boB Ejebmanden ; det 
drfliinede i bêle Huset, oaar Mandeo med SjestBTleme tog en Sten 
af Oaden og slog i Vœggen — ban var ikke rsed, ban vidste, ban 
tar Tolkommen. 

Aile Taagnede og tœnkte straz paa Brand. Mec Husfaderen 
fiprang af Sengen og stedte Vinduet op. 

„Jeg skulde hilse fra Ivar 0steb0, at ban bar kj0bt 400 
Tender for Jer." 

nVed du PriBCn?" 

„Tre ort og atten. Vi ligger yed nordre Huset med otti 
Tfluder; de andre er tœt bagefter." 

Saa sp0iger han igjen: ^Hrad er Vinden?" „Nordveat med 
Snekave." 

Det er en fuldstœndig Bekrseftelse paa, hvad de videnskabelige 
Under80gelser langt Benere i Tiden bar godtgjort, at naar Vind 
og Veir staar paa Kysten, saa slaar Il^sket til. — — 

En ForekomBt ved Vaarsildâsket, som forrirrede mange, som 
bavde sine opgjorte Theorier om Sildeperiodernes Forl0b, Begyndehe 
og Afslutning, var det B&akalte AateËBke. Man kunde ikke begribe, 
bvorlbr Silden ikke kom ind til Land i Perioden, men blev Btaaende 
ode i det saakalte Aate, og man forklarede det dengang — nu 
bar Videnskaben en ganske anden Opfatning — saaledes, at den 
manglede Jag. Der var ikke den rette Hval ; det var Staurhyalen 
(som er saa graadig), der spredte Uilden istedetfor at jage den 
frem i Flok, medens det i garnie Dage var den rette Sildebral, 
som holdt den samlet og jagede den. Nu forkiarer jo Viden- 
skaben det saaledes — bvilket lyder saa ganske mère rimeligt — 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



- 116 — 

Ht det er Havvandets Kvalitet, aom gjer det. Det er det baltiske 
Vand, det luftfattige Vand, der stryger langs Kysten, som holder 
Sildestimerne borte eller tvjnger dem udover mod Havdjbet — — 

DernœBt er Temperaturen en Faktor, som ifelge den nyere 
Tiils Opfatning spiller en stor og Tsesentlig Rolle med HenBjn tit 
Silde-Fisket; men saerlig med Hensyn til Skreien. Man bar viUet 
opstille som en Lseresœtning, at Sbreien var at finde i Havdele og 
Vandiag i Sjeen, aom havde en vis Temperatur. Men de samme 
Tbeoretikere, som har villet paaviee, at ved 5 — 6 G-raders Varme i 
Harvandet skulde Skreien gyde og samies bedst og i sterre MaBser, 
bar konetateret, at der ogsaa ofte kunde vsere Btort Lofotfiske 
med 2 Orader i Vandet og ligesaa et Btort FiBke med 6 Graders 
Varme, saaledes at Temperaturens domitierende Indflydelse derved 
reduceres noget nœr Nul. 

Dette med Temperaturens Indflydelse, tror man, skriver sig fra 
de senere Aar, men det er ikke saa. Det er ogsaa opstiliet ler i 
Tiden som en Sandsynlighed — ■ Axel Boeck er inde paa det, og 
fer ham Sars — . Imidlertid er den nyeste Theori, efter Tidenska- 
belig Undersflgelser, at en vis Temperatur bar ingensombelst saadan 
afgJ0rende Indflydelse. Det kommer ganske anderledes og mest an 
paa Vandets Sammensœtning, Hawandets Kvalitet i flere Henseender. 
Og . dette, at Fiskerne er kommet til at tro paa, at Skreifisket* 
àfhcenger udelukkende af Havvandets Temperatur kan i for sig 
vœre meget nyttig, men paa en anden Side burde de hâve en 
supplerende Underretning om, at det ikke er Vandets Temperatur 
âlene det kommer un paa, ligeaom det ikke kommer an paa Luflens 
Temperatur alêne, om vi skal faa moden Frugt her iaar, men 
ogsaa paa flere andre Omstcendigheder, Det er paavist, at Harets 
Temperatur, f. Ex. i de skotske Farvande, under godt Sildeâske kan 
va^re normal i mange Dage, men saa kan Fisket pludsetig slaa 
klik, idet der kommer en Hagelbyge eller en Regnbyge, 8om entea 
drœber Aaten, som ligger i Overfladeu, eller slaar den i Svime — 
det kan vaere ligegyldigt -^ men som ialfald bevirker, at Aatea 
Bynker eller forsvinder. Temperaturen er vistnok uforandret; de 
smaa Hagl, som falder i Vandet, kan ikke afkjele Temperaturen i 
nogen naevnevaerdig Grad. 



. -,;, Google 



_ 117 ^ 

Der er utvivlsomt ved de nyeste Ilndersegelser af Hawandets 
Indflydelse paa Sildeâskets Gang ora Vintéren og under VaiirBilde- 
tiden leveret meget vœrdifidde og instruktive Resultater; jeg bar 
ofte haït Ânledning til at udtale min dybeste Anerkjendelse af 
dem. Imidlertid iorekommer det inif, at Undersagelserne i nogen 
Grad er meget begrœnset til de lokale Forhold med vor Sydkyst, 
i Skagerak og Kattegat, saavidt jeg af Beretningen kan se, At 
man ad den Vei skulde kunne skaffe tilatrœkkeligt Materiale til 
BelysniTig af Sildeperioden (eller hvad man nu vil kalde de marké- 
rede Perioder i Sildefiskerierne om Vintéren), har jeg mine TS'il 
ora. Del vil Tistnok findes at viere nedvendigt at studere ogsaa 
Havstrommenes Fluktuationer ude i Nordsjoen og finde Lovene for 
dem. Og gjennem disse vil man maaske finde en sikkrere Lede- 
traad til at forstaa Naturbetingelsenie for de fleste af Norges Fîskerier 
og deres Perioder, regelmaiesige Veext og Nedgang i en kortere 
Riekke Aar. Et sligt ganske intéressant Bidrag til Belyaning af 
Stramsœtniugen i Nordsjflen og Nordhavet er nyligt offentliggjort 
i den skotske Fiskeriberetning, som indeholder vedkommende 
skotske Kommisaions Bapport. Heraf ti^or jeg at burde levere et 
kort Uddrag for Sagens Skyld ; til Bapporten herer en grafisk 
FremstilHng, som jeg har overfart paa et Nordsjpkart, som jeg 
herved akal fremyise og forklare for Forsamlingen (se Tegningen 
Pagina 107), saa meget hellere, som jeg ved en RedegJBrelse for 
demie Del af Kapporten faar Anledning til at berare Forhold, som 
paa det intimeste angaar aile vore atore Fiskeriers Afhiengighed af 
HaTstremmene og saaiedes ogsaa kan yde Bidrag til Belyaning 
af „8i!deperiodernea" Tbeori. 

Jeg har tegnet den grafiske Fremstilling ind paa Nord8J0- 
kartet, Pag. 107, og de sorte Linjer, som vi der ser, betegner den 
Tej, aom de udkastede Flottsrer, som dels er af Grias, dels af lYse. 
er blevne ferte under Driften i Nordsjoen, «stover og nordover til 
Norge. 

Flottereme blev udkastet i Tiden fra September 1894 til 
Februar 1897 i et Antal af 3553. De skulde tjene til at vise 
Havstr0mmenes Ketning. Af disse 3553 var 2074 af Glas og 
1479 afTrœ. Manfiktilbage 14 Procent af Suramen med Paaskrift 
om, hvor de var fundne. 

Naar man nu ser paa Kartet, vil man se en eiendommelig 
EegelmEessighed i Flottorernes Drift over Nordsjeen gjennem mange 



— 118 — 

Maaneder. Det Tar fra September 1694, hele 1895 og 1896 indtQ 
Februar 1897, altsaa gjennem aile Aarstider to Qai^e, at BrifleD 
foregik. Besultatet viser i det store taget, hvorledes Stremmen 
tiUlut forte de âeste Flottorer. Jeg ril î ferste Bœkke pege paa, 
at ingen fortes ned til KaDalen- Der er nemlîg et ganske andet 
Stromskifte i Nordsjoen end nede i Kanalen. Enhver, som har 
befaret Kanalen, ved, at ved Hastings er der et Stremskîfte, som 
er ganske eiendommeligt. Flodbslgerne tra Atlanterbavet, eller 
Tidvandet som Semœndene kalder det, stanaer ved Hastings mer 
ved Wight. Der moder den Hodstrttmmen, som er kommet ned 
fra Nordsjeen. Ved dette Stroinskifte, som altsaa reprfesentcrer 
Havstremmenes Veie, forklarer jeg mig ogsaa den Eiendommelighed, at 
de franske Fiskerier ogsaa „8kifter" her; jeg tœnker specieit paa 
Sardindskerieme, men for endel ogsaa paa Makrel- og Silde- 
fiskerieme, aom drives fra Landeno ved Kanalen og udenfor, 
fra Frankriges nordlige samt Englands og Irlande sydlige Distrikter. 
Sardiner fiskes foruden af de Franake baade af Spaniere og Portugisere 
udenfor deres respektive Landes Kyster mod Atlanterbavet. I den 
engelske Kanal fiades ogsaa Sardiner, men her kun vestenfor 
Stromskiftet. I Kanalen fiskes de under Navnet Pilcbards navulig 
paa Nordsiden, udenfor Englands sydvestlige Odde, men forekommer 
omtrent slet ikke estenfor Stromskifrei eller ved Englands sydvest- 
lige Odde. Makrelfisket og Sildefiaket i Kanalen har ligeledes sin 
Grsense ved det nsevnte Stromskifle; men for disse Fiskerier ikke 
saa staerkt markeret som for Sardiner eller Pilchards. 

De Flottorer, som blev kastet nter Skotlands Kyst, gik syd 
paa, fandtes igjen paa den skotske og engelske Kyst. Nogle 
ganske faa blev fort lœngera ud og sydover, saa de kom iland 
dels paa den hollandske Kyst, dels paa den tyske. Men ingen af 
disse blev fort helt ostover eller indover til Kattegat. De Flotterer 
derimod, som blev udkastet nordenfor Skotland, mellem Orkeneerne 
og Shetland, kun disse drev Isengst ostover efter at bave gaaet i 
Btor Boining helt ned i Nordsjoens sydligste Del — ingen gik lige 
tvœrs over til Norges Kyst, ingen drev lige mod 0st. Af den 
flamlede Masse 0stgaaende er en enkelt kommet til Kysten ved 
Arendal, en til Bolseme, en tredie til Bohusl&n. 

Paa den norske Kyst blev der fundet ialt 70 Stykker; ingen 
af disse var blevet udkastet nserved Skotlands eller Englands Kyster, 
men i den nordenfor liggende Aabning ud til AtlanterhaYfijt^ Dybder, 



— 119 — 

hvor GrotfstrenimeD virker mest. Og nu kommer jeg til et mterke- 
ligt Fœnoiuen: Af disse 70 er de 40 drevet itand paa vor Kyst î 
Januar, Febmar og Marts, eller i den Tid da vor Sild og vor Skrei 
gjder. Flottflreme er kommet ind her langs heie den vestlige 
Kjst og er fiindet dels paa Vaarsildfangstpladsene, dcls paa Skrei- 
tiskepladaene. Ingen er fuudet iade i Fjordene eller der, hvor intet 
stsrre Fiskeri drives. Ved disse Flottarer markeres sœrligen, hvor 
Atlanterhav-Strammen pleier sœtte hen; og man kan deraf slutte^ 
at i de Farvande, som betegnes af disse Linjer, der findes det for 
Fisken bekvemme Havvand, den gunstige Havstrom, som steder tit 
Norges Kyst og gJBi- den fiskerig. Altsaa 40 af de 70 Flott0rer 
drev tillands i Januar, Februar og Marts. Nu ved vi aile, at det. 
er netop den bedste Fisketid for hele Landet- Af disse 40 kom 
26 i Februar. Det er neppe en Tillœldighed. Skjont de afgiver 
meget lidet Materiale ti! at bygge paa, har deniie Drift af Flott»- 
reme dog sin store Betydning. I Oktober, November og- 
December, som ogsaa er bra Fiskemaaneder, kom der ialt 24 
tillands paa vor Kyst, i Oktober 4, i November 8 og i December 
12. Men i Kesten af Aaret, i den kolde B^sketid hos os, i dea 
Tid, vi har ingen Sildestimer eller noget storre Sildeiiskeri, altsaa 
i Mai, Juni, Juli, kom der omirent ingen. Der var en eneste i 
Mai, som var oppe i Lofoten. Og denne Flottarernes Reise er ikke 
tilendebragt efter en ensartet Fart, og Driften kan ikke vœre 
blevet influeret af en vis Vindretning i Lebet af en kort Tid. 
Tiii enkelte af Flott^reme har taget en Tid af 55.5 Dage, andre 102, 
220 osv. Disse Flottorer fortaeller os altsaa, at der er til en via 
Tid af Aaret, specielt om Vinteren, en for Fiskerierne hos os; 
overordentlig gunstig Str»m i Havet, 

Ad denne Vei, gjennem Undersagelser af de store Havstr0mme 
fra Atlanterhavet over Nordsjeens Banker og opover mod vore 
Kjater, mener jeg, at meget kan forklares, angaaende Sildens 
Vandringer, Sildefisket og Torakefiskets Forskyvninger og angaaende 
Theorien om Sildeperioderne. Ved disse mère omfattende, raere 
vidtraekkende Undersegelaer i Forbindelse med de saa sserdeles 
godt anlagte videnskabebge Undersegelser af den internationale Silde- 
bmite — ad disse forenede Veie maa der. absolut komme et ganske 
ftnderledes godt Materiale til Veiledning baade for Videnskaben og 
for den praktiske Bedrift, end man nogensinde tidligere har havt, 



— 120 — 

Naar vi nu vender tilbage til Sp0rgsmaalet, om der findes 
Visse bestemte, regelmBessige, faste „Perioder" for de europseiske 
S^Mefiskerier, det skotske, hollandske, engelske, svenske, iranske 
<^ Borske Sildefishe, saa TOver jeg at fremssette den Paastand, at 
iiogen saadanne faste Sildeperioder, udelukkende beroende paa 
Fangsten af Sild og bygget paa Sildeâskets Histiirie og Statistik 
ikke kan paavises og neppe nogensinde ïil kunne paavises ved de 
tidtil benyttede M^etoder. Fluktuationerne i Sildefangsten maa 
forklarea giennem andre Aarsager og andre Omstsendigheder. Og 
jeg Bkal i nogle Bemserkninger om âere af de neevnte Sildefiskerier 
forklare, hvorpaa jeg bygger denne min Paastand. 

De skotske SiJdefiskeriers Historié er i Korthed dette, at Skot- 
lEenderne i sin Tid blev opmuntret ved PrEemier til at drive Siide- 
flske for at konkurrere med Hollsenderne udenfor deres Kyst og 
3iœvde sin Stilling som sJ0farende Nation. 8aa fik de heldige eiu 
Preemie, og saa tied det i engelske Beretninger, at det gik smaat 
nok med Fiskeriet af Sild, men ganske bra med Fiskeriet af , 
Frasmieme. Disse var nemlig haie, saa det svarede god Regning 
at ^0re en Udrustning, seile ud og komme tilba^e uden Sild — 
■men med den gode Prœmie som det bedste Udbytte. Og det var 
jo ganske naturligt. De reiste i den Tid alêne eller helst ud for 
at indkasaere Prœmien, Enten de fik Fisk eller ei, var omirent , 
(det samme. Det gik daariigt med Sildefangsten paa den Maade. < 

Efterhaanden som de fik starre Baade og bedre Redskaher, kimde 
Ae ferst drive et ordentlig Sildefiske, og da Priemie-Institutionen blev 
ophœvet, gik de endog lœngere tilhavs, og der gjorde de sterre Fangst. 
„8ildeperiodens" Gang var egentlig en Udvikling af Fangstredakabeme 
fra daarlige Greier til gode. Og nu ved vi, at i vor Tid lîsker 
Skotterne op til I Million Tender Sild om Aaret, undertiden endog 
mère. „Perioden" var opadgaaende for Skotterne, men nedadgaaende 
for Hollœndeme, akjtint det gjtelder samme Sildefelt. I samme 
Tid var de hollandske Silde-Fiskeriers Historié eller Udvikling 
noget af det allermœrkeligste, og da Resultatet forsaavidt er 
ganske aktuelt, skal jeg kortelig omtale det. I 1855 og derefter i 
flere Aar bed det, at det hollandske Sildefiske var i stserk Ned- 
gang. De fiskede da aarligen kun op til 25000 à 30000 Tender; 
det var det Hele. De havde nogle faa garnie Bomskeiter, som den 
norske Kommissœr ved Udstillingen i Boulogne havde omtalt snffi 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 121 — 

kassable. Han mente, at naar Fartaierno. noksaa kostbare Skuder, 
var udslidté, vilde det ho]landske SUdefiske vœre forbi. En „Silde- 
periode" kunde altsaa aigea at vœre endt dermed. Men saa ind- 
forte Hollœnderne en Kutterform, og eiterhaanden steg disae 
moderne Kutterea Antal. Der atikker en ator Kapital i en Udrust- 
ning af dem. I 1876—1881 var Fisket kommet op til 60000 à 
135000 Tsnder om Aaret, og nu i de sidste Aar er der fanget et 
Kyantum paa. mellem 400000 og 600000 Tender Sild, som er aaltet. 

Den nSildeperiode", som de hollandske Sildeâskerier akulde 
me, er som ved âere andre: de garnie Fangstgreier maa erstattes 
med nyere og bensigtamiesaigere, heraf felger brat en jœvn Ned- 
gang i f^angstudbyttet og aaa en atadig aarlig Foregelae. Men 
hvad aelve SUdemaaaernea Forekomst i Havet, hyad deres aar- 
lige Fonnindakelse og Forsgelse angaar, saa er derimod ingen 
Periodicitet at finde, den kan ikke paavisea. Man kan ikke 
^rage dette Materiale til deraf at bygge nogen Tbeori om „Silde- 
perioder" for Hollands Fiskeri. At HoUœnderne for nogle Hun- 
drede Aar aiden havde en overordentlig stor Sildefangst, i 50- 
aarene niesten ingenting og nu atter en stor aarlig Fangst, viser 
som sagt alêne en eiendommelig Udvikiing af Sildeindustrien i 
Holland, Udrustningen, men intet med Hensyn til Sildens Forekomst 
i Nordsjeen; iaier bliver det vanskeligt at faa en Regel for „Pen- 
oden", naar man erindrer Skotternes Sildefiskeri og dets Udvikling 
i samme Tidarum. 

I enkelte hollandske Beretninger omhandles, hvorledes Silde- 
fisketa Gang falder der, bvor Hollœnderne pleier fiske i Lobet af 
S$3onen. Ogsaa dette viser aom andensteda en stadig Forskyvning 
af Sildemaseen. Det begynder i Juni Maaned ved Sbetland og 
ender ved Hovden, mellem England og Holland, i November eller 
Decembet, Jeg bar paa Kortet (som var ophœngt paa Vœggen 
til nœrmere Forklaring under Foredraget, se Tegningen Pag. 107, 
Boteret efter en hollandsk Beretning, hvorledes Sildefisket bar artet 
sig i en Rsekke af en 10 — 12 Aar. Af dette sees, at Fisket for- 
ekyver aig fra Maaned til Maaned. Det begynder nordvestligst, 
oppe ved Sbetland, i Juni ; der fiekes derpaa lîengere syd i Juli 
og Augnat. Men aaa kommer Fiaket i September; det forefalder 
nordenfor, og end lidt nordligere i Oktober og i November. For- 
EkyTningea sker altsaa her, ligesom paa den norske Kyst, i to F»lge- 

hnli... v.L.OO^IC 



— 122 — 

rœkker; àen lerate i en Retning, den anden i den modeatte. Oii>- 
alaget sker omirent Bamtidig med det aarlige Omslag i HaTstram- 
men og Havtemperatur. Men medena Forskyvningen hos os i Begp- i 
delseD gaar nordover, gaar den i Nordejsen sydorer; ogoniHesten 
udover til Vinteren ligesas : sydovnr hos os, men stik modsat i 
NoTdsjïien. Dette var de Lokaliteter, som af Holliendeme i en i 
Rœbke af Aar ansaaes for de bedate Sildefangst-Pladae. Nu falder I 
det noget anderledes. Men paa samme Tid, som Fisket forskyver 
8ig nordoTer langt ude i Nordsjeen, forskyver det sig derimod sjd- 
over nser Land. Fra Oktober til December foregaar sydligst ved 
Fngland det saakaldte YarmoutbBËBke, og Silden ber ligner da i 
mest norsk Storsild. Den grafiske Fremstilling, Bom her er givet | 
for denne R%kke af Aar, gJEelder kun for denne Aarr^ekke; den 
kan vistnok ikke opstilles som en fast Regel. Den passer i det 
Hele kun som ait det evrige om Sildeâskerierne. 

TysklaTlds Sildeâskerier foregaar 8om Hollsendemes ; det er 
ligesaa med de franske. De har taget Hollands til Menster, og de 
viser som dette ingenting til Begrundelse af nogen Sildeperiode. 

Det transke Sildeâskes Udyikling skyides ligesom HoUœndeines, I 
hovedsageligen Redskabemes Udvikling — ikke Sildeperioder ; men I 
forresten er det meget variabelt fra Aar til andet, vistnok temmelig 
uafhsengigt af Sildens vexlende l'orekomst i Havet. Det franske 
Sildefiskes Udbytte synes som enkelte andre Fiskerier at vœre mest 
afhœngig af ganske andre Ting, deriblandt Veiret om Hesten. Pri- 
serne paa Sardin og Makrel, andre Landes Sildefiske tidligere i 
Aaret osv. 

Det hollandske Sildeâskeris Udvikling i vor Tid fortjener af 
flere Grunde at studeres nœrmere, Udviklingens Gang er et af de 
mserkeligste Exempler paa, livorledes gjennemgaaende Reformer i 
Fiskeriets traditionelle Drift, trods gamle Fordomme og i atœrk 
Strid med Periode-Theorien, kan foregaa i ganske kort Tid og 
foranlediges ved en tilsyneladende Ubetydelighed, Det siges, at 
jiUbetydeligheden" her var nogle Farteismodeller paa en Fiskeri- 
udstilling. Da der forrige Gang her i Bergen var en international 
Fiskeriudstilling (i 1865), gav den hollandske Kommisaier her, den 
forste Autoritet i Sagen, en stor Udreder til Sildefiakeri, en Ftem- 
atilling af Forholdet med Sildefiskeriet. I den Tid fiakedes 30— 
40000 Tflnder Sild. Paa en kort fer holdt Udstilling i Amaterdam 



— 123 — , , y 

var man bleven opmEerksom paa endel Modeller, som overbeviste 
nogle hoUandske Kedere om, at der nok virkelig fandtes og brugte» 
et andet Slags Farteier og bedre Redskaber end de verdensbereiute 
traditionelle — hollandske Bomskeiter og Koffer. Det var Begyn- 
deUeo. Mellem disse to internationale Fiskeriudstillii^er i Bergea 

— i 1865 og i 1898 — har da de hoUandake Sildeâskerîer faaiet 
eu saa kolossal Udvikling, at det maa. forbause. Og at Poranled- 
ningen til denne énorme Udvikling var en Udstilling, fortjener at 
erindres. Vi Nordmtend kunde vel nu sperge: „Har vi lœrt og 
formaaet noget lignende fra den forrige Udstilling i Bergen indtîl 
nii?" Jeg t0r ikke svare hverken paa Fiskernes eller Forretnings- 
niffindenes Vegne noget glœdeligt Ja! Det er vistnok vanskeligt 
seir med den bedste Villie at opdage noget lignende stort Frem- 
skridt ho8 os, maaske den internationale Kongres, vi har her, i 
hmere G-rad end nogen Udstilling kunde tjene til at udvexle 
Meninger, ikke alêne angaaende de mère eller mindre videnskabe- 
lige og praktiske Spflrgsmaal, som er knyttet til Norges Fiskerier, 
men i end h0iere Grad foranledige, at der udvexles Meninger mel- 
lem Beprcesentanter for de forskjellige Lande og derved tjene til, 
at der hos mange Deltagere samles gode Kundskaber, formes nye 
Opfatniuger og et klarere Syn paa Betingelseme for Mskeribedrif- 
tens Udvikling. Dette kan faa overordentlig stor Betydning. Naar 
vi aaa efter en Menneskealder atter holder Udstilling ber i Bergen, 
en international Fiskeriudstilling og en Fiskerikongres, da vil jeg 
haabe, at Freraskridtene — om ikke saa kolossaie aom de hollandske 

— dog vil kunne paavises og vœre af nogen Betydning for vort 
Land, 

De videnskabelige Undersflgelser, aom i Mellemtiden skulde 
hare hjulpet os i nogen vEesentlîg G-rad, vil maaske netop gaa i 
dea Eetning, hvori de omhandlede Sildefiskeri-Undersogelser er 
blevne lagte. De synes at styre mère direkte paa Maalet og at 
fiere lagte paa en hredere, mère praktisk alsidig og videnskabelig 
Basis end de tidiigere. Det er ogsaa fornemmelig derfor, jeg^trnr, 
lie fortjener den at0rste Opmairkaomhed. I Korthed karakteriseret : 
den Basis, hvorpaa de er bygget, er ligesaa solid som logisk. Det 
Arbeide, aom er nedlagt i dem, er overordentlig respektabelt. De 
fiesultater, aom allerede er fremlagte, er hoist intéressante. Og 
naar vi ser det hele i Sammenb^eng, maa vi sige, at Sammenaaet> 



— 124 — 

Tiingen af KommisBionen. Programmet og Arbeidsmaaden er, ialfald 
i mine 0ine, saa overordentlig tilfredsstillende, at vi for Sagens 
Skyld ikke kan vœre noksom taknenimelige derfor. Ved en Anled- 
ning som denne, yed en international Udstilling og Fiskerikongres, 
kan det vœre paa sin Plads at erindre herom. Og jeg turde finde 
Uedhold hos den serede Forsamling, naar jeg mener, at vi erkjendtr 
-ligen b0r nœvne, hvilke Meend sserlig har vœret knyttet til denne 
internationale videnskabelige Komite til Sildefiskeriernea Underse- 
gelse, hïoraf vi med god Grund kan vente betydelige, for ikke at 
sige storartede Resultater til FiskeribedriftenB Udvikling. Det er 
for Sverige Ingénier Ëknian og Professoreme Petteraon og Cleve, 
for Norge Dr. Johan Hjort og Cand. H. Gran, samt for Skotland 
Professor H. N. Dickson i Oxford. Jeg vil tillade mig, idet jeg 
hermed afslutter dette Foredrag, at udtale en Tak til disse Herrer 
— og jeg vil opfordre Forsamlingen til at slutte Bîg dertil — en 
Tak til disse Herrer for det udmœrkede Arbeide, de bar udfart; 
jeg henvender denne Tak til den tilstedevserende Reprœsentant for 
Komiteen, Hr. Dr. Johan Hjort. 



Dr. Hjoet; Jeg skal paa mine Kollegers og egne Vegne iaa 
Lov at takke Hr. 'Wallein for den sserdeles store Opmœrksomhed, ban 
har vist os ved at udtrykke sin TÎHredshed med det Arbeide, aom ri 
har gjort. Jeg ser ikke aaa forE0iet paa det, at jeg t0r tiîtrîede de 
sœrdelea venlige Ord, hvormed Hr, Watlem afetuttede ait Foredrag. 
Jeg f0ler tvertimod altid Taknemmelighed ligeoverfor de praktiske 
Msend, naar de pa88kj0nner vidée akabeligt Arbeide i saadanne Ting; 
thi specielt overfor saadanne store Sp0rgsmaal som Sildevandringer, 
de vigtige Fiskesorters hele Livscykius maa jeg, iiaar jeg ser paa àet 
med det Elik, jeg bar, sige, at vi bar opaaaet sserdeles lidet, Ti 
ved ganske overordentlig lidet. Men jeg tror, det er med det viden- 
skabelige Arbeide for at faa Greie paa dette, Bom det er med en 
Vandring til et Udsigtepunkt opad et Tjeld, som er saaledes beakaffent, 
at man intet aer, f0r man kommer op paa Toppen. Man ser vistnok 
intet underveis, men man bar dog tilbagelagt et Stykke Vei og udfprt 
et atort Arbeide. Med Hensyn til det vigtige Spsrgsmaal om Silde- 
vandringer aer vi endnu eœrdeles lidet, ja, vi kan UEesten sige, vi aer 
nsesten intet. Vi ved ikke, om aile disse Sîlderacer hsenger sammen; 
vi ved heller ikke, hvor Silden er, naar den gaar vsek fra vore Kyster- 
Men jeg tror ikke, at man derfor beb0ver at vœre saa uendelig fïernl 



— 135 — 

fra en L0anmg. Tiltroda for at vi îkke ser Maalet, har vi dog gaaeb 
et langt Stykke, og jeg tror, det kan kanake komme overraskende 
paa en, at man med en Gang faar et klart Syn paa det helé. 

Ht. Wallem talte specielt om, at det var Methoderne, som havd» 
skabt rremskridtene i den eidsto Tid, og heri er jeg ogeaa i hiSÎ 
Grad enig. Men der er specîeH en Uethode, som ellers ikke er 
anvendt af VidenskabamEendene, og som jeg lover niig det at0rgte 
Udbytte af, nemlig den Méthode: at fiske. Vi har alet ikke fiaket 
under vore Stttdler af Silden, og hvorledea Bkal da vi Videnskabsmœnd, 
kimne faa hedre Gh-eie end Piskeme paa Silden, naar vi ikke har 
lisket? Diase finere Methoder med Thermometer, kemiske Analyser 
OST. maa drives i Forbindelae med effektivt Fiske, hvis man nogen- 
sjnde skal komme tU videra Ërfaring, end Fiakeme har naaet at vinde. 
Vi har hidtil ikke havt nogen Aaledning til aaadanoe Undera^gelaer. 
Jeg har for min Del paa mine Reiaer vasret indakrœnket til at iolda 
mig til en Baad med et Far Msend, og leilighedsvis at leie en Damper.. 
Faa den Maade er man jo aldelea ikke istand til at udforske det, 
Dordatlantiske Hav og faa Oreie paa, hvor Silden er til forËkjel]ig& 
Tider af Aaret. Vil mem derfor bave Oreie paa dîsae 8p0rgBmaal,. 
maa man efter min Uening gribe Sagen an paa den Maade, at man 
udmater en kraftig Fiske expédition, udstyret med aaa gode Apparater» 
som man kan faa dem, og ssetter ait ind paa at falge Fisken for at. 
faa Rede paa den til aile Aarstider og fiske den med aile de Appa- 
raCer, man er istand til at opfinde. Da kan der blîve Mening i det, 
og man kan faa en aamlet Overaigt over hele det nordatlantiske Havs 
fiigdom paa Sild. At sidde — aaaledea som man for en etor Del 
kar vEeret nodt til — paa Land og fiake i de allemsermeste Kyatfar- 
vande kan nmuiig f0re til de Resultater, man kan faa ved at bygge- 
paa Selvsyn. 

Jeg vil ikke gaa ind paa aile de Sp0rg3maal, som Hr. Wallem 
berttrte; jeg knnde derved komme til' at blive meget vidtlflftig og 
tra-tte Forsamlîngen. 

Jeg vil kun nœvne et Sp^rgsmaal af de DetaJjer, somHr. Wallem 
talte om. Det var dette Spargsmaal om Perioder, aom heenger paa 
^et intimeste aammen med aile diaae Sildeap0rgamaal. Vi har jo 
Afhandlinger af Cleve, Ekman, Petterson . og mig, som ogeaa taîer- 
lidt om disse Perioder. Jeg indrommer fuldstœndig, at Hr. Wallem 
bar Ret i sine vsegtige Indvendinger mod Statiatikena Anvendelse her, 
mon jeg tror dog, at selv om Veirforholdene, Fiakemes Dygtighed til 
torskjellige Tider oav. torvirrer det hele Résultat, ataar det dog ikke 
til at negte, at der har vaeret en via periodisk Variabilitet i Fiske- 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 126 — 

rienie. D«t er vJBtnok î àet hele taget eandt, at d«r har vœret en 
Silâeperiode ai god og en af daarlig Tid, Hvorvidt dette regelrnsesaig 
vexler, med regelmEesaige Mellemrojn, f. Ex. 26 — 30 Aar — - som 
Boeck i ton Tid aotog — og hvDrviât man kan paaregnfl det for 
Frerotiden, derom ved jeg întet. Jeg vil deiimod eigfi noget, som jeg 
aldeles ikke t0r udtale i Egenskab af Videnskabemand — alta&a som 
Viden — men kan adtale som en almiodelig Betragtning. Vi bar 
a0gt at paaviae, at der er en vis Aftisengi^ed mellem Havatr^mmeoe 
og Fistcesea Vandring. Det er i eenere Tid, delà ved disse hydro- 
grafieke Undersegelser, delà ved eu bel Del adenlandake meteorologiske 
17itders0gelBer paavist, at der er to Variationer i disse HavBlrtfmnie, 
og at disse Havstrtfiume ikke alêne — ser det ud til — er periodîak 
fra det ene Aar til det andet, saaledes at man har karakteristiske 
Sommerforhold og Vinterforbold osv., men det ser ud til, at de ogsiia 
er forskjellige i forskjellige Aar. Jeg beder dem, som bar Interesse 
ior dette at imder80ge den danske Kaptein R^ders Âfbaadling om 
Isforholdene i de arktiske Hâve, en meget intéressant Affaandling. 
Saa er der publîceret en Afbandling af Profeseor Brtickner i Zlirich, 
som heder „Die Elimaschwankungen Eoropas". Han bar staderet 
Klimatets Vezling i Ëoropa saa langt tilbage, som ban har knnnet 
unders^ge det. Han har forst for de senere Tider benyttet hele det I 
meteorologiske Materiale, som fore&ndea, f. Ex. Nedb^rsmsengden osv-, 
i de forskjellige europteïske meteorologiske Institnters Beretoiiiger. 
Ban har for tidligere Tider benyttet aligt som Tiden for I8l0sniu^n ; 
paa Eloderae, Yinb0Btens Optreeden i de forskjellige Aar osv. og tiar ' 
derved kunnet opgjere en vis Lovmeessigbed for Elimatets Variabihtet. 
Dette er selvfelgelig i b0i Qrad mangelfaldc, men det er ganske 
mœrkeligt alligevel. Hmis Résultat viser tydelig en Periodicitet, og 
.det, som slog mig f0r8te O-ang, jeg saa hans Afbandling, var, at i^e 
Ferioder, han opstillede, var akkurat at samme Lsengde og faldt til- 
dels sammen med de Ferioder, som Boeck i sin Tid opstillede. Nu, , 
det er selvf0lgelig altfor Ipst og nsikkert at ville alutte Ira saadanne ; 
hîstoriske TJndersPgelser over Veirliget, Luften osv. til HaTstremmene 
og deres éventuelle Indflydelse paa Sildefisket, men jeg siger, der 
foreligger dog saa mange faktiske Ting, som tyder paa, at donne S«g I 
er vel vœrd at overveie, at jeg tror bélier ikke, at den Tanke oœ 1 
Ferioder lader sig afvise. Jeg tror, at der saavel i den meteorologiske 
Videnskab som ogsaa i Piskemes Erfaring er visse Grandtrsek, som j 
tyder paa, at der er en vis Periodicitet lilstede. Skal man indvinde 
Erfaringer om dette natnrligvis yderlig vigtige Sporgsmaal, kan iet I 
imidlertid efter min Mening ikke ske vert I]nders0gel9e af Veirliget, 

h.ji,,. A'OOQlC I 



— 127 — 

œen fremfor ait ved Undera0gBlse af Kavet. Hele det nordatlantiske 
Hav maa, hvis mao overhovedet vil hâve dette 8p0rgsinaal paa det 
rené, kartlsegges hvert eneste Aar, saa at vi ser de etore Havstr0m- 
mes Udbredelae i de forskjellige Aar. Man maa se, hvor langt Hav- 
strtfmmen langs Grflnlaud trsekker sig nedover lorbi Island og Fœr- 
0enie, man maa imders0ge GolfatntmmeD, og man maa se NedbSrs- 
mtengden i Europa og 0Bter80str0mmeu hvert Aar. Kan man faa en 
sandet Rsekke af eaadanne Uudera0gelBer for en Hœkke af Aar, saa 
i&a man f0rst med Faalidellghed sige: Saadan og saadau er det. 

Det synes et atort Frogram at foreslaa saadaut, og de praktiske 
MsBnd faar eelv a(gj0re, hvorvîdt de finder et saadant Porslag betime- 
ligt. Jeg for min Del kau kun adtale, at hvîa man vil bave disse 
Ting at vide, tror jeg ikke, man kan gaa anden ¥ei end til en aaadan 
Uiiders0gelse i det store. 

Thbodob B. Zahl : Da jeg er fra Nordland og sadledes bekjendt 
med Stldefiaket, vil jeg udtale, at der var i Hr. Wallems Foredrag 
mange Ting, som jeg ikke kunde vœre enig i. Han aagde, at SOdens 
forekomst dels kom an paa Storm og 8tr0m, delà paa forakjellige 
andre Ting. Jeg mener, al det er, som der ataar i Skriften: „Hvo 
ved Fiskena Vei i Havet?" Det er et noksaa dunkelt Sp0rg8niaal, 
Man maa agte og a^tte Fris paa de Usend, som med videnakabelige 
Tbeorier vil drage Slutninger hid og dîd, men hvis man i Praxis 
skulde tro for meget paa disse Tbeorier, knnde den almene Mand 
lettelig komme til at blive skuffet. Med al Agtelse for de viden- 
akabelige Tbeorier og for Videnakabsmœndfines store Arbeide og derea 
atore Opfindelser, vil dog tilsidst de forskjellige Erfaringer Tid om 
anden fra Fisket lœgge et stort Lod i Vœgtakaaten. Tiden tillader 
ikke at gaa ind paa mange af de Ting, som er fremkommet ber. 



.;, Google 



vin. 

iniBEE BEN ZOII ITJF ElBnQ- 

D! EÏÏSSLABD, DEÏÏTSCIIIND Um OESTESILEICI. 

VON 
FiBCHEBEIAGENT WeBTERGAARD. 

Meine Herrenî 

Bei diesem internationalen Fischerei-Kongress habeo wir die ; 
Etire, die ersten Autoritàten Schwedens, Dânemarks, Euszlands, 
Finnlands, Deutschlande und Amerikas hiei- zu sehen. 

Dièse Lânder sind aile mehr oder weniger unsere MSikte fiir 
gesalzenen Herirg. Ich habe mir daher erlaubt, dièse Gelegenheit 
zu benutzeii, diesen Vortrag zu halten uber unaere Heringsfische- 
reien und den Export derselben in Bezug auf die Zollfrage in den 
veracbiedenen Landern. 

ïluszland bat sein Traktat mit Norwegen gekilndigt zar Révi- 
sion, und in Deutschiand ist seit langerer Zeit eine starke Agitation 
gewesen, um den Zoll auf gesalzenen Hering bedeutend zu erhôlien, 
nâmlich von 3 M. auf 9—10 M. 

Die norwegischen Heringsfischereien sind sebr unregelmâszig 
und teilweise periodisch. Der gesammelte Export bat sich zwiscben 
1,269,240 Ht. im 1893 und 471,498 Ht. im 1880 gehalten. 

Die Hauptfiachereien sind: die Fett-, Sic- und Waarherings- 
fischereien; aber auezerdem giebt es nocb einen Vorfang, der ito 
Frùhling und Vorsominer gefischt wird; er besteht haupts&chlich 
au3 einer etwas mageren Art Kleinhering bis zur Grôaze mk und 



— 129 — 

kund au3 herbstgefatigeneD Fetthering von den Monaten NoTembep 
und Becember. Um dièse Zeit sind der Rogen und die Milch im 
Hering so eQtwickelt, dasz der Hering, obgleich wir ibn spàtgefangenen 
Fetthering nennen, nicht mehr iinser bekannter, guter Flohmherinç 
ist. — 

Die Heringsfiscfaereien werden lângs unserer ganzen Kilste, tou 
der schwedischen Grenze bis zum Trom80 Amt, betrieben. In Fîn- 
marken haben wir wobl aucb Hering; aber bis jetzt wird nur s» 
liel gefangen, wie man aïs Rôder w&hrend der Dorscbfischereien 
gebrauchen kann. 

Die Fangst wird hauptsâcblicb mit Waden und Netzen lângs 
unserer Kiiste und in den groszen „Fjorden" betrieben. Die Fischer 
besitzen selbst ihre Boote und Gerâte. Friiher war es mehr Sitte^ 
dasz Kauâeute die grôszeren Betriebsinventare (Notbrug) auszriisteten, 
aber die Erfabrung hat gelehrt, dasz es vorteilhafter ist, wenn di» 
Fischer selbst ihre Boote und Gerâte besitzen. Ein grôszeres- 
Betriebsinventar mit Wohnfahrzeug, Booten und Waden kann bis 
15,000 Kronen kosten. Es ist daher nicht ungewôhnlich, dasz. 
mehrere sich zuBammenthun zu einem Inventar, aber oft besitzt der 
Bestmann sein Inventar (Notbrug) selbst. 

Von grôszeren Heringskuttem nach hollândiscbem Muster sind 
hier nur zwei, welche die Fischerei in der Nordsee betreiben. 

Bei Aalesund fingen 3 Fischer an, welche einen kleineren Eei- 
trag fur ihre Âusgaben an Netzen vom Staate erhielten, um die 
Treibnetzfischerei nach Hering auszerhalb der Kiiste von Aalesund 
zu ver su ch en. 

Es zeigte sich, dasz hier Hering vorhanden war, Als ander& 
nun sahen, dasz hier Geld zu verdienen war, machten sie sich 
schleunigst auf, sich Netze zu verschaffen. Trotz ihrer kleinen 
Fischfahrzeuge, welche fur die Dorschfischereien gebaut und ein- 
gerichtet war en, war doch das Résultat fiir die meisten sehr 
befriedigend. 

Die Frage ist nun, ob der Hering in diesem Jahre wieder- 
kommen wird. Wenn dièses der Pall sein aollte, ist es meine voile 
Uberzeugung, dasz raan schnell eine rationelle Treibnetzfischerei 
erhalten wird, nicht allein auszerhalb Sandroore, sondem auch 
wahrscheinlich an anderen Stellen unserer Kuste. 



i?. Google 



— 130 — 

Unsere Heringsâschereieu sind eehr launenhaft, ein Jahr kommt 
àer Hering frUh, ein anderee spàt; ein Jnhr zeigt er sich an diesem 
Ort, ein folgendes an einem anderen. Dièses gilt jedoch meist 
den Fetthering, der von Bergen bis Tromse Âmt gefangen wird. 
Pie grtiszten Fettheringsfischereien fin den doch in Nordlandg 
nnd Tromsa Amt statt. • 

Um den Hering einzusaizen, rUsten Eaufleute in Bergen, Hauge- 
aund, Stavanger, Kristiansnnd, Trondhjem u.s.w. Dampfschîffe nnd 
Segelscbiffe eus ; ebenso tbun Hunderte von Eleiu-SpekulaDteti, welcbe 
flelbst ihre Fahrzeuge besitzen. Die Fahrzeuge werden aile mit Salz 
und Tonnen geladen, vertheilen sich làngB der Kûste und sind fertig 
aufzukaufen, wenn die Fischereien gelingen. Wenn die Fischereîen 
sich auf einen Ort koncentrieren, wie im vorigen Jahr im EidsÇord, 
entwickelt sich ein Leben und Treiben, von welchem nur der sich 1 
nen Begriff machen kann, der es selbst gesehen hat. ÂuBzer deo I 
ielen Tausenden von Fischern und den Hunderten von Salzern, strômen 
ine Menge Mâ.nner und Frauen hinzu, die den Fisch kehlen und 
insalzen. Âuch kommen eine Menge Handelsleute in allen Bran- 
chen dabin. Fine Bude erhebt sich nach der anderen, mit den 
verlockendsten Waaren ftir das Volk gefiillt. Geld wird, wenn 
auch nicht leicht und gleichmâszig, bo doch reichlidi verdient, und 
das Geld rollt leicht von Hand zu Haud. 

Wenn man ans den officiellen Ângaben ersieht, dasz das Evan- 
tum in einer Woche bis auf 80,000 Maasz (à 160 Liter) Hering 
Bteigen kann, wird man besaer veratehen, welche groeze Thàtigkeit 
sich entwickeln musz, damit dièses Kvantum eingesalzen werden 
kann. 

Wenn ein Segelschiff oder ein Dainpfschifl voile Ladung liât, 
gelit ea sofort n;ich Hause oder nach einer der Exportstâd ten. 
Hier wird der Hering entweder verkauft, und das Schiff rait Salz 
und Tonnen fur die nâchste Tour geladen, oder auch vfird det 
Hering ausgeladen und so schnell wie môglich filr den Ezport 
verpackt, und nach dem Markte geschickt, wo man vermutet, den 
hftchsten Preis zu erhalten. Tag und Nacht wird gearbeitet, denn 
die Konkurrenz ist grosz um die erste neueWaare auf denMarkt zu 
bringen. Spâter geht es ruhiger vor sich, aber wâbrend des Fischene 
ist es ejne ratihevolle Zeit, sowohl in den Orten, wo gefischt wird 
wie in den Exportstâdten. 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC I 



— 131 — 

la JTûLeren Zeiten ging allée ruhiger. Man segelte mit aeinen 
kleinen Fabrzeugen hinaus und vertheilte den Hering in den kleinen 
Stâdten an der Ostsee, an der ânnischen Bucht u.b.w. 

Die DampfBchifTe, die festen ExportliDien u.b.w. haben den 
Umsatz weBentlich um die grÔBzeren Centren des Heringshandels 
gesammelt. Von diesen haben Stettin, Konigsberg, Danzig, Ham- 
burg, Eostock, Kopenbagen, G^ôteborg. Stockholm, Libau, Petera- 
burg, Riga und Helsingfors die leitenden Stellen eingenommen. In 
Amerika sind es Chikago und Newyork. — 

Diejenigen welche selbst nicht mitfahren um ihren Hering zu 
verkaufen, verBchicken ibn in Eonsignation oder verkaufen ihn in 
fester Eechnung fob oder cif. — Unsere Bestrebungen gehen darauf 
binaus, uns von der Konaignation wegzuaibeiten und zum festen 
Verkauf zu gelangen. Es ist mir eine Freude sagen zu konnen, 
dasz es hiermit immer vorwarts geht. Die Stadt, welche bierio 
Torangegangen ist, und noch die leitende Stellung einnimmt im 
Verkanf von Hering in fester Rechnung, ist Bergen; aber andere 
Stàdte folgen nach. Nach Amerika wird jetzt schon ailes in fester 
fiecbnnng verkauft. 

Wenn wir nun, wahracbeinlich in der nâchsten Zukunft, ein 
Terbesaertes Gesetz fUr unaere Heringatonnen erhalten, und hoffent- 
licb auch ein freiwilligea Wracken (Brandung) des Herings eingeftibrt 
wird, habe ich den Glauben und die Hoffnung, dasz dièses unserem 
Heringsbandel einen Stosz Torw&rts geben werde. 

Unsere Heringsfischereien sind wie schon gesagt sehr unregel- 
maszig ; dièses macht, dasz es sowohl flir den Fischer me auch itir 
im Zwischenbândler und den Exporteur ein hazardieuses Ote- 
schaft ist. 

Ich will ganz kurz die Hauptfischereien besprechen. 

Wenn die Fettheringslischerei frilh beginnt, die Qualitat gut 
iat, und die Grôsze der Heringe gut ausfâllt, sind wir gUnstig 
gestelit, weil wir wâhrend der beaten Konsumzeit auf den Hârkten 
teilnehmen kônnen, nâmlich im August, September und Oktober. 
Fângt die Fischerei dagegen erat Ende September oder An&ng 
Oktober an, dann ist der schottische, hollàndische und der deutsche 
Hering alleinhertschend gewesen. 

Selbet wenn wir im Oktober, November und December auf die 
Uârkte kommen mit einem filr die Jahreszeit prima Hering, der 



— 132 — 

aucli billig ist im Verhâltnis zu den Preisen, welche filr die anderen 
Sorten bezahlt worden sind, gelinj^t es uns doch nicht, grôezere 
Quanta zu verkaufen. Die ErtahruDgen haben wiederholt gezeigt, 
dasz es weit besser gewesen wâre, wenn eine kleinere Partie daTon 
eingesalzen worden wâre. Mehrere Jahre ist auch nicht so viel 
gesalzen worden, wie man batte salzen kônnen. Ber Hering iet 
reichlicb vorhanden gewesen, aber die Fischer sind wieder nack 
Hanse gegangen wegen Mangel an Kâufem ; und Hering, welcher 
schon eingesperrt war, ist wieder freigelassen worden. 

DieSlo- oderUroszheringsfiachereiist sehr unregelinàsstg gewesen. 
Im Jahre 1886—87 und 87 — 88 batten wir reiche Fiscbereien bei 
Flore und nordwàrts, einige Jahre darauf hatten wir sie in Sûd- 
und Ost-Norwegen. Im Jahre 1896 — 97 und 97—98 hatten wir 
wieder reiche Fischerei in Sendmflre und Norfjord. 

Fine Waarheringsfischerei in Stavanger, im stiâlichen und nord- 
lichen Bergenhus Âmten haben mr nun eine Rei))e von Jabren 
gehabt, wenn auch lange nicht so reich wie wâ.brend der vorigen 
Waarheringsperiode. 

Es hat sich wiederholt gezeigt, dasz selbst in einem Jahr 
wie dem letzten, wo die schottische, bollândische und dentsche Fische- 
reien, wenn nicht miszlungen, [doch bedeutend geringer als sonst 
waren, und wo dazu die schwedische Fischerei ganz miszlang, dasz 
es sehr schwer liir uns ist, einen Markt finden zu kSnnen, wo wir 
grôszere Partien Slohering, wie auch spâ,tgef&ngenen Fetthering 
und Waarbering, zu lohnenden Preisen verkaufen kônnen. 

Die Frage wird daher sein, was kônnen wir thun um unsere 
Heringsfischereien in einem weit groszeren Maaszstabe ausnutzen zu 
kônnen. Keine Fischerei setzt so viele Hânde in Bewegung wie 
die Heringsfischerei. Auszer den Tauaenden, welche damit beschlif- 
tigt sind, den Hering zu fischen, ihn zuîîubereiten und ihn nach den 
Exportstellen zu bringen, giebt es wieder Tausende, die direkt oder 
indirekt ihren Antheil daran haben. Von jeder Tonne Hering, die 
exportiert wird, kann raan rechnen, dasz auszer dem Eosten des 
Heringa 5 bis 7 Kronen dem Lande zugute kommen als Arbeits- 
geld, Tonnen, Fracht, Assecuranz u. 8. w. 

Unser Ziel musz daher sein, bis auf das AtUzerste darauf hinzu- 
arbeiten, das Produkt so viel wie môglich zu veredeln, durch eine 
réelle Sortierung, eine feste Verpackung und eine so solide Embal- 



— 133 — 

lage, dasz der Hering in gutem Ziistaiide zu den Konsumenten 
gelangen kann. 

Das Eisenbahmietz entwickelt sich îiberall schnell, neue Was- 
serwege werden gebaut, die gewôhniichen Landstraszen werden ge- 
besaert uiid vermehrt, dièses ailes miissen wir ausnutzen, uni unaero 
Màrkte zu erweiten, 

Icb habe meinen Blick ineit>t auf Rusziand gelenkt. In Folge 
der officîellen Statistik war der gesaiumelte Import in Rusziand: 
1890 ca. 543,000 Tonnen. 



1891 


- 468,000 


1892 


- 666,000 


1893 


- 800,000 


1894 


- 761,000 


1895 


- 700,000 


1896 


- 740,000 



Bis zum ersten Januar 1876 war der HeringszoU ein Silber-Rubel 
pr. Tonne Hering à 10 Pud, 

Vom 1. Januar 1877 1 Rb. Gold pr. Tonne 
„ 1. — 1881 1.10 - „ — . 

„ 1. Juli 1882;i5 Kop, Pud (Brutto) 
„ 1. Januar 1885 22 „ „ — 

„ 1. Novbv. 1887 27 „ „ — 

Diesen Friihling wurde es bestimmt, dasz nach dem Wracken 
<ias Bruttogewicht von den leeren Tonnen abgezogen werden soUte. 
Dièse immer zunehmende Erholinng des Zoils auf Hering ist kaum 
gemacht, um die Einnahmen des Staates zu erhohen, aber man 
kann wohl mit Bestimmtheit annehmen, dasz es gemacht worden 
ist um die Astrachanschen Heringslîschereien zu beschtitzen. 

Nach einer Angabe dess Herrn Professer Dr. Grimin werden 
die Astrachanschen Fischereien immer geringer. 
Der Fang war im Jahre 

226 Millionen Hering. 



1883 


226 


1884 


231 


1885 


328 


1886 


316 


1887 


278 


1388 


210 


1889 


124 


1890/96 


120 


1897 


100 


1898 


60 



iv, Google 



~ 134 — 

Trotz des hohen Zolles iet der Import von 543,000 Tonnen im 
Jahre 1890 bis auf 740,000 Tonnen im Jahre 1896 gestiegen. 

Dièses . bezeugt, dasz Ruszland des fremden Herings bedarf; 
die russischen Bestrebungen, dieaen Bedarf selbst zu decken, siiid 
nicht gelnngen. 

Im Jahre 1894 faat der kaiserlich russische Consul in Finmar- 
ken, Herr Beresnikow, dem russischen Ministerium des Inneven einen 
làngeren Bericht liber den norwcgiscfaen Heringshandel zukommen 
lasaen. Hierhei erwâhnt der Consul, dasz in Norwegen die Frage 
Ton einei' passenden Emiedrigung des russischen Keringszolles ein 
allgemeines Thema sei. Dieser Bericht wurde in die „Russische 
Fiachereizeitung" aufgenommen und hat nach der Aussage des 
Herrn Stipendiât Falsen groszes Intéresse geweckt, Der Redakteur 
der Fischereizeitung, Herr Professor Dr. Grimm bat unter anderem 
Folgandes iiber diesen Bericht geâuszert: 

„MitHinweis auf das frtiber Genannte, ist es vôllig begreiflicb, 
„dasz die skandinavischen Reiche ibre Aufmerksamkeit jetzt speciell 
„auf RuBzIand ricbten, welches durch seine grosze Bevolkerung nicht 
„a11ein der Hauptkonsument fiir skandinavischen Hering, aber aucti 
„weniger anspruchsvoll als die iibrigen europàischen Keiche werden 
„konnte." 

Der gesalzene Hering ist und musz eine Hauptuahrung der ar- 
meren Bevolkerung bilden; er ist ein Nahrungsmittel, welches fur 
die griechisch-kathoHsche russische BeTolkerung wahrend des Fa- 
stens unentbehrlich ist. Eine Verbesserung der Nahrungsmîtteln der 
ârmereu Bevolkerung musz von jedem Lande als eine Sache von 
groszer Bedeutung angesehen werden. 

Norwegen ist das Land, welches der russischen Bevôlkerang 
dièse billige und nahrhafte Speise verschaffen kann. Wir werden 
als Bege) eine fleischtolle, haltbare und in allen Theilen gut behan- 
delte Waare zu einem Preiae von lO^l.^i M. pr. Tonne cif rus- 
sischen Hafen liefern konnen. Wie die Verhâltnisse nun sind mit 
einem Zoll von 27 Kop. Gold pr. Pud, ist es klar, dasz der Kon- 
sum stark begrenzt sein niusz, wenn der Zoll in einzelnen Fallen 
Uber 100 "la des Verkaufswertes der Waare auf erster Hand ausmaclit. 

Wenn wir zu dem alten Zoll 1 Eb.Silher pr. Tonne Hering a 
10 Pud zurlickkommen kiinnten, wurde es eine Sache von groezer 
ôkonomischer Bedeutung fUr die niedereti Elassen Buszlands sein; 
fiir Norwegen wurde es eine nicht weniger groaze Bedeutung haben- 



— 135 — 

Wir wiirden oft unsere Heringsfiachereien gaiiz anders aus- 
nutzen kônnen aU jetzt. Kein Land kann Hering in so groszen Men- 
gen fangen wie Novwegen und Schweden, wenn der Hering in ui>- 
sere nFîorde" kommt. Wir kônnen daher auch die fertige Handels- 
Wiiare billiger liefern aU irgend eine beringsfiscbende Nation. 

Herr Professor Dr. Grimm sagt, dasz dei- russische Konsument 
wenigei' anspruchsvoll ist, was die Qualitât betrifft. Dièses ha- 
ben wir auch erfahren und &h wir eines erweiterten Marktes fllr 
Herbst und Winterhering bedUrfen, kann Busziand dièse geeunde^ 
nabrhafte und billjge Nalirung fur den niederen 'fheii der Bevôlke- 
rang benutzen. 

Wir importieren unseren grôszten Bedarf an Korn von Ruez- 
land. In Folge der Statistik ist unser luiport von Euszland 21V» 
Millionen Kronen, und unser Export 4 Millionen. 

Wenn wir nun wegen des neuenHandelstraktats verhandein sol- 
leii, musz unsere Aufmerksamkeit unter anderen wichtigen Fragea 
nicht am wenigsten auf den HeringszoU gelenkt sein. Nach priva- 
ten Mittheilungen soll nian in Euszland nicht abgeneigt sein, dea 
HeringszoU zu erniedrigen, 

Der Zoll fur gesalzenen Fisch ist 42 Kop. Gold, oder dasselb» 
aïs wenn der Markt flir norwegische Exporteure geschlossen wâre, 
Dagegen ist sowohl î"i9ch wie Hering zollfrei, wenn sie in russi- 
schen Schiffen und aïs ruasisches Eigenthum von Finmarken einge- 
Tiilirt werden. 

Ich will aber auf die Sache nicht nâher eingelien, da der Han- 
delaverein in Finmarken zur Zeit dièse Frage behandelt. 

Wenden wir uns jetzt nach Deutschtand, Im Jahre 188.5 ver- 
Bucbte der Direktor der „Emder Heringsfischerei Aktien-Gesell- 
scbaft" den HeringszoU auf 4Va hôchst 6 M. zu erhoben- DieGe- 
seilachaft batte, wie aile anderen neuen Unternehmungen, gegen 
viele Schwierigkeiten zu kampfen. Aile Parteien waren mittlerweile 
gegen eine Zollerhôhung, und der Zoll blieh unverandert. 

Die Gesellscbaft arbeitete mit Tiichtigkeit vorwârts und bat ea 
spilter dabin gebracht, eine Dividende bis 15 % auszutheilen. 

In Folge dièses guten Résultâtes haben sich viele neue Ge- 
sellschaften in Gliickstadt, Altona, Vegesack und Geestemilnde ge- 
bildet. Die Mehrzahl dieser Gesellschaften haben hart um ihrDa- 
sein kampfen milssen, sie kônnen grosztentheils dem Staate ver- 



— 136 — 

âanken, welcher um die Uochseetiscbereieii zu fordcm, sie mitgros- 
aen Summen uDterstiitzt hat, dasz sie noch bestehen. 

Im Jahre 1896 wurde eine neue Agitation von einigen Ostsee- 
Fiachern ins Werk gesetzt, 

Dièse Agitation wurde von dem BeichstagsmanD, Heim tûd 
La,ngen, geleitet. Jetzt verlangte raan einen Zoll von 10 M. pr, 
Totme gesa,Izenen Hering und einen entsprechenden tur friscben 
Hering. 

Es giebt ja Gegenden im deutschen Reiche, wo nicht so m\ 
Hering gegessen wird, aber in Ost- und Westpreuszen, Ponimern, 
Poeen, der Mark, Schlesien, Lausitz, Sachsen, Thiiringen, Mecklen- 
burg, Tbeiien von Hannover und Braunschweig. bildet der Hering ein 
Hauptnahrungsmittel. In der Rhoinpiovinz und Westfalen wird ne- 
ben dem Stockfisch ziemlich viel Hering von der Landbevôlkerung 
gegeesen. Dieae letzte Erhôhung des Zolles wurde von Herm Prâ- 
«ident Herweg gestfitzt, welcher sich fïir einen Zoll von 9 M- pr. 
Tonne entschieden bat, wogegen frischer Hering zollfrei sein soilte, 

Das Ziel dea Herrn Prasidenten ist wahrscheinlich die deutschen 
Hochsee-Fischereien zu einer solchen Hôhe zu erheben, dasz Deutsch- 
àand sicb selbst aeinen Bedarf an Hering verschaffen kann. 

Die europâiscbe Produktion ïon gesalzenem Hering war in ileii 
Jahren 

1895 1696 

In Schottland 965,000 crans gegen 960,000 

- Holland 458,677 Tonnen „ 474,929 

- Norwegen Fettbering 645,000 „ „ 100,000 

— Slo- und Waarbering 160,000 „ „ 160,000 

- Schweden 400,000 „ „ 4O,O0u 

- Deutschland 40,000 „ „ 57.000 

2,658,677 Tonnen gegen 1.791,9^9 

Der jâbrliche Import Deutschiands ist.l*/-' Million Tonnen 
Hering, einige Jahre gewisz viel daruber. 

Wenn man das ganze Quantum Hering anaieht, ist nur ein 
ganz geringer Theil deutschen Ursprungs. Wie frUber gesagt mi 
■die norwegischen Fischereien sehr unregelmèiszig. Wir konnen 
Jahre aufweiaen, die bedeutend ûber dem Jahre 1895 stehen, dagegen 
war das Jahr 1896 vollstandig miaziungen. 



— 137 — 

Eioe Erhôhung des Zolles von 3 bis 9 oder 10 M. wiirde tût 
den deutschen Bauer und Arbeiter sehr fUblbar werden. 

In eioer frûheren Période wnren die Heringspreise hiiher, 20 
— 30 M, pr. Tonne wodurcb der Zoll ca. 10 7o wurde. 

In den spMeren Jabren dagegen, ausgenommen 1897, ist der 
Hering sehr billig gewesen, 7 bis ca. 20 M. IVansito, der Zoli 
Terteuert dann die Waare um 30 — 45%. 

Wenn man davon ausgeht, dasz gesaizener Hering ein Haupt- 
DEihningsmittel der àrmeren Bevolkerung bildet, ist dièses scbon 
eine sehr hobe Besteuerung. SoUte der Zoll auf 10 M. pi-. Tonne 
erhoht werden, wtirde dièses Volksnahrungsraittel von 60 auf HO"'© 
Terteueri; werden. Es ist von mehreren Seiten ausgesprocben 
worden, dasz nicbt der Konsument, sondern der Producent den 
Zoll bezablt. Dièse AufFassung kann ich nicbt tbeilen. Die Konjunktur 
kann ein Mal macben, dasz der Producent bezablen musz, ein 
anderes Mal der Zwischenbândler, in der Regel aber musz der 
Konsument den Zoll und den bierauf berechneten Verdienst bezablen. 

Es bat sicb wiederholt gezeigt, dasz der Konsum abnimuit, 
wenn der Preis des Herings sehr steigt. 

Zuletzt zeigte sicb dièses sehr auffallend im vongen Jabr. 

Der Preis des CrownfuUs stieg bis zu 40 M. pr. Tonne, der 
gewiihnliche Preis ist 30—32 M. gewesen. 

CrownfuUs und die grôszeren bollândiscben Marken waren 
wenig ïorbanden; dieiKeringsh&ndler kauften nur kleinere Partieen 
im Herbst, um docb etwas fiir ibre inlândischen Kunden zu haben. 
AW was gescbab? Die Kaufer zogen Fetthering, kleinere hoUând- 
ische Marken und norwegischen Waarbering vor. Dièse Sorten 
konnte der Detailhândler dem Publikum zu gewôhnlichen Preiseii 
liefern. 

Wenn die Heringspreise liber eine gewisse Grenze hinausgehen, 
' hôrt der Konsum auf, oder der Konsument begniigt sicb mit einer 
kleineren und billigeren Waare, 

Kann man eine gute Quabtât Fetthering zu moderaten Preisen 
liefern, ist der Konsum gut. Hierfur hatten wir einen vollen Beweis 
im vorigen Jabr. Der Vorschlag, den Zoll zu erbôhen, bat iiberall 
Opposition geweckt; aile groszen Importstâdte wie Hamburg, Rostock, 
Stettin, Danzig, Kônigsberg, wie aucb raehrere Vereine haben sicb 
bestimmt gegen eine Erhohung des Zolles ausgesprocben. Als der 



— 138 — 

Yorschlag an das Pétitions- Komite des Reichstags kam, wurde die 
Sache nicht behandelt, aber zuriickjïelegt. Die Sache kam bo im 
diesem Jabr nicht im Reichstage vor und wird hoffentlich einige 
Jahre ruben. Wir k(3nnen mittlerweile nicht wissen, wann die Fra^e 
wicder aufgenommen werden kano, und wir milssen daher unsere 
Aufmerksamkeit darauf richten. 

DeutBchland kann keinen Fetthering verschaffen, wie schnell 
es auch seine Hochseefischerei entwickelt; und da der Fetthering 
seine vielen Kunden in Deutschiand hat, spricht vieles dafiir, daez 
Norwegen im Falle eine Ausnahme von der Regel machen konnte. 

Norwegens Import tod Deutschland ist 64 Millionen Kronen 
gegen 18 Millionen Export. 

Dièses soUte dafUr sprechen, dasz eine der Hauptexportartikel 
des westlichen und nôrdlichen Norwegens bei Traktatsabschlieszungen 
gewisse Forderunge» stellen dUrfte. 

Die Verhâltnisse in Osterreich-Ungarn sind wie in Ruszlanrt, 
mit einer Steuer von ca 8 Kronen pr. Tonne. Dieser hohe Zoll 
hemmt den Konsum bedeutend. 

Es wiirde von groszem Interesse sein, wenn die geehrten 
Representanten sich liber die besprochene Frage àuszern wiirden. 

Ich musz die Herren zu entschuldigen bitten, dasz dieser 
Vortrag nicht so grttndlich ausgearbeitet ist, wie ich es gewiinscht 
hâtte; aber meine Zeitist von andererArbeit in Anspruch genommen 
worden, auch habe ich die n6tigen Materiale nicht vorhanden 
gehabt. 



GenebaTjKONSUL TÔTTEEMANN: Der Vortrag den wir soeben 
gehSrt b&ben, berlihrt nicht nur den Heringsexport aus Norwegen nach 
Russland, sondera auch die Handelsverbindungen zwiachen Ruasland 
und Norwegen iiberhaupt in einer solchfu Weise, dass îeh mich aiif- 
gefordert fiihle daa Wort zu verlangen hauptsàchlich nur um das that- 
sàchHche Verhaltnise herzustellen und Missverstàndniaee zu beaeitigen, 
ohne die Entscheidung der Intereasefragen prejudicïren zu woUeu. 

Erstena erlaube ich mir an den Herra Pràsidenteu die hôflichste Au- 
frage zu richten, ob die Discusaion ûber den Gegeuatand des Vortra- 
ges auch in der deutachen Sprache gefùhrt werden muas, da Herr 
Weatergaard aeinen Vertrag, der in norwegiach gedmckt vorlîegt, uns 
in deutBcher Ûbersetzung vorgeleaen hat, oder ob îch meine Bemerk- 
angen in der norwegischen oder franzSsischen Sprache darstellen darf. 



— 139 — 

Deb Pbabisent âodet es wunschenswert, dass die dentscb» 
Spraclie benutzt werde. 

Hebbn Tôttermann*) : Dem ausgeaprochenen Wimache des Herm 
Prâsidenten gemàsa werde ich der geehrten Veraammlung même BO' 
tnerkungen in der deatscheu Sprache vortragen, obwoM ioh leider nur 
wenig darpn gewôhnt bîn eine Discussion ia der Deutscheo Sprache 
zu fjihreu. 

Da 9r. Westergaard behauptet, Russland habe den bestebenden 
Ha.ndelsvertrag mit SchwedeD-Norwegen „aufgehoben", muas ich die- 
Ben Ausdruck dahin beriobtigea, dasa die Kaiaerliche Regierung den 
Traktat „gekiindigt", denoncirt, liât, um die durchaus antiquirten Be- 
Btimmungen desselbeo durch neue, den rordeningen der gegenwSrtigeo 
Handels verbal tniase entsprecbenden Bestimmungeii zu ersetzen. 

Der Auadnick (an der Ôten Seite des gedrucbten norwegîacben 
Vortrages), daas „gesalzene Fiacbe und Heringe in Busaland zollfreî 
sind, wenn dieselben in ruasischen Schiffen und ala rusaiachea Eigen- 
thum eingefiihrt werden", rauss die durchaos unrichtige Vorstellung 
bervorrufen, dasa in allen nisaischen Hâfen die Einiuhr geealzener 
l'ische in allerlei rugsischen Scbiffen und (ur RechnuQg Russiacber 
Unterthanen ûberbaupt zollfrei sei. Daa die norwegiacbe Einfuhr 
hemmende Verhàltniss, welches Herr Westergaard bat horvorheben 
nollen, ist wahrscheinlich die zollfreie Einfuhr geaalzener Eiache durch 
die Kiiateneinwobner der Archangelschen Gouvernements in ihren ei- 
genen Scbiffen. Eine aolcbe Begiinstigung der einheimischen Fiacberei- 
levolkerung ist ja notoriacb auch in den internation al en Vertragen Nor- 
wegens vorausgesetzt, z. B. im Handelsvertrage mit Belgien. 

Da Herr Weatergaard die russische Zollabgabe von gesalzenen 
Heringen als eine gegen die Einfuhr fremder, in casu norwegiseher, 
Heringe gericbtete Masaregel darstellt, eo will ich meinerseits die Aof- 
merkaamkeit der geebrten Veraammlung auf die beaoudere Begiinsti- 
gung der Einfuhr ans Norwegen lotiken. Die besondere Begiinstigung 
beaoeht, erstens, in der Bofreiung oder Exemption der aua Norwegen 
eiugefiibrten Heringe von jeder Entrepôt oder Niederlags-Abgabe an 
die StaatakaBae, zweitena in den atipulirten langen Entrepotterminen 
— acht-bia zwolf Monate — in versobiedenen russischen Hâfr.n, und 
drittena, in der Eestatellung eines raaximalen Betrages der Abgabe, 
welcbe iur das Aufbewahren der norwegischen Heringe in den der 
Stadt Petersburg gehôrigen Magazinen gehoben werden kann. 



*) Die ersten beiden Abschnitte Jii dem Vortrage des Herm Tôttermann 
bsîielien aich aaf Bemerkungen dea Herrn Westergaard, welche BÎcti in dem 
deutachen Manuakript nicht finden. 



— 140 — 

Wenn Herr Westergaard die von mir ei-waliDten BegiinsJgungen 
■des norwegischen Heringaimports — vielleicbt iiicht aie genttgeude Be- 
-diugungeu fiir eine vortheîlhafte RealisatioD der norwegÎBchen Heringe 
in Russland anerkesnen kaQu, sa musa icb meinerseits doch hervor- 
heben, erstens, dass die ausgedebnten Entre pot rechte der Dorwegischen 
HeriDge wirkiîcbe, bedeuteude, onéreuse Pra'atationen vod der rusais- 
cben Seite auemncben, und zweitens, dass die KSniglicbe Noi'wegische 
Coumiasion zu Revision der Gesetaze ûber die Fischereien in Fin- 
marken dieselben Entrepotrechte der norwegischen Heringe in Euss- 
land — ala ao niitzlicb und notbwendig betracbtete, dasa aie {d, h, 
die Commiaeion) die zur Bewahniiig dieser Entrepotrechte nothwtndige 
Bestimmungen zum Besten der ruesischen Fiaober in Finmarkeo emp- 
fohl, obwohl ûbrigena die temporàre Niederlaasung fremder ~ russis- 
■cher — Fiacber in Finmarken als àuaaeret beschwerlich und unvortbeil- 
haft aiigeaehen wurde, d. b. vom Gesichtspunkte der einbeiœischeD 
Fischer in Fiomarken. Die Kônigliche Commisaion batte notoriscb bei 
-der Rédaction ihrea Gutachtens die Auaichten and Wiîusche der Ee- 
riogexportore in Bergen, Christian aaund, Stavanger u. a. w. eingeholt, 
und dieser Urostand beweist, daas auch die Heringexportore in dsn 
Handeiscentren der norwegischen Westkûste die grosse Bedeutung der 
bestebenden Entrepotrechte zu wtirdigen verateben. Die einleitendfn 
Bestimmungen zum norwegischen Zolltarif kennen ja aach eine Abgafce 
an die Staatskasse fur das Becht der Lagerung von importirten Waaren 



Wenn iibrigena die Heringesportôre ûber die in Rusaland besteh- 
eude ZoUabgabe klagen, als ob die Abgabe den Exporter treBe, so 
will ich nun daran erinnern, dass uuter normalen Verbaltnissen eine 
ZoUabgabe auf Importartikeln als den Conaummenten treffend te- 
traebtet wird, und dasa z. B. in den alteren Conventionen zwîschen 
Eussland und Schweden-Norwegen eine Stipulation wiederholt wurde. 
dass eine bestimmte Quantitât Getreide aus Rusaland obne rossische 
Exportzollabgabe nach Schweden-Norwegen esportirt werden kônne, 
80 gar in den Jahren, wenn die Ernte in Russlaud eine schlechie ge- 
wesen war. Die Bcandimavischen Regierungen machten naturlicber- 
weise dièse Bedingiing im Intéresse der Consumenten, ao lange oie 
Zufubr von Getreide aus Russland als notbwendig zur Appr o vision îraug 
der Bevolkerung be sondera in Finmarken angesehen wurde. Triït 
nun die ZoUabgabe von norwegischen Heringen den Consumenteo 
in Eussland, so scbeint es doch, dasa nicbt die norwegischen Eering- 
exportôre, sondera die ruaaischen Consumenten tiber die RassiBMe 
ZoUabgabe klagen miissten. Die Ursache der Klagen von Seiten der 

hnli... v.L.OO^IC 



— 141 — 

noi-wegischen Exportore muas ioiglich in einer maogelhaften Orga- 
nisation der Hnringausfuhr nach Russland liagen, einer Organisation, 
velclie dem Dorwegischen Exporter aile Uittel beraubt sich die Zollabgabe 
von den Consumenten zuruckbezahlen zq lassen. Ea geht Jn der 
Tliat von der Darstellung des Herrn Westergaard hervor, dasa die 
rorwegiBchen Heringe nicht îmmer verkauU werden, sondem gewôhn- 
licb in Consignation nach Aussland versandt werden, nad dass der 
Commissioaar des norwegischen Ëzportârs nicht nur die Zollabgabe, 
aondem auch veraehiedene andere bedeuteade Unkosten auf difi Koch- 
Bucg des Norwegischen Exportijrs atellt. Eine solche Veriinderung des 
Heringhandels, dass die norwegischen Exportore Ordre aua Russlaod 
abwarten oder eigene Filiale in den ruesischea Hàfen zur Verhandiung 
tler Heringe erôffoen, wiirdo wahrschoinlich eiu mehr vortheilhaftea 
(jeschaft ermbglichen und die grossen Unkosten an die Coe 



Ea geht ûbrigens ans dem Vortrage des Herrn Westergaard hervor^ 
dasB trotz der Zollabgabe die Einfuhr von Heringen eine aehr betraoht- 
licbe ist und wahrend der let^teren Jahre sich bedeutend entwickelt 
hat. Aua dem Berichte des Herrn H. Falsea ersehe ich, dasa die 
Einfuhr aua Norwegen 300,000 Tonnen betragt, ein Quantum, welches 
imgefâhr Va einea gewôhnlichen Fanges in Norwegen und beinahe '/j 
der gesammten Ëiofuhr von Heriogen nach Rusland ausmacht. Folg- 
lich giebt nicht die Quartitat der Eiufuhr Ursache zum Klagen, aon- 
dem die unvortheilhafte Natur des" G«3chàftea, die dem Esportôr keine 
Rémunération fiir seine Arbeit giebt, 

Ûbfer die Bedeutung der Handelsverbindungen zwischen Russland 
nnd Norwegen giebt der Vortrag keine richtige Voratellung durch die 
der officiellen Statistik enttehnte Auakunft, dasa die Eiufuhr Norwegena 
'lia Ruasland in 1896 emen Werth von 21 '/a Millionen Krouen, die 
Austuhr Norwegena nach Russland aber nur einen Werth von 4 
Millionen H>onen batte. Es ist ja bekannt, dass die officielle norwe- 
giache Statistib deo Werth der importirten Waaren cif berechnet, wàh- 
rend in Gegentheil der Werth der norwegischen Esportartikel fob- 
berechnet wird. Fracht uud Aaaecuranz fiir die aus Ruasland importirten 
Waaren bezahlt Norwegen jedenfalla nicht an Rusland und vom Be- 
trage von 21 Va Millionen Kronen miiasen folglich einige Millionen sub- 
trahirt werden, wahrend von der anderen Seite zum Werthe dea nor- 
wegischen Experts nach Russland die grosse indirecte Ausfuhr von 
Tischereiproducten, Cellulose, mechaniacher Papiermasse, Maschinen 
u- 9. w. liber Copenhagen, Stettin, Danzig, Kônigsberg u. a. w., so wie 
aach theilweiae die Fracht addirt werden muaa. Ausaerdem mûsaea 



. v.L.OO' 



gic 



— 142 — 

-wîr znin Werthe dsr Waorenauafuhr den grosaen Betrag der Fracb- 
ten addireo, welche die norwegiecWs HandelBSchifTe in Rnssland rea- 
Ijsirt habeu. DarQber kann man am besten artheileo, wenn tcb liier 
coDBtatire, zwar nar an a dem OedÉlohtnisBe, das» von der ein- 
ond ausgeheDâen SchifTahrt in den Hafen Ruselands weniger alB 10% 
auf die nationale russiache Flagge, mehr als 90 '*/a aiif die fremden 
Flaggen kommt. Welche weite Perapectiv erôfiiiet aicb tmter solchen 
TJmstânden fiir die Frachtfabrt der nonvegischen HaDdelsmarine is 
Eussland. Icb will ntur ein Beispiel anfahren. Unter den gliicklicben 
CoDJTincturen, welche ein lebhafter Waarenumaatz in Verbindung mit 
den Vortheilen der Nentralit&t wâhrend einea groasen Kriegea Norwe- 
gen geacbaffen batte in 1877. waren 730,000 Tons Norwegischer 
Scbiffe engagirt in Frachtfabrt in den Hâfen Russlands uod realisirteD 
Brattoiracbten zom Betrage von lé'/t Millionen Kronen. Bas Jahi 
1876 batte Norwegen eine aehr acblechi» Emte gegeben, und Eusaland 
lieferte Norwegen nicht nnr daa uothwendige groaaere Quantnm von i 
<^treide, aondem auch die Mittel zur Zahtang der groasen Ëiofolir ! 
— durch den groasen Pracbtbetrag der Norwegiachen Handelsscbiffe in 
BuBsland. 

Wie sotidariscb die Interesaen Rusalanda und Norwegen a aind, 
beweiat am Ende auch der Einânaa, welcben die acblecbte Emte in 1 
Bueland in 1891, auf die Norwegiacbe nationale Wirthachaft nnd den ' 
Handel ausûbte: eratena wnrde die Einfuhr von Getreide in 1891 dem 
Volke om 18,000,000 Kronen tbfiurer, ala io gewôbnlicben Jahren, 
und zweitens reducirte die Bev6)kerung den Conaum vom importirWn 
Boggen wâhrend der 8 eraten Monate dea Jahres 1892 zii einem iin- 
glaublichen Minimum 66,000,000 Eilogram — wâhrend der Consmn 
gleich nach dem Aufheben dea Russiscben Auafubrverbotes atieg bis 
65,000,000 Eilogram <ûr die letzten vier Monate dea Jahrea 1892. 

Die groase Bedeutung der Handelaverbindungen zwischen Russiand 
und Norwegen wird die geehrte Veraamraluug beaaor und richtîger 
beurtbeiie.n kônnen auf Grund der von mir oben angefûhrten Daten, 
ala auf Grund der ZifFern der officiellen Statistik iiber den Werth der 
Einfubr und Ausfuhr obne weitere erlâutemde Commenlar. 

Professob Gbimm sprach seine Ubereinatiinmung mit Herm Tiit- 
termann ans betreffend der Statistik, aber er sei gegen ZoU auf jeder 
Ware, die dem gemeinen Manne zur Nahrung diene, Wenn Milliarden 
von Heringen, wie gesagt worden war, nach Deutachiand eingefùhrt 
wurden, bedeute dies, dass das Yolk beaaer lebe, denn die Heria^ 
seien von den Kartoffeln nnd der einformigen, kraftioaen Nahrung ein 
-Fortacbritt. Je mehr von Heringen eingetJirbrt wurde, desto besset, 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC I 



— 143 — 

Id Ruauland wnrden zuerst die Herioge frisch gôgeaaeu, und Ùemn 
hatt« man keinen Zoll. Aber nachdem maii angefangen batte die 
Eeringe geeatzeu zu eeseii, wurde ZoU auf norwegiecheu Herîng ver- 
langt. Es kam dazu, dass dlejenigea, die Zoll haben wollten, ihr 
VerlaDgen durchBetzten ; der Redner sei aber der Meinung, dasa 
dlejenigen, welche sich damais dagegen gesetzt, Elecht hatteo. Man 
bsbe es gethan um die runsiscbe Heringware, âen Astracban-Hering, 
zu scbutaen. Nun sei es aber eine Tbateacbe, dasa der Astrachaa- 
Hering dadurcb nicht hervorgebolfeii wurde; das Quantum wurde 
alljïhrlich, nacb der Eisfubrung des Zolles, kleiner. Die Einfuhr aus' 
Norwegen steige, der Verbrauch von ruaBiachen Heringen nebme ab, 
der Zoll aei obne Wertb. Aber, wenn derselbe aucb in der Eicbtung, 
wie man damais glaubte, gewirkt batte, sei der £,edner gegeu den 
ZoU, weil dieser den Preis eines NabruDgsmittels des Yolkes erhobe. 
Die Aufgabe aei, den Hering mSgUcbat billig zu acbaffen, damit er 
unter den grossen Masaen der Bevolkerung Eîngang flnden kënne; 
daher diirfe der Zoll ganz aufgehoben werden. Leider spiele ubrigens 
der Zoll beim Yerkaut eine sehr geringe £,olle; darum sei er docb 
zu klein. £s aeien andere Verhâltnisse, welcbe den bohen Preia der 
Heringe verureachten. Er nebme au, daaa eîn geaalzener Hering bier 
in Norwegen ungefàhr 2 Ôre wertb- sei. In Kussland musse er mit 
f, Kopeken gekaiifc werden. Dies werde durch die Zwiscbenbàndler, 
die Avance, vemrsacbt. Das Comniissionsgescbàft und die Prozenten 
vetteuerten dif Ware scbrerkiich. Sollten bessere Zustànde eintreteu, 
gelte es am allerersten nicbt den Zoll, aondern die bessere Ordnung 
des Handels. Dadurcb wurdeu beide Paiteien Vortbeil gewinnen, aucb 
die Russen, welcbe dadurcb den Preis des Herings mit 2 — '6 Kopeken 
reduziert bekommen kônnten. Der Aatracban-Hering sei kein Konkur- 
rpEt von Norwegen. Was es gelte, sei die Handelsverhaltnisse anders 
eiugericbtet zu bekommen. 

Deb Prabident: Ea unterliegt keinem Zweifel, daaa wenn wir 
hii^r in Norwegen den Zoll auf Getreide aufgehoben haben, wir diea in 
QDsrem eigenen Interesse gethan, und wenn von der Aufhebung des 
HeringszoUes in Ruszland die Rede ist, konnen wir nur boffen, dass 
Russland zu dem Resultate kommen wird, dasa diea in dem Interesse der 
Einwohner von Russland ist, sonst kônnen wir veraichert sein, dasa ea 
nicht gescheben wird. Es bat mk deshalb sehr gefreut, die Ansicb- 
teii hieruber kennen zu lernen, die vom Profesaor Grimm auagesprochea 
wurden. Der Herr Profeaaor meint jedoch, daas der Grund dasa 
Heringe in Russland ao kostapielig geworden sind, ebenao viel oder 
vielleicht nocb mehr von der schlecbten Organiaation des Handels her- 



— 144 — 

rîilirt aïs von dem Zolle, imd er meint dasa die Schuld dieser acblechteo 
Organisation hanpts&chlich bei den beiingaproducirenden L&ndem zu 
suchen ist. 

SoUen geealzene Heringe in groeseren Mengen in Huest&nd abge< 
eetzt werden konnen, ist ee nothwendig dasa sie nach dem Innereu des 
Landea verkauft werden kônnen. 

Unter den jetzigen Verh&ttniaaen bei dem bohen Zolle, den groaseu 
Verkaufaabgaben nnd Tranaportunkoaten werden die Heringe aber 
so theuer, wenn aie nach dem Inneren kommen, dass es fiir den Bauern 
*8ehr achwer aeîn muaa die Preise zu zahlen. Soll dies geondert wer- 
den, wird ea gewias nothwendig sein dahin zu arbeiten, daaa aile drei 
Fosten reducirt werden kdnnen; waa der Handel betrifFt, wird es noth- 
weadig aein, dass die Heringe vom Auslande direct nach dem Inneren 
Ruaalanda verkaaft werden. Dies atosat indessen bei dem Wrackaystem, 
daa in Ruaaischen Oataeehàfen beateht, auf Schwierigkeiten, weil die 
Heringe nicht hereinkommen konnen ohne in einem von dieaen Hofen 
gewrackt zu werden; man muas sich denn aa eine Firma in einem 
dieser Hfifen wenden um dies besorgt zu bekommen. £s giebt anch 
andere Onmde, aus welchen ich dem Herm Orimm nicht ganz bei- 
atimmen kann. 



.;, Google 



IUSSEieMMNT 
PEOraSSIOHII MS MARINS ÎÏCHEMS ES HUJÎCB. 



MesBieure : 

Je me propose aujourdhui de tous indiquer très rapidement 
l'évolution subie par certaines de nos grandes pêches maritime» 
françaises, les besoins nouveaux que cette transformation a amenés ^ 
et enfin quels sont les eiïorts que l'initiative privée, secondée par 
l'état, a fait dans notre pays pour permettre à nos pêcheurs d'ac- 
complir leur profession avec plus de profits et moins de dangers. 
Le programme de nos séances étant très chargé, je me bornerai 
ici aux grandes lignes de la question que vous trouvez étudiée plus 
à fond dans un mémoire que j'ai publié à Paris l'an dernier. 

Et d'abord permettez moi de vous indiquer en quelques mots- 
quelle est l'importance de la pêche maritime en France. 

Les statistiques officielles nous montrent, en chiffres ronds,. 
que 90 000 marins se livrent à la pêche , en employant à cet usage 
27000 bateaux, jaugeant ensemble 174000 tonneaux. La valeur 
de cette flotte de pêche est de 32500000 francs, et celle des fileta 
et autres engins employés, de 21 millions de francs. En outre, 
50000 personnes environ pratiquent la pêche â, pied le long de 
nos côtes. 



n,s,t,.,.d.^.toOglc 



— 146 — 

La valeur des produits provenant de l'exploitatioii des mers 
est variable suivant les années, elle s'élève actuellement & 100 
mitlioDB de francs en moyenne. 

Ed 1894, la pèche en {bateau a .rapporté 89686728 trancs, 
et la pêche k pied,|9763670 francs. 

Laissant de côté la pêche k pied , dont le produit est d'environ 
10 millions de francs, nous^vojone^ quelles 90 millions de frtmcs, 
produits par la^péche en bateau,^se répartissent ainsi (année 1894): 




- Diagramme repiteentant les valeon comparAsa des ditHreotei pSchM 



Pèche à la moiue. 

HBreng salé 

Mftqnereau hhIé . . . 

SavdiiiPB et allncliea . , . 

Ancbois ^t apvats 

Thon 

Saumon 

Poisson frais 

Divers: huîtres, moules. 
homards, langoustes. 



/ Islande et mer du Nord. 7 479 877\,„oûi bm 
\ Terre-Neuve 5 S18 752 r^Wl 629 

{tZ'^lW''^' 

(■13015121 .-093, 

\4vmmf ^'"^ I 

9 418 704 

801 084 

2 905 698 I 

1 031 381 

356B9 784 

9720B47 

ToTiL 89686 728 

l.nU: <X<OOg\C 



— 147 — 

Cette statistique dous montre que la pêche la plus importante, 
cell« dont les transformations doivent surtout nous intëreBser, est celle 
du poisson &ais. Or, si nous négligeons les petites quantités prises 
dans le voisinage de certaines villes avec des eugins tout spéciaux, 
p«tite quantité uniquement destinée d'ailleurs & l'alimentation locale, 
pour ne considérer que la pêche véritablement industrielle, nous 
pouvons affirmer que la presque totalité de ce poisson est capturée 
avec des lignes de fond que nous appelons cordes ou bien avec des 
engins traînants comme le chalut ou l'ottertrawl. Dans le nord 
de la France et sur une partie des côtes de l'ouest, ces deux pro- 
cédés sont également employés, et les principaux centres de cette 
pêche sont Boulogne et Dieppe. En Normandie et en Bretagne, en 
Vendée et dans le golfe de Gascogne, la pêche aux cordes est bien 
moins pratiquée; Trouville, Groix, la Bochelle, Arcachon, peuvent 
être regardés comme les centres de la pêche du poisson frais dans 
ces régions. Examinons maintenant quelles sont les transformations 
subies dans l'application de ces procédés de capture; et d'abord 
parlons de la pêche aux cordes, A Boulogne, autrefois, cette pêche 
était pratiquée exclusivement par de petites barques non pontées, 
de 3 à 4 tonneaux, montées par une dizaine d'hommes d'équipage. 
Ces cordiers à voile s'éloignaient peu des côtes et revenaient tous 
les soirs rapporter au port le produit de leur pêche, mais le pois- 
son étant devenu plus rare auprès des côtes , ils furent bientôt obligés 
de gagner le large efc de rester jusqu'à, une semaine sans rentrer 
au port. Le rendement de cette pêche était loin de récompenser 
les pêcheurs de toutes les peines prises dans l'exercice de cette 
périlleuse industrie, aussi commencèrent-ils à disparaître dès l'appa- 
rition des premiers coidiers à vapeur. A Dieppe la même trans- 
formation s'est aussi opérée, et les cordiers h vapeur ont presque 
totalement remplacé les cordiers à voile. 

En ce qui concerne la pêche au chalut, nous trouvons aussi la 
même évolution de la pêche côtière vers la pêche hauturière, le 
tonnage des bateaux k voile augmente et le nombre des bateaux 
de pêche à vapeur s'accroit; les dimensions des engins deviennent 
plas considérables, on va pêcher loin de toutes terres, et les pê- 
cheurs restent des semaines entières sans regagner la côte. 

Cette transformation de l'industrie des pêches devait amener 
fatalement une transformation de l'instruction des pêcheurs, une 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



élêTatifin de leur niveau intellectuel. Péchant hors de vue des 
côtes, il leur était devenu indispensable de posséder des notions 
de navigation suffisantes pour leur permettre de s'orienter et de 
suivie en mer une route quelconque tracée sur la carte, afin de 
pas les exposer, et surtout en cas de brouillard ou de tempête, à ces 
cruelles méprises qu'ils paient le plus souvent de leur vie- 
Cette idée de l'eusei^ement nautique k faire aux pêcheurs de 
haute mer, a été en Fnmce la cause première de la création des 
écoles de pêche. La question lit en quelques temps de grands 
progrès, après le congrès de sauvetage de Saint-Malo en 1894, k 
société "L'Enseignement Professionnel et Technique des pêches 
maritimes" fut crée par un certain nombre de personnes dévouées, 
MM. Cacheux, Roche, Coûtant etc. dont les noms Bont bien 
connus de vous. Cette société, grâce â l'appui du Ministre de la 
marine, put créer quelques mois après sa fondation une première 
école de pêche à 6roix. L'endroit étnit des mieux choisis pour une 
institution de ce genre; Groix est en effet un centre important de 
la pêche bretonne et possède environ 300 dundees de 15 à 20 
tonneaux, qui suivant les saisons pratiquent alternativement, soitk 
pêche au chalut soit la pèche du thon aux lignes flottantes. Ds 
n'hésitent pas k s'éloigner très au large, apportant au bout de plu- 
sieurs jours seulement leur pêche dans les ports de la région. 

On conçoit ce que cette navigation présente de dangers pour 
des marins peu au courant des procédés d'orientation, et que de 
périls peuvent surgir dans les attérissages de cette côte bretonne 
si dangereuse piir le mauvais temps. 

Aussi, dès que les cours de l'école furent ouverts, ils lurent 
suivis par de nombreux élèves, et des patrons pécheurs de 50 ans 
n'hésitèrent pas pendant leur séjour à terre à venir s'asseoir sur 
les bancs de l'école à côté de leurs mousses et de leurs matelots. D 
est vrai que le Directeur de cette école n'était pas pour eux un nouveau 
venu, c'est un professeur d'hydrographie du plus grand mérite dont 
toute la vie se passe au milieu des marins; il s'attacha à leur faire 
un cours pratique et à ne leur apprendre de théorie que ce qui 
leur était indispensable pour leur permettre l'usage des instrumenta 
nautiques. La nouvelle création de la société, cette école de Glroii, 
ne tarda pas k prospérer, et l'année suivante l'inspecteur général 
des pêches, envoyé à Groix pour faire un rapport au ministre de U 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 149 — 

marine sur le fonctionnement de l'école, fit un compte-rendu des 
plus élogîeux des résultats obtenus. 

A partir de ce moment la question était résolue, et en 4 an- 
nées 8 nouvelles écoles de pêohe furent successivement créées. Il 
j a actuellement en France 10 écoles de pécher à Boulogne, Dieppe, 
TrouTJlle, le Croisîc, Groix, les Sables d'Olonne, la Rochelle, Arca- 
cbon, Marseille et Philippeville en Algérie. 

Examinons maintenant quel est le programme de ces différen- 
tes écoles et dans quelles conditions les cours y sont faits. Il est 
évident, d'abord, que tout en restant dans ses grandes lignes dans 
les limites que j'ai indiquées, l'enseignement doit se modifier suivant 
les lieux et s'approprier aux exigences locales des régions oti son 
établies les écoles. 

D'une manière générale on a aussi pensé pouvoir adjoindre 
i cet enseignement nautique, dont les pécheurs viennent en foule 
suivre les cours, parceque les notions qu'on leur enseigne leur sont 
-à peu près indispensables, — 1 ** l'étude des premiers soins à donner 
en cas d'accidents, et avant l'arrivée du médecin, la connaissance 
■des pansements les plus usuels, les secours élémentaires à donner 
aax noyés etc.; — 2" quelques notions d'économie sociale, et un cer- 
tain nombre de leçons sur l'épargne, les assurances de toutes natures, 
les sociétés mutuelles et coopératives. Enfin ces cours sont com- 
[ilétés par des exercices pratiques sur la profession elle-même, fa- 
brication et ramendage des filets, manœuvres des engins etc. A 
Boulogne l'école est installée à bord d'un bateau à voile obligeam- 
ment concédé pai' l'état, ce qui permet à l'enseignement de revêtir 
un caractère tout h fait pratique. Boulogne est le premier port de 
pêche français, et les études pour répondre aux besoins locaux doi- 
vent être très développées; aussi nous trouvons au programme: l'étude 
de la marche et de la conduite des engins à vapeur, celle de la 
préparation et conservation du poisson, quelques développements 
sur l'étude comparée des engins de pêche en usage à l'étranger, 
Les élèves sont internes, et leur séjour à. bord du bateau-école 
dure deux ans. C'est donc plutôt une école supérieure de pêche 
destinée â assurer le recrutement et la préparation des patrons des 
barques de pèche. Ce bateau-école remplit un autre but; pendant 
la période où les équipages de grande pèche sont à terre il se rend 
dans les divers ports de la région, à Dunkerque, Berck, Etaples, 



— 150 — 

Gravelines, et on fait à bord une série de conférences aux pêcheurs, 
sur des sujetB de nature à les intéresser: nouveaux procédés d« 
capture, nouvelles préparations des produits de la pêche etc. La 
pécheurs ont assisté cette année en très grand nombre h ces coa- 
férencea. 

A Dieppe, l'enseignement est aussi très étendu, mais les pro- 
cédés de préparation du poisson ne Ëgurent pas au programme des 
cours. A Trouville, ou la pêche tout en s'exerçant loin des côtes est 
k peu près localisée dans la Manche, et l'enseignement nautique 
peut être plus élémentaire, on n'apprend plus aux élèves k taire 
les calculs de longitude et de latitude, on se borne à leur montrer 
l'emploi raisonné de la sonde et de la boussole. A Groix, au con- 
traire, c'est renseignement de la navigation qui fait l'objet du plus 
grand nombre de leçons. Les élèves sont exercés en mer au manie 
ment du sextant et de l'octant, non sur un bateau appartenant à 
l'école, car celle-ci n'en possède pas encore, mais sur les bateaus 
des pêcheurs de la localité. A Arcachon, aux Sables d'Olonne, 
les programmes sont à peu de chose près semblables à ceux de 
l'école de Groix. A Marseille l'école ne répond pas aux mêmes be- 
soins- Elle a simplement pour but d'instruire les jeunes gens, leur 
apprendre le métier de pécheur pour tes attacher à cette profession 
qu'ils seraient tentés d'abandonner pour les industries terriennes 
plus lucratives et bien moins dangereuses. Cette école est installée à 
bord d'un bateau et reçoit des pensionnaires, des demi-pensionnaires 
et des externes. Les élèves sont exercés en mer aux différentes 
pêches, h la fabrication des filets et des engins, etc. 

Enfin l'école de Philippeville récemment créée est destinée 
aussi aux enfants des pécheurs : c'est en quelque sorte une école pri- 
maire avec des exercices et des travaux concernant la pêche. 

Toutes ces écoles ont été très fréquentées: Groix a eu 256 
élèves en 1897, les Sables d'Olonne 129, Dieppe 126, etc. Comme 
ses célèbres devancières, la „SelEkabet for de tiorske fiskeriers 
fremme" et la „Seefischerei-Vereins", la Société nL'Enseignement 
professionnel et technique des pêches maritimes", a cherché à s'en- 
tourer de documents de toutes sortes pour travailler au développe- 
ment des pêches maritimes ; elle a organisé des concours, des con- 
grès de pêches, des expositions. 



— 161 — 

Ainsi c'est sous son initiative qu'a, été oi^anisé le congrès 
internationale de pèche qui s'estjtenu aux Sablea d'Olonne en 1896, 
la Section française de l'Exposition de Bergen, et c'est encore par 
son entremise que s'organise en ce moment le congrès international 
de pêche maritime qui doit se réunir h Dieppe au mois de sep- 
tembre prochain. 

Il me serait facile de m'étendre encore sur ce sujet et de vous 
montrer de ce côté-l& encore quels sont les services qu'a rendus 
cette société, mais je me bornerai h ce rapide exposé, assez incom- 
plet évidemment, mais suffisant, je l'espère, pour vous avoir montra 
quels sont les efforts faits dans notre pays pour améliorer le sort 
de cette classe si intéressante, les travailleurs de l'industrie des 
pêches maritimes. 



M. PrPE: Monsieur Pérard nous a montré la nécessité de l'in- 
struction professionnelle pour le pêcheur. 

Certes, l'armement ne pourra se soutenir si le pêcheur n'est pas 
im ouvrier capable. 

L'évolution actuelle dans l'industrie de la construction du bateau, 
l'introduction du fer et de l'acier dans cette construction, la présence 
k bord de machines à vapeur etc., a comme conséquence cbee le pâ- 
chenr la nécessité d'un niveau de connaissances très élevé. 

La boussole, qui auti'efois guidait sûrement et dont la connaissancô 
Était facile, est devenue xm des points les plus difficiles de la navi- 
gation. Si le pêcheur ne possède pas à fond la connaissance de la 
boussole i] ressemble fort à ,,1'aveugle qui conduit un aveugle". 

Dans le bateau moderne il y a une machine à. vapeur. Le pé- 
cheur doit la connaître. A défaut de cette connaissance on peut dire 
i^u'il porte à son bord une poudrière qui peut sauter à tout moment. 

La science s'occupe énormément de l'étude des niera à tous les 
points de vue qui le rattachent à la pêche. Cette science ou plutôt 
ces sciences diverses devront, dans un temps plus ou moins long, li- 
vrer des conclusions. Le pêcheur devra être capable d'en faire son 
profit. 

Partout on a compris la nécessité du développement de l'instruc- 
tion professionelle pour le pêcheur. Mais ne perdrona-nous pas une 
bonne partie du fruit de nos efforts si nous ne tâchons pas d'améliorer 
progressivement les conditions matérielles de la vie du pécheur k son 
bord? 81 le jeune homme qui sort de nos écoles professionnelles est 



— 153 — 

embarqué pour vivre dans les conditions où j'ai vu les pêcheurs de 
presque toutes les nations, je me figure difficilement que l'intelligence 
de ce garçon se développera comme elle pourrait le faire et devrait 
le Ëaire. L y aura peut-être des exceptions. Seulement il importe 
que, dans une industrie comme la pêche, tous et un chacun à bord 
soient "une valeur" ; que tous et un chacun aient la pleine i 
de tous leurs devoirs et les accomplissent avec intelligence. 



.;, Google 



X. 

fflaiISÏÏ LIM- ABI TEAWL-USHna. 



In order to avoid trespassing on the patience of my audience 
I hâve curtailed my remarks as much as possible, and therefore, so 
far from being exhaustive, my paper only intends to give the outlines 
of the induatry. 

In early times the deepeea-fishing was not of muoh account 
«specially owing to the want of able seagoing vessels. In the year 
1633 however bounties were gîven by the government on vessela 
above 80 tona register and on each ton of fiah and barrel landed, 
aud aflerwards on vessels hetween 20 and 80 tons. 

In 1837 £ 14278 was paid by the government as a hounty 
to the fisheriea, but after that time ail bounties were discon- 
tinued. 

The first kind of fishing-gear used ai deep-sea-fishing was the 
"longHne" and the "hand-hne". I wîll not enter on the minute 
détails of thèse well known implements, suffîce it to say that the 
"long-Iine" is a continuons length of line unto which, at intervais of 
about ten feet — smaller lines of ahout three feet length^the 
snoods— are attached. At the end of each snood is the hook. 
Such a line may estend on the bottom for a distance of 8 or 10 
miles or even more, and hâve upon it 6000 or 6000 hooks. 

It is secured to the ground by an anchor at each end, and 
at intervais of about every half-mile. From the point of each of 
theae ancbors a "bnoy-line" rises to the surface of the sea, where 



— 164 — 

it is attached to a buoj. The buoy carries a flag from a staff or 
about ten feet in height and may be eeen for a distance of tvo 
or three miles. 

The "band line" is the well known single Une with aleadand 
two hooks attached to two suspended snoods. It is worked by a 
man from the Tessel's deck, and as [many as 10 or 15 may be 
worked at a time from each of the larger vessels. 

The trawl or drag-net has been Icnown for centuries, but uot 
generally used at deepseaâshing until about 1850. It is tiow by 
far the most ^effective implement in British deepseafishing. The 
first kind of [trawl used — and which is used even now — waa the 
beam-trawl; I will just try to give an idea of it: 

, It is a large sack-sbaped net, 90 to L20 feet long and from 
50 to 60 feet wide of "the mouth" — that ie the foreraost opening 
of the trawl. From the mouth towards the end, the net is gradualk 
getting more and more narrow until it terminâtes in very nearly s. 
point.^i,The -mouth of the net is kept open by means of a large 
beam,^the trawl beam, to which the upper part of the mouth is at- 
tached, the beam is supported at each end by by iron runners, the 
trawlheads, which keep the beam, and consequently the upper part 
of the mouth, about four feet aboïe the sea-bottom. 

Ail this gear, properly fixed togetber,"i3 lo,wered down by the 
wharp, which is the rope by which it is; trawled — that.'is towed 
— along the ground when the vessel isjsailing. Daring the trawîin? 
the lower part of the mouth of the trawls, which is lined with a 
rope (the foot-rope), is sweeping tbe ground, and the trawl thus 
actually scraping up what fish may be in its way. A ratber uo- 
poetical iway of fishing, but nevertbeless hitherto a very success- 
ful one. 

The trawl-net is made of tarred manilla-twine, which ia double 
in the belly (that ia thej,part of the trawl which touches the ground) 
and in the corners, elsewhere single except in the "cod-end" (that 
is tbe hinder part of the net), where it is double ail ronnd. Bes- 
ides tbe double twine. some protect tbe belly from wear and tear 
by means of mattings attached to it undemeatb. 

The meshes are getting smaller towards the cod-end, where 
they are about l'/a inch between the knots; the largest meshes 
being about 4 inches. 



— 155 — 

In order to preyent the fish, caught in the trawl, from escap- 
ing, the trawl-net is arrangea in the foUowing way: You put the 
net flat down on a floor, belly down; you theo choose two points 
in the edfçe of it on each aide about half way, or a little more, 
from the mouth; from each of thèse two pointa you imagine two- 
Btraight Unes to be drawn towards the "trawl-end", The said two- 
imaginary lines meet in the middle of the trawl, that is to say, 
you do not draw them far enough to raeet, but let them terminale 
whenjthey are^fiO meshes apart and about 20 feet from the trawl- 
end. Then foUow the two imaginary linea and rund them right 
through and aew the belly and back twine together. The hinder part 
of the trawl — which is called the "cod end"^win then, as you 
see, he aeparated from the rest of the net, except for a comparat- 
ively amall hole of 120 meshes in circumferance. 

Once got into the "cod-end", the fish will not eaaily find out 
through this hole, but in order still more to prevent him from 
getting out, a pièce of net, called the flapper, is âxed across the saîd 
hole and attached to the back twine ^th its foremost edge and 
to the belly twine with ita aide edgea ; the fish will then easily get 
in, but not be able to gct out again. 

The whole of this aparatus is and must be very strong and 
heavy, partly to keep it from tearing, partly to keep it down on 
tbe bottom ; the before mentioned iron runners for instance, weigh from 
200 to 600 pounda each; the wharp is from 100 to 200 fathoms 
long,made of hemp, and about 8 inches thick, or made of wire of 
corresponding strength ; the beam is 60 to 60 feet long and about 
9 inches diameter. 

To heave in this heavy gear, even the sailing smoacks are — 
most of thera — fitted with a steam-winch, although they seldora 
lave flteam enough to work it in deeper water than 50 fathoms. 

When the trawl has been out a few hours it is hove up, and 
when alongside, a strap is tied round the trawl at the foremost 
part of the "cod-end", and by a tackle hoisted up in the riggjog; 
the fish is then emptied on the deck through a hole in the trawl- 
end, which hole is tied up by a rope during the trawling. 

The modem type of British sailing vessels used for deepsea- 
fishing are the well known fore-and-aft dandy-rigged smacks with 
a fore and a mizen mast; those built in later years vary from 70 to 



— 156 — 

80 tons, and there are some of about 120 tons register. Theyare 
strong, oak-built, deep, able vessels, and as a nile fast sailers; their 
seagoing qualities are most excellent. 

Time doea only permit me to mention a few points of tlie 
historj of British deepseafisheries. Before the raiiway System had 
grown to anything like ita présent proportions, the small torni 
of Barking in Ëssex was the great âabing centre of England. 
Being near to London on the Thames, its situation was a. most 
convenieut one for the fîshermen who made it their business to 
Bupply the metropolis with âsh. Âbout 60 years ago a fleet of 
about 200 decked vessels sailed from this place, and the trade 
developed as regards the size and construction of their vessek. 
The remainder of the deepseafishing fleet was made up from 
■Greenwich, Gravesend, Aldborough, Blackwell and Deptford. 

Tbey used to go to the Dogger Bank and work with long 
linea ; during the winter months some of them fîshed with hand 
lines north east of Scotland, and others were engaged in whiting 
and haddock fishing. 

In the year 1851 the Manchester, ShefSeld and Ijincolnshire 
Bailway Co. had completed their magnificent new docks and line 
at Gtrimsby, and the direct raiiway connection estabUsKed with 
London and the great provincial centres, together with the geogra- 
phica! position of the port with regard to the great fishing banks, 
recommended it as the most convenient fishing centre on the coast 
And from 18S5,when a spécial flsh market and dock was constructed 
the growth of trade bas been so rapid, that tbe extending of the 
dock-accommodation bas hardly been able to keep pace with the 
increasing trade. The population of Grimsby increased during the 
period from 10,000, to 40,000 in 1883. 

The great development of the deepseafishing at G-rimsby was 
not without its efifect on the other fishing towns mentioned. Bar- 
king and some of the other places retired from the trade altogetber, 

The trawling was at first what they call inshore fishing, for 
instance outside the mouth of tbe Thames towards Spurn. It was 
especially the pits — that is the deeper parts of the bottom — that 
proved rich; the "silver pit" ia thua a most characteristic name. 

Later on, trawling waa extended to the Dogger Bank, which 
for a long time was the main fishing ground. Hère as is gener- 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 167 — 

ally the case, it was the edges of tbe bank that gave most fish. 
]n the course of time a great many characteristic names hâve arisen, 
of whjch that of "the cemetery" tells a sad taie that needs no 
further explanation. 

Plaice. soles, and other flatfish were the first principal kinds 
of fish that the trawlers went for. T note as a curioua fact that 
this fish at the coraraencement was very poor, but as the trawling went 
on it grew fatter, which is said to hâve been caused by the trawk 
ploughing up the sandy bottom by which shells and other kinds of 
food were dug ont; and this is most probably the fact. 

By and by the deepseafishing was extended further ont in 
the North Sea; the first pioneer north and east of the Dogger was 
Joseph Abee in 1861, and then the rest of the fleet followed. At 
the présent time trawl, and line, âshing is going on not only 
ail over the North Sea, but ail round Great-Britain and Ireland, at 
the Fseroe Islands, and Iceland; some even go the Bay of Biscay 
and further south. 

I should like very much to enter on some more détails ofthe 
way of fishing, especially how the vessels move round during the- 
winter and suramer seasons, but time does not allow it. Suffîce 
it to say that fishing vessels do not as a rnle go so far away in 
winter time, and such distant and northerly fishing-grounds as at 
Iceland for instance are tiot at ail worked in the winter time. 

A great deal of the line-fishing vessels, known as "codmen", 
are fitted with a "well" to keep some of the fish alive. As soon 
as a cod or ling is caught it is carefully pierced under the fin on 
tlie right side in order to let out the air from the belly. The cod 
and haddock are usually allowed to swim about free, the ling 
and halibut are suspended by their tails, and so confined they are 
found to live longer; the rest of the fish is gutted and put in ice 
or, on distant fishing grounds, partly salted. The hait formerly 
used was whelks, but now they are varied with lampreys and her- 
rings. A great deal of mussels are imported from Holland in th& 
latter part of the summer and autumn. 

II. 

But I must proceed to the most modem of ail fishing vessels^ 
viz: Tke modem fishing steamers. 



— 158 — 

1877 was, I am told, the year when steamers for deepsea- 
£shiiig were introduced. As far as I aminformed, tfaere washoweTer 
only one steamer started that year, and she was a smack with the 
mizenmast acting as a funnel. In 1881 two, in 1882 four steamen 
were fîshing. Atter that tîme the âeetof steamers increaaed rapidl; 
with the resuit that bj the end 1885 no less than 238 iron stean- 
âshing vessels were at work. I hâve made up a table shoviDg 
the uumber of steamers added to the âeet in each of the yean 
between 1887 and 96 both inclusive; I will read yt)u the bare 
figures . in chronological succession commencing with 1887 : 26—5 
—56—131—74—69—66—48—106, giving us a total number at 
the end of 1896 of 891 steamers*). The number of steamers 
at the end of last year was supposed to be 1000 or more. In 
April of this year I waa told that at Hull, Glasgow, and the otber 
building places, about 300 steamers for deepseafishing were build- 
ing, and thus the âeet by the end of the présent year will most 
likely consist of about 1300 fishing steamers. 

During this period the steamers building hâve been subjectt» 
jnany improvements ; I will mention considerably more spring and 
higher bows, which make them raore able in heavy sea. The pilot- 
house bits been moved from abaft to before the funnel and is 
generally overbuilt and fitted with windows; the steamers are ofa 
very strong construction, built of steel and âtted with tripple 
<expan8ion engines of the highest class and speeding 9 to 10 knote. 
ITiey vary from 80 to 112 feet in length, according to the distance of 
the fishing grounds where they are to be employed, and are generally 
about 40 to 60 tons register net, more or less. AIso the bunker 
capacity is dépendent on the length of voyages for which the ves- 



They hâve a fish room dîvided into a certain number of com- 
partmentR, fitted with interchangeable boards to form sbelves, and 
as the fish after being gutted is packed away on thèse sbelves a 
copions supply of ice is placed amongst it. A separate ice-room 
is provided for, and those employed as liners bave generally a well 
to keep fish alive. As far however as I can see ont of Mr- 0. T. 



•) During the aame period the saihng smaoks hâve decreosed from 20558 
1 1887 to 1861(i in 9fi. 



— 169 — 

Olaen's "Fishermens Almanac", there was only by the end of tast 
year 46 well-steamers of the lot, and most of thèse go even trawl- 
ing in winter time. 

Trawling is, as you see, by far the method of fishing most in 
use amongst the ûsliing steamers; in fact it is ti-awling and trawl- 
ing again that occupies the minds of people engaged in or investing 
their money in deepaeafishing, and indeed steam-trawling bas been 
an extraordinary good business of late, especially since the latest 
improvementa of the otter trawl which now in the case of steamers 
bas quite replaced the beam-trawl. In fact there is no kind of 
Ësbing tbat bas comparatively the catcbing power of the otter- 
trawl worked from a well constructed steamer, that is to say, if the 
fish is plentiful to to same degree. 

The otter-board system is carried out as follows; The trawl- 
net is very similar to that of the "beam-trawl" system, but instead 
of having a beam to keep the mouth of the net open as before 
described, two hoards 8 feet, by-4, more or less, are substituted. 
I will try to describe how you would attacb thèse hoards to thfe 
trawl: Straighten out the trawl-net on the floor, belly down, place 
the two boards — the largest edge down — one on each si de of 
the trawls mouth and attach the netting there (or rather tbe two 
ropes by which the trawling net are lined) to the after edge of each 
of the boards, and yoo hâve them right. To the inside of each of 
the boardsj the wharps — that is the ropes by which the trawl ia 
towed — are made fast. By way of attachment triangular irons 
or chains are fixed on the inside of each of the two boards. The 
point of attaching the wharps to thèse irons or chains is situated 
half way down the hoard, and about one third of the board's length 
fi'om the front of it. There is one strong wire wharp for each of 
the boards, each leading from one side of the veasel's stern, and 
each of them about 200 fathoma long and they are let out accord- 
ing to the depth of the water. 

Wben being towed along, thèse boards are forced apart by the 
action of the water and spread the mouth of the net out to its 
full extent. 

By thèse meaus it is possible to hâve a net 70 to 80 feet wide. 

The otter-trawl cannot be so profitably uaed by the sailing 
wessels as it needs a very even speed to spread out the net. 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 160 — 

Bj steamers, however, trawling can be perfornied at the deptb 
of 100 to 120 fathoms. 

It is computed that the patent otter-trawl catches about twice 
the quantity of what the beam-trawl does. Add to thia that a 
modem âshing steamer is computed to 4 or 5 times the cat^hing 
pover of a sailing smack, and you will be pretty near to the fact. 

To heaTe in the trani eacb steamer bas a very strong steiun 
winch, which is double barrelled in order to be able to work each 
wharp separate, or both at a time, as desired. 

The price of a modem Ënglisb fiabing-steamer varies from 
£ 4000 to 5000 or even more, according to size and construction. 
A complète outfit will amount to about £ 200. 

OfËcers and crew hâve very good cabin accommodation with 
plenty of room, nicely fitted up, in the newest vessels almost eleg- 
antly, in some even with electric light. 

Trawling is carried on on two Systems: "single-boating" and 
"fleeting". 

On the first system the trawler is sent ont equipped with ice 
and coal and she remains out for 6 to 14 days — or when sbe 
goes to distant places, for three weeks or more, She retiima when 
she is full, or when it becomes necessary to land the fish in good 
condition. 

On the latter system — fleeting — a certain number of vessels 
with a large coal capacity go out to the fishing-ground in a fleet, 
sume fleets numbering 60 or even 100, and remain out as long 
as their coal will last, 6 weeks being about the limit, Every day 
a fast steam-carrier runs out to the fleet and takes the fisb on 
board in small boxes with ice put on, and briags them direct to 
the market. This system is supposed to save loss of time consé- 
quent on eacb vessel running in with ber cargo of fish, and the 
fisb will corne in in a better condition as it is brougbt in every daj. 
The principal market for fleeting fish is London. 

The movements of the vessels constituting the fleet are con- 
ducted by an admirai who sélects the fishing-ground and orders 
each vessel when to put tbeir nets down and wben to take them 
up; the said admirai being a tboroughly experienced fishernian. 

A steam-liner generally needs three weeks on a trip to Iceland 
and backj nearer home, mucb shorter time. 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 161 — 

Well, 1 hâve to eut off iny paper and aum up the most impor- 
tant remaining facts. 

The trawlers enpply the markets with almost ail kinds of âsh, 
such aB brills, soles, turbot,' cod, plaice, skate, hake, gurnet, etc., 
but most of ail haddock. Halibut is generally hrought from the 
northerly fishing-places by the liners. 

Live fish will of course fetch tbe highest prices, and next out 
of dead âsh by far the well conditioned onee. 

The fÎBh-markets in Engisnd can receive a large amount of âsh 
on a day. The largest fish-market in England, and even in tbe 
world is that of Orimsby, the population of which town bas now 
reacbed 62000 from 40000 as it was in 1883. 

From tbe large markets the flsb is sent by rail to the inland 
towns and the country. Fish can now be obtained by ail classe» 
at distant places, where hitherto it was only known as a luxury. 
The working classes consume thousands of tons of âsh, which can 
be obtained ready for use in "tbe fried fish shops" for 2 or 3 
pence a pound. 

A trawler's crew consiste of captain, mate and 7 hands; the 
captain and the mate get no wages, but respectively 10 and 8 % of 
the net proceed of the catch. The Ist engineer gets £ 2. 5 s. a 
week. Thèse tbree mentioned hâve to pay for their board, which 
amounts to 8/ or 9/ a week, which means that "the living" ia 
excellent. 

Tbe rest of the crew get free board and the following wages : 

2nd engineer — £ 1 15 s a week 
boatswain — 22 to 23 s „ 

3rd & 4th hands — 20 - 21 s 
deck hands — 17 - 18 s „ 

cook — 16 - 18 s „ 

Besides thia in same instances they generally get a gratification. 

A "liner's" crew consiats of 13 to 15 hands, officers included, 
The captain is paid as on tbe trawlers, the mate gets 1 pound a week 
and 3 d. out of each pound net catch. Deck hands get 1 pound a 
week and 2 d. on eacb pound of proceeds. 

Besides this the crew get the liver and roe on both sorts of 
steamers. 

i.,ji...nA'OOglc 



— 162 — 

The rest of the proceeda belongs to the owners, who as a rule 
are companies generally owning from a few Tessele npwards to 30, 
«thers even soœe times tfaat number. Tbe companies bave t^eir 
owD storehouse and worksliop for repairing at the dock, and even 
thÎDg needed for equipment, sucb as coal and ice (mostl; artiâcial) 
ready at the place. 

I was told that it would not be advisable to hâve onlj one 
or two vessels on account of tbe différent fishing Inck and the 
day by day exceedingly differing market-pricee, which bowe^er 
are alwaye bighest in winter time. One vessel may be unsuccesslil 
throughout the season and may not even strike the good markets, 
"while another dues qtiite the contrary. As a rule the companies 
bave averaged a very good profit. 

MoBt tbings, however, hâve their drawbacks ! Such a drawbacl 
in this case is the very serioua fact that âsh is getting scarcer in 
the North Sea, and this cannot be otherwise, as the fieet of âaLiiJg 
steamers of enormous catching power increases so rapidly. Aai : 
6o it will continue until no catohing power can procure fish enoui;ti 
to pay the rent of the money invested. | 

Ëven now the sailing smacks seldom pay unless in very large 
companies combined with steamers. 

Lots of schemea bave been discussed to protect the fisb— 
such as larger meshes and a large shore limît — but nothing bas 
at yet corne out of it. 

In the northem fishing-grounds, as round Iceland, there seems 
however still to be plenty of fish. i 



.;, Google 



XI. 

HVALFMGSTENS ESDIXTBELSE PM DE ASDM 
nSKEEIEE,. 

Fl8KBEIIN8PBKT0E S0EENSBN, 

Sp0rg9maalet om Hvalfangst er skadelig for Torakefiskerierne 
har i de sidate tredive Aar vœret sterkt diskuteret af Befolkningen 
i det uordlige Norge, og da specielt i de Aar, Toiskefisket om 
Vaaren har vseret mindre godt. En stor Del af Befolkningen 
mener nemlig, at Hvalfangsten paa forskjellig Maade kan vœre 
skadelig for Torskeiisket om Vaaren og forlanger derfor, at Hval- 
fangsten aldeles akal forbydes i Troms» og Finmarkens Amter. 

Af denne Grand har jeg troet det anskeligt, at Sporgsmaalet 
om HvalfangBtens Skadelighed sœttes under Diakussion paa dette 
Hflde, hvor der er ReprEesentanter tilstede fra flere Lande, hvor 
den samme Fangat drives, da det jo vil vsere af Interesse at faa 
bore, hvordan raan atiller sig til dette Spergamaal andetateds. 

Som bekjendt har Hvalfangaten vœret drevet ikke alene i 
Noi^e, men ogsaa fra mange andre Lande fra laugt tilbage i 
Tiden; men her at give en FremBtilling af Hvalfangstena Historié 
ud i giennem Tiderne vil vœre for vidtieftigt og kan heller ikke 
anseea nodvendig for at kunne diskutere det opstillede Spergamaal; 
jeg vil kun bemerke, at man vistnok ikke har hert Taie om, at 
HvalEangat skulde vœre skadelig for Torskefiskerierne far nogle Aar 
efter, at Hr. Skibsreder Svend Foyn i Tensberg begyndte Fangst 
af Hval i Varangerfjord; man bar tvertimod i aaldre Tider opmun' 
tret til Fangst af Hval ved at give Udrustningsprœmier og paa 
anden Maade S0gt at stette denne Nœringsvei. 



■A'OOc^lc 



- 164 — I 

Fer jeg gaar over lil at bebandle HvalfangBt i vore Dage oç 
de Klager, cler i det nordlige Norge fremferes inod denne, ska) jeg 
kun nsevne, at dei- fra Begyndelsen af det Byttende Âarhundrede i 
indtil Slutningen af det attende eller i mère end 160 Aai- blev 
drevet Hvnlfangst al hollandske, engelske, spamke, rusaiske, tyske ' 
og danske Skibe uiider Spitsbergen og dette af et saa stort Ântal 
Skibe og Folk, at alene HoUfEnderne i Lebet af 100 Âar drsebte , 
benimod sekstusinde Hval. 

I 1864 gjorde Hr. Skîbsreder Svend Fojn fra Tensberg det 
fprate Forseg paa Fangst i Yarangerfjord m«d Dampskîb og Granat- 
harpun. I det ferste Par Aar lykkedes ikke Fangsten; men efter- 
soin Foyn èk Fangstredxkabeme forbedrede og Fangstmsendene 
indovede, gik det bedre, og Udbjttet blev saaledes i 1868 30 Hval. , 
I 1869 drev han Fangst med 2 FangBtfartflier, men Udbyttet bleï 
alligevel det Aar kun 17 Hval. Fra 1870 til 1876 fangedes 
gjennemsnitlig aarlîg 30 Hval, og ialt blev der af Foyn fanget trï 
1864—1874 231 Hval, mest Blaahval. I 1877 grundlagdes et njt 
Selskab i 0stâninarken, og i 1881 2 nye Selskaber i 0stfiDmarken 
og et i Vestfiiimarken, og da aile Selskaber gjorde gode Forret- 
ninger, «gedes disses Antal sterkt det falgende Aar; saaledes dreves I 
Fangsten 

i 1882 af 8 Selskaber med 12 Fangatfartoier ! 

i 1883 - 14 — r 20 — 

i 1884 - 16 — ,.24 — 

i 1885 - 18 — „ 31 — 

i 1886 - 19 — „ 35 — 

Fra 1887 minkedes atter Fangstskibenes Antal, idet endel 
Selskaber flyttede fra B^inmarken til Island og Fseraerne, og for 
0ieblikket drives Hvalfangst i Tromsa og Finmarkens Amter af 
14 Selskaber med 25 Fangstskibe. 

De Hvalsorter, der fanges i Finmarken', er Knfllhvalen (megap- 
fiïra boops), Finhvalen (halœnoptera musculus), Blaaiivalen (halœnop- 
tera sibbaldi) og Seihvalen (balœnoptera borealis). 

Knelhvalen, af Englsenderne kaldet bumpback whale, kommer 
i Almindeligbed under Eysten ved 0st&nmarken i Slutningen af 
Januar og stryger da ofte i store Flokke langs Kyaten vestover, hol- 
dende sig user Land, indtil den i Slutnii^en af Mars atter forlader 
£ysten for senere kun at vise sig enkeltvis udover Ya&ren og 



— 166 — 

Sonimeren. Demie Hvalait forekommer nœsten overalt i Verdftns- 
haret, saaledes er den om Sommeren meget udbredt i Ishavet og 
det nordligste Atlanterhav, og om Vinteren ev der seet store Flokke 
af denne Hval ïed Rerrnudascerne og de Capo verdi ske 0er paa 
Afrikas Vestkyst. 

Finhvalpn pleier at iiidfinde sig ved Finmarkeiis Kyst i Uegyn- 
(ielsen af Mars og holder sig da der i atorre eiler mindre Miengde 
hele Vaaren igjennem, undertiden user Land; men til andre 'llder 
laiigt ude. Denne Hvals Ftide er Lodde og Siid; men den ffllger 
ikke altid Lodden under Land, da det ofte hœnder, at der er store 
ilasser -af Lodde tilstede, uden at Hval sees. Finhval paatrEeffeB 
oveialt i de nordlige Hâve og i Middelhavet, 

Blaahvalen er den storste og vœrdifuldeste af de Hvaler, der 
fanges. Denne Hval kommer under Finmarkene Kyst i Somraer- 
maanederne Juni, Juli og August, gaar sjelden i Flokke, men viser 
sig enkeltvis tildels inde i Fjordene, dog holder den sig veesentligst 
nogie Mile ud fra Kysten ved Vard0, samt ud for den Murmanake 
Kyst, Denne H val art, der ligeledes paatrieffea omirent i aile 
Verdenshave, spiaer hverken Lodde etler Sild, dens Naering bestaar 
hovedsagelig af en liden E^ge (Kril). 

I flere Aar har der vteret lidet at se af denne Hvalart i Fin- 
marken, hvorimod Hvalfangerne paa Island og Fœrflerne har gjort 
god Fangst af Blaahval. I^or viste den sig dog atter i sterre 
Antal udenfor Vards i Juli og August. 

Seihvalen kommer aom oftest under Kysten i Vestfinmarken i 
Begyndelsen af Juni og holder sig da der saa godt som hele Som- 
meren igjennem; den er sjeldnerft at se i 0stfinmarken, Denne 
Hvalart, der er den mindate af de Hvaler, Hvalfangerne fanger, 
8piser heller ikke Lodde eller Sild, men dens F»de eren liden rod 
Aate, der ogsaa er Seiens Fade, ligesom den ogsaa spiser Kril. 

I det Tidsrum, Hvalfangerne driver Fangst i Finmarken, fore- 
gaar to andre noksaa betydelige Fiakerier deroppe, nemlig Vaar- 
fisket efter Torak fra Mars til Juni, ogsaa kaldet Loddeflsket, fordi 
Lodden i den Tid pleier at vîere under Land for at gyde sin îtogn, 
aaint Sommerfisket i Juni, Juli og August efter Torak, Sei, Kveite 
og Hyae. 

Allerede nogle faa Aar efter, at Foyn havde begyndt Hvalfangat 
i VarangerÇorden, hertes fra Fiskeralmuen deropppe Klager over 



-~ 166 — 

Hvalfangstens 3kadelighed, der indtrat nemlig samtidîg uogle mindre 
gode Vaarfîskerier i Yarangertïordei], og t 1873 omtaler Âmtmanden 
i Finmarken i BÏn Indberetning til Departementet dette E^skes 
Aftagen og eiger, at Fiskeme tilskriver Formindskelse afHval, paa 
Grund af HTalfangsteii, Aarsagen til dette, da de mente, Hralen 
var nedvendig for at drive Lodden til Land. 

Der var dog indtil den Tid kun skudt 144 Hval, vœsentlig 
Blaahval. Fiskerne mente ogsaa. at Loddens âydepladse forurenses 
af Âffaldet fra Hvalstationerne. 

I Sagens Anledning blev Professer i Zooiogi Dr. Sars' Erklie- 
ring indhentet, og denne gik ud paa, at den Hval, nemlig Blaa- 
hvalen, der vœsentlig var fanget til den Tid, intet havde medLodde- 
fieket at bestille, da den indSnder sig s^nere end dette og ikke 
spiser Lodde. 

I 1877 begyndte ogsaa Fangst af Finhval, idet der det Â.ar 
fangedes 8 saadanne, i 1878 og 79 fangedes hvert Aar 40, og fra 
1681, da Hvalfangerselskabernea Antal ggedes, fangedes mère og 
mère af denne Hvalsort, ligesom ogsaa Fangst af Kn^lhval og Sei- 
hval da begyndte. 

I 1878 indkom Andragende fra Herredsstyrelserne rundt 
Varangerijorden om, at nye UndersBgelser maatte btive foretagne 
under aelve Loddefisket, og for Storthinget blev i 1879 fremsat et 
Privatforslag til en Hvallov, hvori der gjordea Fordring paa Fred- 
ning af Hval fra late Januar til late Juni over hele Finmarkens 
Amt. Forslaget begrundedes i, at Hvalen jager Lodden tillands, 
hvorfor en Formindskelse af Hvalbestanden anaaaes akadelig, For- 
slaget blev overaendt Kegjeringen, der 1879 lod Professor Sars 
anstille Undersflgelser under selve Loddefîaket; men i sin Indberet- 
ning af 30te September samme Aar bsevdede Professoren sin tid- 
ligere Anskuelae af Forholdet, samt udtalte som ain Formening, at 
Hvalerne i det hele taget ikke har nogen Indflydelse paa Loddens 
Indsig. Med Hensyn til Affaldet udtalte Professoren, at Spor at 
aaadant kun var fundet i Etablis s ementern es umiddelbare Nœrhed, 
og anser det uaandaynlig, at dette kunde bave nogen skadelig Ind- 
flydelse, da det anart fortœres af forskjelllige smaa Sjfldyr. 

Denne Professor Sars' Erklœring var Befolkningen imidlertid 
ikke tilfreds med, og Sagen blev derfor af Departementet forelagt 



— 167 — 

Piofessorerne Rask og B'riis, Universitetsatipendiat Collett og Handets- 
niand Nordvi til Erklœring. 

Disse anbefalede, som det synes nsermest for at ^beroligeden 
flskeridrivende Befolkning eller for at dsempe dennes Klager", en 
Fredningstid îndenfor Milegrfendaen fra Iste Januar til 31te Mai. 
Regieringen fremsatte ogsaa for Storthinget i 1880 Forslag til en 
Baadan Hvallov, der ogsaa blev vedtaget samme Aar og gjort gjœl- 
dende for hele Finmarken. 

Donne Lov hjalp dog heller ikke til at formindake Opinionen 
iiiiod Hvalfangsten i Finmarken, specielt i det Aar, da Loddefisket 
var mindre godt, holdtes Massemader rundt omkring i Fiskeyœrene, 
og Fordringerne steg nu til total Fredning til Iste Juni, ja tildels. 
ogsaa til total Fredning hele Aaret rundt. I 1887 indgik en Fler- 
iied af Amteta Ordfarere miid en Forestilling til Amtet om at 
bevirke istandhragt absolut Fredning af Hval i Finmarkena Amt 
fra Iste April til 31te August, og i dette af 12 Ordferere under- 
skrevne Andragende sigea blandt nndet: „Som bekjendt er det en 
enstenimig Formening hos Finniarkens fiskende Befolkning, atAar- 
sagen til de Aar efter Aar stedse aftagende Fiskerier alêne maa 
tilskrives Hvalfangsten, hvorved Hvalen fordrives fra Fjorde og 
Kjster. 

Det er ganske vist saa, at Loddefisket er periodisk, at der 
saaledes har vaeret Tider, hvor intet Loddefiake liar foregaaet; men 
Aareagen liertil har vœret Loddena Udebliven eller Ophor med at 
S0ge aine Gydepladse i vore Fjorde og ved vore Kyster. Hvad 
Aarsagen hertil har vseret, er ikke kjendt af nogen, Men saaledes 
er ikke Forholdet nu. Lodden har hvert Aar i starre Masser sflgt 
sine vanlige Gydepladse, men Fisken er iideblevet, har kun vaeret 
at finde 2 — -3 Mile tilhavs, der hvor Hvalen har gaaet, hvorfor det 
i Regelen kun har vœret de store Baade, der har kunnet gjare 
noget nœvnevœrdigt Fîske. Det er saaledes en Kjendsgjerning, at 
eftersom Hvaleme Aar efter Aar har trukket sig laengre og Isengre 
tilhavB, har Fisken fulgt med, raedens Lodden som ssedvanlig SKgec 
tillands. 

Hvad Aarsagen kan viere til disse Foreteelser, er det selvffllge- 
ligt umuligt at paavise, men Fiskerne slutter deraf, at Fisken 
muligena instinktmiessigt seger Hvalen for at ânde Fade, da den 
ellers af sig selv maatte finde de under Land staaende Lodde- 

i-.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



«timer. Skulde dette mulifitens forholde sig saaiedes, hvilket lige- 
saalidt kan modbeTises som bevises, vil Resultatet blive, at med 
Hvalens fiildsteendige Fordrivelse folger Finmarkafiakets Opher. 
Men under enbver Omatiendighed er det nu en uimodaigelif; Kjends- 
:gjeraing, at under de heldige og store Fiskerier bar altid HTalen 
varet en Medarbeider." 

I 1888 og 1889 bley for Storthinget fremsat private Forslag, 
der gik ud paa at umuliggjerè Hvalfangst i Troms0 og Finmarkens 
Amter i et Tidsrum af 10 à 15 Aar. 

Disse Forslag blev af Storthinget oversendt Begjeringen, der i 
1889 af Storthinget fik bevilget Kr. 6000.00 til Undersggelser an- 
igaaeode Spergsniaalet om en loTbestemt Fredningstid for Hval. I 
Henhold hertil nedsatte Departementet under 30te Januar 1890 en 
Eûmite bestaaende af Eo m mander kaptein i Marinen Nils Juel aom 
Formand aamt Skibsreder og Hvalfanger Marcua Bull, Lensmand i 
EjelTÎk E. Otrape og Fiaker Edvin Figenschou for at underB0ge 
Forholdet under Belve Loddefisket. 

Benne Eomite afgav under 7de August 1890 eu Indstilling til 
den kongelige norske RegjeriDga Département for det Indre, bvori 
Komiteen, efter at hâve omtalt Hvalfangatens Historié i œldre og 
nyere Tid, givet statiatiske Opiysninger om Torskefiakerieme og 
Hvalfangsten i Finmarken samt behandlet de Klager, der fremfprtes 
mod HvalfaDgaten, udtaler, at Eomiteens samtlige Uedlemmer er 
fiildt enige i, at der i Anledning af Hvalfangsten i TromgflogFin- 
markens Amter ikke paakrtevea andre Lovbud end Politibeatem- 
melser. 

Sagen blev dog ikke behandlet i Storthinget fer nogle Aar 
senere, og ferst i 1896 blev vor nuvferende Hvallov givet, der i 
det vsesentligste er en GjentageUe af Loven af 1880 samt Bestem- 
melae om, bvorledea der skal forholdes med HvalafTald, ligesom det 
er forbudt i denne Lov at jage eller skyde Hval nsermere fiskende 
Baad eller Fartai end 2 Kilometer. 

Da der i 1892, 93—94 og 96 indtraf gode Loddefiakerier i 
Finmarken, hertes i denne Tid ikke synderlig Elage over Hval- 
fangaten; men da Fiakenerne i^or og iaar atter har vœret mindre 
gode, er atter Krav fremkommet fra en stor Del af Befolkningen 
om, at Hvalfangsten skal aldeles forbydes. Den Paastand, at 



— 169 — 

fivalen }&ger Lodden tillands, hères nu ikke mère; men man 
begrunder sine Klager over Hvalfangsten i felgende: 

1. Hvalernea ForsTinden fra Kyaten, der gjsi, at den nedven- 
dig „B0re" ikke kommer i SJ0en under Dybsagntîsket om Vaar^'n. 

2. Skud fra Hvalfangerdampskibene skrœmmer Fiskeii Ira 
Land. 

3. Blod fra anskudt Hval forpeBter Sjeen, saa FJsken 3kyr. 

4. Sselen koraiiier i storre Ântal, fordi der er mindre Hval 
under Land. 

5. Og soni Ffllge af ait dette stadigt aftagende Loddeâake. 
Jeg koin til Finmarken soni Hvalfanger i 1681 og drevdenne 

Fangst indtil 1887, da jeg aneattea som Havnefoged m. m. i Vard», 
og senere som Fiskeriinspektor fra 1894. Da jeg i aile disse Âar 
iiar forsitgt at komme til Vislied, om de mod Hvalfangsten frem- 
komne Klager er faerettigede, skal jeg tillade mig at fremkomme 
med de Erfaringer, jeg tror at bave faaet samt min Fortuening om 
(lisse Spergsniaal. 

Med HeoBjn til Hvalens Forsvinden fra Kysten har jeg ikke 
aeet ajnderlig Forandring i saa Henseende, siden jeg kom derop i 
1881. Det Aar var der ialfald ikke Hval hverken i Varangerijorden 
eller nter Land i Vaarmaanederne, og bélier ikke var der Hval 
under Land i 0stfinmarken Vaaren 1883; det Aar fangedes derimod 
adskillig Finhval udfor Murmanskysten, hvor da ogsaa et godt 
Torskefiske foregik, senere har der enkelte Aar vœret Hval nœr 
Land saavel i 0st- som î Yestfinmarken, andre Aar har ikke Hval 
Taeret at se hverken nier Land eller liengere ude i Yaarmaanederne. 
Statistiken over de forskjellige Aara Hvalfangat viser heller ikke 
nogen Aftagen i Hvalbeetanden. Fra 1864 — 1875 fangedes af 
Hr. Foyr 231 Hval, fra 1876—1880 fangedes ialt 371 Hval, fra 
1880—1886 fangedes 1868, fra 1886—1890 fangedes 4164, fra 
1890—1895 er der, trods ikke liden Formindskelse i Fatigstskibenes 
Antal, fanget 4706 eller gjennemsnitlig noget over 900 Hval pr. 
Aar. I J898 fangedes 732, i 1896 1071 og i 1897 1063 Hval. 
Det sterste Antal Finbval, der nogensinde er fanget, siden Hval- 
fangsten begyndte i Finmarken, var i 1896, da der fangedes 733 
Stjkker, og det Aar var der ialfald meget Hval under Land ved 
Varda i April og Mai, paa samme Tid som der var et godt 
Torskefiske. 



— 170 — 

lait er der fra den Tid, Hr, Fojn begyndte HvalfungBt i Fin- 
marken i 1864, fanget 14300 Hval, og vi har saaledes endnn langt 
igjen, f0r vi tilnsermelsesvîs naar det Antal, alêne Hollœnderne fan- 
gede iinder Spitsbergen i det 17de og 18de Aarhundrede. 

Jeg har heit paastaaet, at der fer Hvalfangstens Dage 3kal 
hâve vœret meget mère Hval under Land og inde i Fjordene end 
nu, og jeg vil tkke beoEegte, at saa kan hâve vœret TilfEeldet ; men 
er det saa, ntaa dette vistnok hâve sin Orand i noget andet end 
Evalfangsten; thi Hvalen kan jo nu gaa fredet baade indenfor 
Milegraendaen og i Fjnrdene heit til Jtini Mauned. Jeg har ogs-ia 
flere Gange lagt Merke til, at der har vœret adskillig Hval inde 
ved Vad80 og ved VarangerQorden om Vaaren; men den er aldrig 
blevet staaende der mange Dage, for den er streget ud igjen, troda 
det, at den ikke er jaget paa af Hvalfangerne. 

At Skud kan skrœmme Fiaken, tror jeg ikke paa, jeg har selv 
vœret med at skyde Hval flere G-ange nier Fiskebaade, men hverken 
seet eller hert, at Fisket er sluttet af den Grund. Fiskere paastaar 
jo, at Torsken har sluttet at „tage i", naar Skud fra Hvalfangerne 
er h0rt, selv om disse har vseret meget langt borte; men det samme 
hœnder flere Gange paa Degnet under Dybsagnflsket, selv om ikke 
Skud hores. Den ene Time kan der trsekkes Fisk nok, den anden 
merker man den ikke, og at saa er Fiskena Natur, kjender enhver 
Fisker deroppe til. 

Blod fra anskudt Hval forpester heller ikke Sjeen, saa Fisken 
skyr af den Grund; for det farste kommer der meget IJdet Blod 
fra Hvalen, fflr den flenaes paa Stranden. og jeg har oftere seet, 
at baade stor og smaa Fisk netop a«ger ind under Rvalstationerne 
og gjerne holder sig udfor Flensepladaene- 

At Sselen i de senere Aar har vaeret under Finmarkens Kyst 
i stBrre Masser end fur, er vistnok et sargeligt Kaktum, men bélier 
ikke dette tror jeg kan skyldes Hvalfangsten. Disse to Dyr gjer 
jo ikke hverandre nogen Skade og har derfor heller ingen Grund 
til at sky hinanden, hvilket jo ogaaa viser sig paa Ishavet, hvor 
Hval og Sse] aom oftest fserdes eammen. Hvis ikke disse Sselens 
Vandringer er periodiske. aynes det ikke utœnkeligt, at Sselen i 
Hvidehavet i de senere Aar har formeret sig sterkt, nu da der 
ikke lœngere drives Jagt paa den af Nordmœndene, og jo mère 
Siel der er i Hvidehavet om Vaaren, des mère vil der ogsaa komme 



— 171 — 

til den murmanske og norske Kyst, naar den forlader sine Yngle- 
pladse derinde. 

Med Hensyn til Paastanden om Loddeâakets stadige Aftagen, 
saa er denne Paastand bélier ikke korrekt; der er i de senere 
Aar foregaaet en Forandring i Fiaket, idet man inere og mère er 
gaaet over til Brug af Line; meo Statistiken viser ikke Nedgang i 
det opfiakede KTantum. Finmarkens Loddefiakerier har til alla 
Tider vœret uregelmœssige, det ene Aar kan der vsere Fisk under 
Land i Yestânmarken, det andet i 0stfînmarken ; enkelte Aar kan 
der vsere Torsk under Land overalt, andre Aar ikke Fisk nogetateds. 

Ifeige den Fiskeristatistik, vi har, opfiskedes gjennemsnitlig 
aarlig fra 1870—1880: IS'A Million Torsk, fra 1880—1885: 11 'A 
Million, fra 1885—1890: IS'/ï Million og fra 1890— 1895 henimod 
16 Millioner, I 1896 opfiskedes henimod 17 Millioner, i(jor 13 og 
iaar 9. Baade iljor og iaar var Udsigtenie gode for et godt Fiske, 
saa godt aom over hele Ostfinmarken, men saa kom Sselen i store 
Masser i Begyndeleen af Mai, og saalsenge denne holdt sig under 
Kyaten, ca. 3 Uger, fik man ingen Fisk. 

De to sietteste Fiekeaar, vi har havt i de 30 sidste Aar, var î 
1876, altaaa fer nogen egentlig Hvalfangst var hegyndt, da det 
hele Udbjtte kun var noget over 5 Millioner, og i 1883, da der kun 
blev opfiakôt S'/s Million. Over 20 Millioner fik man i 1880—1889 
og 1892, altaaa i de Aar, Hvalfangsten blev drevet som bedat. 

Naar det paastaaes, at Piskernes Antal under Loddefisket er 
saa betydeligt sterre nu end far, saa viser Statistiken heller ikke 
nogen saadan Forogelse. Antallet af Fiakere har i de sidste 30 
Aar varieret mellem 11000 og 19000 Mand og har altid vœret 
sterst de gode Fiakeaar og mindst de siette. 

Jeg mener derfor, at vi ingen sikre Deviser har for Hvalfang- 
atens 8kadelighed, og at man derfor bar hetrenke sig paa at nœgte 
en Nœringsvei, der aarlig indbringer vort Land over 1 Million 
Kroner. Da imidlertid den aterate Del af Befolkningen der nord 
har den Tro, at det vilde gavne Fiskerierne, om Hvalfangst blev 
forbudt, mener jeg, Forholdene b0r grundig undersflges, og ved 
jiraktiak videnskabelige Und ers gels er maatte vel ogsaa Aarsagerne 
til Torskens og Loddens uregelmsesaige Indsig kunne opklares, lige- 
som man vel ogsaa maatte kunne paaviae Grunden til, at Hvaleme 
nu ikke Isengere aeger ind i Fjordene i samme Antal som fiir^ 



„ 172 — 

'samt hvorfor Sieleii nu kommer under den norake Ejst i saa store 
ilasser. 

A.t Torskens uregelmœssige Indsig for en Del akjldes Hav- 
Tandets Temperatur, igler jeg mig CorviBset om; jeg har nemlig i 
de Bidste 10 Aar ladet foretage Uaaiinger udfor Yards, ogdetbnr 
âa vist sig, at Torsken ikke siger under Land, hvis Temperaturen 
har Tieret under H'/) ** ^ 3° Celaiua; men den har derimod streget 
fra Land, bvis den bar vœret der, og Temperaturen hai- faldt under 
denne Varmegrad. Ligeledes bar det vist aig, at estlige Storme 
om Vaaren biinger Temperaturen ned ofte âere Orader, medens 
Testlige Storme bringer Temperaturen op. 

Da der jo nu drives HvaltangBt baade fra Island, Ksereeine, 
Eusland og Auaerikn, skal jeg tillade mig at anmode de tiktede- 
vœrende Keprœeentanter fra disse Lande om at udtale sig, om loan 
der liar Erfaring for, om Hyalfangst paa nogen Maade er til Skade 
for de 0Trige Fiskerier. 

Efter nogle Bemœrkninger ai Herr Collins, der i ait vEesentligt 
var enig med Herr Serensen udtalte 

Gbnbbalkonsul T0TTEEMAHN: Det har glsedet mig meget at 
beire en Mand, Bom selv bar d«ltagot i HvHlfangst, adtale sine An- 
sknelser om det SpOrgstnaal, bvorvidt HvallangBteu bar nogen skadelig 
Indflydelae paa Torskefiskerieme. 

I Hr, Fiskeninepektor Sorenaeiis Frematilljng af Lovgivnings- 
arbeidets Historié har jeg heftet mig ved den Omsteendighed, at 
Ht. 80reQBen slet ikke har gjort Bede for Motiverne til den nye Lov 
af 1896. Den skyldes jo aldelea ikke Forhold ved Kysten i TrornsB 
og Finmarkens Amter. Det er notorisk, at de uoreke LoTgivningB- 
myndigbeder var aldeles d0ve i de Aor iigeoverfor de fiuumrkske 
Torskefîskeres Kiageoiaal og kun forlsengede Loven af 1880 indtil 
videre; tnan stUlede sig paa det Standpunkt, aom Komm&nd0rkapteiii 
Juel og Hr. Bull i Tcinsberg, at der kun trsengtes nogle Politiforui- 
Btaltninger nnder TorskeUskerierne i Finmarken, men alet ikke Forbud 
mod Hvalfaogst i lœngere Tid. Loven af 1896 kom i stand pa«Grund 
af Klager over Forhold, som fandt Sted, ikke paa Norges nordastlige 
Orsendae under Torskefiskerierne, men paa Grund af Omstsendigheder, 
som passerede ved Norges sydvestlige Kyst under Sildefiskeriene. 
Det var Klagemaal fra Stavanger- og Haugesundskanten under Vasr- 
aildefisket i 1895, fra Fiskere samlede til i[0de i SkudeaneshavD og 
Fse0, som gav Anleduing til Loven af 1896, og ikke Forbold oppe i 
Finmarken. i.,,i,.. .L'OC^IC 



— 173 — 

Hvad er nu Aarsagen til, at Hr. S0rônaen ikke har fremholdt 
den Omstœi](]iglied, at Loven kom istand if0lge Klagemaal over For- 
hold, som havde fundet Sted iiuder YaarsildefiBkDt i Marte 1896? 
Hvia ikke det Faktum havde fundet Sted, vilde der sandaynlîgvia ikke 
blevet nogen aaa (nnfattande Lov om Hvalfangat, aom Loven af 6te 
Jani 1896, mon kun en Lov, saadan som d'Hr. Juel og Bull foreslog 
à(m, en Lov om Folitiforanataltiiinger under de store Torskeâskerier i 
Finmarken. Jeg sknlde gjerne 0DBke at faa det Sp0rgsmaal opklaret. 

Fi8KBBIIN8PBKT0R S0BEN8EN : Jeg tror ikke, at Loven var bleven 
anderledes, aelv om ikke Elagerne under VaarBildfiaket var kommet 
frem. Det hjalp vel muligens til, at Loven blev strengere, «nd af 
Komiteen egentlig teankt; men jeg har ialfald fra Storthingamiendene 
deroppe dengang hdrt udtale, at det er i Grunden ikke andet end 
Politibestemmelaer, vi har givet i den nye Lov; men diaae Politi- 
bestemmelser har vi fundet at maatte i^efre aaa Btrenge, som Loven 
er bleven, for at aikre Tiskemes Parkoater og Redakaber. Vi mener 
nemlig det, at akal Fiskeme vœre aldelea sikret, aaa raaa Milegrœneec 
holdes fredet under Loddeiiaket, og de 0vrige Bestemmelaer er ogaaa 
(lire Politibeatemmelser. Jeg tror derfor ikke, at Loven var bleven 
aiiderledea, aelv om ikke diaae Klager fra VaarBÎldliaket var kommet 
irstû. Naar jeg ikke i mit Foredrag har nœvnt disse Elager, er det 
af den Orund, at det var ikke Elager over, at Sildena Indaig hin- 
dredea, der fremholdtea deroppe, men det gjaldt Torakefiskerierne. 
Det er derfor, jeg har holdt det fra hverandre. 

GBNERAI.KOKSUL T0TTERMAMN i Man havde ikke faaet nogen. 
Lov paa Grund af Kl âge m aliène fra Finmarken, men kun Polittforan- 
ataltninger — alet ikke nogen aaa omfattende Lov om Hvalfangat aom 
den al 6te Juni 1896, D'Hrr. Juel og Bull teenkte kun paa Politi- 
beatemmelser under Torskefîakerierne i Finmarken, ikke paa Fredniug. 
Naar en aaadan Lov om Hvalfangat som den af 6te Juni 1896 allige- 
vel kiim iataud, aaa er det ikke finmarkake Forhold og Synamaader, 
som er kommet til ain Ret i Loven af 1896, men den er kommet 
iatand ifglge Fakta, aom fandt Sted under Vaaraildfisket i 1895 ved 
Norgea Sydvestkyat, medens de oprindelige Love var fremkaldt af 
Porhold, som fandt Sted ved Norges Nordostgrœnee. Det er det 
karakteristiake ved denne Lov, at den er kommet istand paa Grund 
af Fakta, aom er foregaaet ved Norgea Sydveatkyst under Sildefiake- 
rierne, medena den oprindelig var fremkaldt af Forhotd, som fandt 
Sted ved Nord0atgrfensen under Torakefiskerierne. Og vi har opievet, 
at Siidefiskeme har til Indre départe mente t indgivet Klage og gjort 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 174 — 

Fordring paa Fredning eller Forbud tnod HvalfangBt ira den uorsk- 
STenske Grœnee rundt hele Norge til den norsk-ruBsiike Grœnse. Se 
BesolutioneB, som voteredes af de i Skudesnsse samlede Fiskere, £d 
FordrÏDg, som pr saa DmfatteDde, er jo aldeles ny og ah0rt Ira Fisïer- 
nea Side ligeoverfor Hvalfaiigeme. Det er jo aldelea iih0rt, at de, 
som driver en Bedrift, gj0r Fordriog paa eu saa boloasal Indskrieiili- 
uing i andres Bedrift. 

Hvad angaar det andet Funkt, Forekomstea af store Kœiigderat 
Sffil, har Hr, S0ren8en udtalt, at den aandsynligvie kommer ira Hvide- 
iavet. Jeg vil kun i Sagena Aniedning anf0re en faktisk Omstten- 
digbed, nemtig at en Ruaaer har begyndt at drive Fangat af Ssel ved 
den marmanake Kyat, netop ved IiLdl0bet til Bvidehavet. Muligeos 
det kunde hâve Indilydelse paa Formindskelse af Sielens Forekomst î 
Yarangerfjordeu og paa den murmanake Kyat. Noget videre enskei 
jeg ikke at fremfore. Jeg vilde kuu fremholde nogle faktiske Om- 
ateendigheder ved Sagena Bebandiing. 

Bestyber Nobdoaabd: Jeg har iœatei mig ved den Ometsn- 
digbed, som Hr, 80renaen gjorde opmîerkaom paa, at i de Aar, da 
Loddefiaket er daarligst, er ogaaa Skriget ataerkeat, Det erjonoksaa 
naturligt. Fîakerne ligger paa Land og har det ikke altid aaa godt. 
De diskuterer da aig imellem de OraatEeudigheder, som inâuerer pas 
de daarlige Udsigter, og de tager da riraeligvia det, aom ligger dxt- 
mest, og f0lgelig faar Hvalfangsten undgJEelde i f0rste Kskke. Men 
naar nu Fiskemô Btiller den Fordring, at Hvalfangsten maa ophere 
paa Oruod af dens akadelige Indflydelse paa Torskefiskerieme, saa er 
det en efter min Mening i heieste Grad urânelig Fordring, For det 
f^rate er det jo aldelea ikke bevist, at der er nogen n0îagtig Sammen- 
haeng metleni de to Tiug, Hvalfangsten og Torskefiakerieme. Jeg bar 
faeatet mig ved de Opgaver, som Hr. S0ren8en gav over F0den tor 
disse almindelige Hvalsorter. Han neevnte, at Blaahvolen og Seihvalen 
lever sserlig af mindre Krebsdyr eller almindelige Planktonorganiamer, 
aom paa de Bredder forekommer i store Maengder, medens deriin«d 
Kn0lhvaIen og Pinhvalen vsBsentlig ernserer sig af Lodde og Sild. D* 
Hvalsorter, som der aitsaa ban vsere Taie om bar nogen Indflydelse 
paa Torskeliskerierne, maatte da vsere Kn0lbvaleu og Finhvalen, aideo 
de spiser Torsk og Sild, Nu gives Sagen den Fremstilling, at disse 
to Hvalsorter jager Torsken, Det kan jeg ikke tro er korrekt, Jeg 
indbilder mig, at Forholdet er folgende; Lodden kommer io til Fin- 
marken for at gyde, Torsken fglger Lodden for at nsere sig af den, 
-og Knplhvalen og Finhvalen f0lger Lodden for atter at nsere sig 



— ]76 — 

af den. Men at Forholdet er, at Hvalen jager Lodden, tror jeg 
aldelea ikke. 

Jeg har hert, at for nogle Aar siden var der î Lofoten etore 
KIftgemaal over, at DampskibRtrafiken virkede generende paa Lofot- 
fiaket. Jeg aynes, at îalfald endel af de Paaatande, eom Fiakerne i 
Finmarken har fremkaatet, ligner deuoe Paaetand fra Lofoten. Naar 
det nu f. Ex, siges, at B!od fra anskudt Hval skulde virke foratyr- 
reode, saa aynes jeg, det hiSreB h0ist mEsrkvierdigt. Ligesaa at Skud 
Bkrœmmer. Jeg er aldelea enig med Inspekt0r S0renaen i bana 
Earakteristik af diase Fiakernea Klager. Derimod t0r det aok veere, 
at de bar mère Eet i ain Paastand om, at Sœlen bar Indâydelae paa 
Fiaket, og det er efter min Mening af ganake stor Betydning at faa 
det Sp0rgamaa) opklaret, Det var derfov en byggelig Oplysning at 
htre, at Kuaaeme bavde begyndt Faugst i Hvidebavet, aiden man 
altsaa mener, det bar va^ret akadeligt, at Sieleu der har faaet Anled- 
niiig til at forplante sig i ïto og Mag og seerlig under aine Vandrin- 
ger vestover har virket forstyrrende paa Fisket baade paa den mur- 
manake oe paa den norske Kyst. Det vilde ogsaa vjere tSnakeligt, 
■oiû Dr. Knipowitch, som leder den rusaiake Expédition deroppe, vilde 
bave Opmcerkaornbedeu henveiidt paa denne Sag. 

GbobSebeb Ludt: Jeg vil kun tiUadi' mig at gj0re opmeerkaorn 
paa, at omkring Bornholm, hvor der foregaar et temmelig betydebgt 
Laxefiake, anser man Saelen for at vsere et forl'asrdeligt Rovdyr, aom an- 
retter ubodelig Skade paa Laxefisket demede. Hvia det forholder aig 
saaledea — bvad man er berettiget til at antage eft"r aile de Elager, 
^tn er fremkommet — aaa mener jeg deraf at kunne drage Anledning 
til at slutte mig til den Anskueiae, at Sœlen ogaaa paa andre Steder, 
hvor den har en saadan maegtig Fremgang, gjei- ubodelig Skade. 

FiaKEBiSKOLEBBSTYE EE Backeb: Det er muligt, at jeg har 
raisforataaet Hr. Sdrensen, men han hai- to Gange i ait Foredrag nœvnt, 
at i de Aar, Hvalfangsten dreves som bedst, var ogsaa Loddefîsket bedat. 
Saavidt jeg foratod Hr. Sflrensen, fandt han deraf en Grand til at 
slntte, at Hvalen ikke havde nogen Indflydeiae paa Fiakets Gang. 
Jeg aynes — vel at mserke efter den Opfatning Fiakerne har — at 
netop det, at der i de store Loddefiakeaar er méat Hval, skulde tyde 
part det modaatte af, bvad Hr. S0rensen bar trukket ud heraf. Det 
er et brœndende SpOrgamaal, dette, og ved Lofotfisket diskuteres det 
ret Bom det er, ligesom ogsaa i Finmarken, og jeg tror, at netop den 
Omstsendighed, at det er koramet frem her, vil virke overordeiitlig 
godt og beroligende paa Gemytterne. 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 176 — 

En Ejends^erning er det î ethvert Tilfa-lde, at i àem histonake 
Tid, den Tid, vi kjender, pr Piaken, aaavel ved Lofoten som i Fin- 
mnrken, gaaet mère fra Land. Han har en Tradition i LofoteD, 
som Biger, at i Oatnseafjorden — som formodentlig allé kjeoder — 
var Fiaket î garnie Dage aarvist, og jeg har fra en gammel Mand 
derinde h^rt forttbile, at f0rste Glang man gik udenfor den indre Pol 
med sine Redskaber, var der garnie Folk som spaaede, at mange 
kom tilat ^faa Sand i Eiggen" — det er forulykke — for aaa langt ud 
bavde man aldrig gaaet f0r. Det anmine er Titfœlde overalt lan^ 
Eyeten, og Âarsagerne granakes natarligvis ivrig af Fiskerne. Ât 
Finmarksfisket Bkulde fjemes (ra Eyateii paa Gruud af de Bedskaber, 
Hom bruges, er ikke sandsynligt, men at der er Aarsager til det, er 
jo greit. En Ting, som synes mïg af ator Vigtighed, og som her er 
koinmet frem, er Forekomaten af Ssel efter Hvalena Tilbagegang. 
riersom Sfelen bmger aamme Aate aom Hvaten, kan ican jo tsnke 
si$r, at det er en nattu-lig Âarsag til, at Stelen skyr de Steder, hvor 
Hvalen bar opboldt aig, fordi Hvalen har spist op det tneste af det Aate, 
som SGelen skal levé af, og at den derfor ikke komroer der, f0r Hvalen 
er fjemet og Aatet voxet til. Man knn tœnke aig dette, og TTnder- 
aegelser i den Retning burde foranataltea. 

Far0vngt maa jeg sige, selv om man eyaes det er lidt gammei- 
dngs i denoe Fiskemea Opinion, som raere og mère vozer aig stxrk. 
inod diase forbedrede Bedakaber, og om den i mange Betninger spe9 
naragtig, aaa bar den dog aine Aarsager. Vistnok er det — som 
Generalkonaul Tattermann paaviate, en «nderlig Foreteelae, at man ved 
Hjielp af deone Opinion har faaet Lovparagrafer igjennem, -aom andre ■ 
Hationer vilde aynea var timulige, men det er dog Beatedea, at ffllger j 
man denne Opinion ira det fi3rate, maa man komme dertil, at det er 
et Siags Inatinkt hos Befolkniugen, at hvia man ikke bevarer Fisken 
paa de Funkter, hvor den er, og naturligen adger hen, bliver der 
Tilbagegang i Bestanden, Og tager man dette historiak ligeoverior 
den Btœrke Beatrœbelae, aom der nu i mange Rstninger er bleveu ogaaa 
i Piskeribedriften, lor ved Hjœlp af kunatîg Formerelae at holde 
BeBtanden vedHge der, bvor den inenneskelige Foretagsomhed bar 
ryddet for atasrkt op, aaa tror jeg ikke, at demie Opinion bKr sœtteit 
ganake ud af Betregtning. 

Redaet0R Thde: Foredragsbolderen fremholdt meget beatenit i 
den Opfatning, hvortil ban kom, og det er meget muligt, ban bar Het | 
i demie sin BetragtningBmaade. Imidiertid er det jo klart, at de 
norake Myndigbeder ikke godt kan lukke 0ine elier 0ren til, hvor 
det gjaalder en aaa etterk Opinion aom den. der er fremkommet in ' 



— 177 — 

Fiskerne i de mest fiskeridri vende Diatrîkter. Foredragaholder.'n 
Iremholdc, at HvalfaQgsten bragte et Udbytte af 1 Million Eroner. 
Jeg forstaar godt, at et aaadant Argument har sin Betyduiiig, og at 
en Baadan Kœringsgren er af Vigtighed; men paa den anden Side 
bflr det ikke lades udaf Betragtning, hvilkeo ator Betydning Fînmarks- 
ftsket hex for den fiakedrivende Befolkning, iater paa de Steder, hvor Fin- 
markeâskeme har aine Boliger, og desuden ogaaa for aile de Fiekere, 
der helt fra Nordre Troudbjems Amt kommer derop for at aoge endei 
af ain Nsering. Jeg tror, det er uundgaaeligt, at disse MEend inaa 
kraave med ea via fiet, at der Iteggea mare Vtegt paa den N»ring, 
hvorved de a0ger at opholde LJvet, end paa den anden N^seringsgren, 
Hvalfangaten nemlig, der vseaentlîg drives af mare aller raindre kapi- 
talstaerke Kœnd i vert Land. Jeg vil hermed aldeles ikke hâve ud- 
talt nogen Mening med Henayn til det her omhandlede Spflrgamaal, 
mea jeg vil faa Lov til at betone, at man her dog virkelig staar 
ligaoverfor et Froblem, et 8p0rgsniaal, der ikke er l0Bt, men som det 
er Fremtiden forbeholdt miiligene at l03e. 

Naar det er sagt af en Taler, at disse praktiak-videnakahelige 
Uuders0gelser skulde berolige Fiakeme i Finmarken eller i det hele 
tBget Fiskeme, aom driver i Finmarken, vil jeg sige, at jeg ikke t0r 
hengive mig til det Haab. Jeg tror, at Fiskeme vil holde fast paa 
sin Opfatning, som de saa mange Gange har anf0rt hviler paa over 
en Menneekealders Erfaring. 

Denne Opfatning vil de fremholde saaleenge, indtil der kan preeeteres 
et Bevia, der i derea 0ine har fuld Gyidighed. Hvorvidt Videnakaben 
bmnaatUdet Haal, skal jeg ikke udtale mig om; men jeg maa aige, 
at de praktiak-videnakabelige TJndersOgelaer i de aïdste Decennier tyder 
pa.a, at det gaar med Krebagang, hvor det gjselder videnakabelig 
Forakning paa Haviiskeriernes Omraade. Det vil vi, aom lever daglig 
blandt Fiakeme i Lofoten, hâve Eet til at udtale; thi vi aer Aar 
efter Aar nye Gaader at 1086, nye SpiSrgsmaal, som trÈengnr sig frem. 

Med Henayn til en Udtalelse af en Taler vil JHg faa Lov at 
benuerke, at det forekommer mig med Beatemthed, at jeg kan huake, 
it i vedkommende Storthingskomites Indstilling til den Lov, som 
Storthinget gav, staar udtrykkelïg anf^rt, at det er Hensynet til 
Fiakeme i Finmarken, aom har bevirket de Beatemmelaer i Loven, 
som blev oratalt af Hr. Sôrensen. 

De. Hjoet: Vi er nu pludaelig kommet op i en Diakussion, 
som de tilatedevsarende vil iorstaa er af ator Raekkevidde, og jeg 
fonnaar ikke at sidde her uden at iremkomme med min Opfatning af 
Sftgen. Dea Diskuasion, aom er paafaegjndt, er mère elier mindre 



— 178 — 

bevidet kommet ind paa 8p0rgsinaa1, som spiller iad i ssâten ait, 
hvad der heder Fiskerispargsmaal. Man har berart Redskabcmes 
Tilladelighed, det store 8p0rgeinaa1, hvorvidt vort Folk skal aDstreiige 
sig for at gkaâe eig bedre og bedre Redskaber, hvorvidt dette skader 
vor Fiskebestaud, hvorvidt vi heller skal holde os til garnie primitive 
Methoderog darved mère skaaoe de» Fiakehestand, vi har, osv. Dei 
er selvfelgelig det vigtigste af aile Spflrgsmaal, som foreligger (or 
vor Nation, atadrede. Jeg vil laa Lov at gjare od BemcerkDiiig overlor 
disse Sp0rgHmiial, eu BeiiKerkniiig, som jeg specieit ti]lader mig >t 
bede dem overveie, som retter Angreb paa de videusk abêti ge Udred- 
niager, Jeg vil faa Lov at sige, at man faar dog erindre, at a!!!* 
disse Sp0rgBmaal, saaledes som de fremhaives fra aile vore Fiskere 
og dem, som interesserer sig ior Bedriften, stadig trematilles eom en 
Blandiûgafto helt forekjellige Synspunkter, iiemlig et Synspmikt, son 
jeg vil knlde det videnskabelige Sj*nspunkt, og et andet, som Jeg for 
min Del nœrmeat vil karakteriatre som et politisk Syaspuckt. Del 
gj'ielder at holde disse Ting iid tra hioanden. Det gjeelder, at m»s 
uiidersoger det videnskabelige SpflrgBmaal, hvorledes de faktiske 
Forhold er. Enten det nu er en Videnskabamand, ■ som bringer dette 
pua det rené, eller det er en Mand, som ikke liar saa stor bogli? 
Daonelse, som bringer det paa det l'ene, er mig personlig ligegjldi;;!, 
men jeg mener, at man maa holde det helt saglige 8p0rgsmaal som 
et Problem helt og holdent for sig og holde det andet Probleio, 
nemlig de forskjellige Nferingadri vendes Intéresser, som et kldn, 
di'itinkt Problem for sig, et Problem, som maa udkjsempes i Kamp 
niellem de NîeriDgsdrivendes forskjellige Intéresser. Det er et reui 
videnskabehgt Spflrgsmaal, dette, hvorvidt det f. Ex. i Lofoten rilde 
«delwgge Fiskebestanden at anvende de bedste Redskaber, man kurnie 
tS'oke sig. Hvorvidt f. Ex. Rynken0ter vilde vsere skadelige fiw 
Fiskebestanden i Lofoten, mener jeg er et rent videnskabeligt Sp0r^- 
maal, som Folk faar se at blive enige oni fra et videnskabeli^'i 
Synspunkt. Derimod er der et andet Spôrgsmaal, som stadig blandes 
op i dette, nemlig hvorvidt den saakaldte kapitalstœrke Mand paa <1en 
fattigeres Bekostuing vilde hâve inere Fordel af et godt Fiske eller 
ikke. Det er selvtslgeiig noget af en rent anden Earakter, som ilfkf 
iiiiia blandes sammen med den rené IndHaraling af Erlaring om, hvor- 
vidt Fiskebestanden lider ved et godt Fiske. Man siger, at Videu- 
skaben vil aldrig kimne tîlfredsstille Folk i den Henseende: de vil 
dog altid beholde sin Opfatning. Jeg tror ogsaa, man har Ret di'ri, 
Men det er ikke Videnakabens Skyld. Det er begrundet deri, at der 
ei* forskjellige Intéresser, som kanake kan hâve Ret fra begge Sidcr: 



— 179 — 

men disse Intéresser faar da under sin indbyrdes Kamp lade Viden- 
skaben faa slippe ftt undgJEelde for, om de seirer eller taber. Viden- 
skaben maa staa over deiine Kamp. 

Med Hensyn til det aaglige Spflrgamaal, bvorvidt det er mère 
magtpaaiîggeiide for vort Folk at lœgge sig efter bedre og bedre 
Bedskaber, altsaa med audre Ord ior0ge det opfiskede Kvantuni, 
eller holde aig til mère primitive Redakaber og Usgge Hovedvsegten 
paa rredning, vil jeg aige, at dette Sp0rgamaal fremfor ait inaa 
underkastea videre UnderaegeUe. I den Retning er det avaert lidet 
gjort hoa ob, Men jeg vil dog allerede aige, at naar jeg akal tage 
Hensyn til mit prîvate Skjfln.og tage Hensyn til hele Fiaket, saaledes 
som det drives over hele Nordeuropa, maa jeg sige, at der fiakea dog 
f-irholdevis i Norge saa saerdelea meget mindre, end der fiskes i noget 
af de andre atone europœiske Fiskelande, At taie om Overfisko hoa 
ostror jeger en unfldig Lammelse af den fremadatrtebeiide Intelligena 
hos vort Folk, uden hvilken vor Fiakeribefolkning aldrig vil kunne 
Dfta til noget hoiere kulturelt Niveau. Jeg tror ikke, at viirt Folk 
beh0ver at naare Frygt for Anvendelaen af gode Redakaber. Jeg tror 
tvertimod, man med fuld Kraft kan^ aaette sin Intelligena ind paa at 
opfinde gode Eedskaber. Jeg tror, at en saadan Straeben, gaaeiide 
Haand i Haand med en rationel Fredning, vil kuune mediare Fremakridt. 
Og den, som gaar paa Udatillingen og ser paa den danake Afdeliug 
f. Ex., de maoge brîJliante Redakaber, som anvendea der, og hvia 
man Iseser et aaadant brilliant Vœrk som Drechsela Vserk over de 
danske Fiskerier, hvor man har den bedate Overaigt over aile de 
gode Redskaber, som anvendea i vore Nabolande, vil man forstaa, at 
vi i den Ting har meget at lasre. Og naar man aer hen paa det 
energiake, intense Fiske, aora forôgaar der, vil man forstaa, at hvis 
der drives Overtiske i Europa, aaa er det ialfald forel0big mindat ber 
i Norge. Man maa da heller — tror jeg — stimulere Folk til at 
overveie diase Ting end iamme dem i Frygt for, at Forholdene ikke 
tillader dem at anvende sin Intelligena paa Fremakridt. Derf or tror jeg, 
deteraf atflrste Intéresse videnskabelig at faa paa det rené, om dette 
vilde 0deltegg6 Fisken. Men man maa holde det ene Problem — 
bvilken Foratyrrelse det vilde kunne volde mellem Fiskernea Interes- 
aesfterer — helt ud faar det aiidet, kun holde sig til Videnakaben 
for det ene, og til de praktiske Miend for det andet Spflrgsmaals 
Vedkommende. Kun da formaar Videnskaben at tilt redaati lie Publikum; 
for kun da stiller mau rimelige Fordringer til den. 

Prœsidenten : Af Heoayn til det ArbeîdsBtof, aom forelîgger, 
vil det vsere n^dvendigt at holde sig de for Diakusaionen opstillede 



— 180 — 

Beetemmelser efterrettelig. Der vil derfor ikke vœre Adgtmg for de 
Heirer, som har tait, tîl at faa Ordet paonyt, medena Hr. Sdrensen 
som lodleder vil kunne komme med en afaluttende Uâtalelae. Jeg 
skal heufltille tîl de Herrer, som flnsker Ordet, ikke at gaa aaa langt 
i DiekussioneD, som det tildels er gjort. Det forekommer mig, at 
man er kommet noget udeufor det foreliggende Emne. 

For mit eget Vedkommende vil jeg faa Lot til at give min 
Tilslutuing til den Opfatnïng, som epecielt blev udtalt af Dr. Ejort. 
Hvor der er Taie om nt indfflre FrednîngBbeBtemmelser eller acdre 
reatriktive Beetemmelser ligeoverror atedUndeade Fiskerier, er det min 
Opfatning — ligesom det blev adtalt af ham — at disse Beatemmelser 
b0r adges affattet udelnkkende paa Gnindlag af de faktiske og 
videnskabelige Oplyaninger, som dikteret af en eller anden Intéresse 
maatte komme frem fra den ene eller den anden Side. Det er det, 
vî maa arbeide for, at hvilken Ordning der Irseffea af Statsmagterne, 
hvilken vi vil aubefale, aaa maa den ndelukkende baseres paa HeDayoet 
til virkelige Fakta, paalidelige Oplysninger og nffiagtige UnderaBgelser. 

FlSEEElKONSULENT Dahl: , Jeg vil gjeme gaa tilbagu til 
Blutningen at Hr. S^renaens Forodrag og aige, at Jeg holder med 
ham i de Aaekuelser, at Forholdeoe i Finmarken er saa gaadefulde og 
uoplyste med Henayn til Fîskets forskjellige Foreteelaer, at en gnindig 
videuskabelig Undera^gelae ogsaa for denne Landsdel maa Tsere meget 
0nskelig og syttig i deu nsermeste Fremtid. 

FisKERllNSPEKT0B S0BENSEN : Jeg er aldeles enig i, hvad 
Dr. Hjort og Pnesidenten bar udtalt med Hensyn til det videnskabelige 
8p0rgamaal. Med Henayn til hvad Hr. Redakt0r Thue sagde, at jeg 
aaa bestemt havde udtalt, at Hvalfangaten ikke var akadelig, vil jeg 
opiyse, at jeg sagde: Jeg mener derfor, at vi ingen siJcre Réviser bar 
fur Hvalfaogstens Skadelighed, og at man derfor b0r beUenke sig paa 
at negte en NEeringsvei, der aarlig indbringer vort Land over 1 Million 
Krouer. Og saa anbefalede jeg, at Forboldet skulde grundig usder- 
Bdges ved praktiske cg videnskabelige Undors0gel3er. Jeg har sa&ledes 
ikke udtait mig saa bestemt, som Hr. Thue synes at meue. 

Hr. Hacker omtalte, at jeg bavde n»vnt, at netop i de Aar, da 
Torskefisket var bedst, var ogsaa Hvalfangaten bedst, og han saa 
deri et Bevis for, at Hvalfangaten muligena kunde viere skadetig — 
eller livordan han udtrykte sig. Det er netop et Bevis for — mener 
jeg — at der, bvor Torsken trivea, der trives som oftest Hvalen. Meu 
jeg nœvnte dette som et Bevis paa, at Hvalfangsten ikke kunde vEere 
akadelig, at netop i de Aar var der skudt nser Land af Hvalfangere 
700 Hval. Hvalfangaten var altsaa foregaaet paa samme Tid som 



- 181 — 

vort Torskeâske, saaleâes at ikke Hvalfangsten skulde bave hiadret 
Torskefiskerierne. En betydelig stori'e Skade for Tore Fiakerier oppe 
iFinmarken end Hvalfarigsten er jeg overbevint oin, at Sielena Ankomst 
gjor. Jeg er enig med den œrede Herre, som talte om, at Sœlen 
gjc^r saa stor Skade paa Bomholmsâeket. Jeg er 6Dig i, at vi bar 
ikke et Rovdyr paa vore Kyster, som gjrtr saa œegen Skade som 
Sailen, naar denne kommer î store Masser, og jeg er bauge for, at skal 
den fortstette at komme, saaledes som den har gjort i de sidste Â:ir, 
vil den btive aldelea odelaeggende for vort Loddefiske i Finmarken. 
Dtt giîeder mig derfor iaar at erfare, at Rusaeme for Alvor har tEenkt 
paa at ^delaegge Bestanden i Hvidehavht, Jeg tror at hâve Erfaring 
for, at mau ogsaa paa Murmanskysten er enig i, at Sieletis Komme 
om Vaaren til denae Kyst er skadelig for Fiskerîeme ogaaa der, og 
jeg har derfor det Haab, at Ruaserne mère og mère vil I»gge sig 
efter denne Fangst i Hvidebavet; thi jeg tror, at den eneste Maade, 
hvorpaa vi kan hindre Sœlens Vandring til den niurmanske og den 
norake Kyst om Vaaren er at 0del£egge Bestanden ï Hvidehavet. Der- 
for haaber jeg, at denne Fongat vil lykkea, og at den vil fortstettes 
og drives med Kraft. 

Pr^Sidenten: Da ingen flere har forlangt Ordet, er Diakusaionen 
om denne Sag afsluttet. 



1.;. Google 



XII. 

OM EN MÏÏII& SAMMEKHJINI} MELLEM 

ÏÏDBTTTET IF TOaSKEEISKERIERNE I LOPOTEN OG 

EIMMARKEN. 

De. J. Bbunchosst. 

For Fiskeriudstillingen fandtjeg, at det vilde vœre af Interesse 
atlave istand nogle grafigke Karter, som viste de ooi'ske Fiskeriei 
i de sidste 20 Âar, fordelt paa de forskjellige Âmter. Jeg lavede 
et saa<]ant Kart for Torskeâskeriernes, et for Silde&skeriernes 
og et for hvert af de Bvrige Fiskeriers Vedkommende. Methoden, 
hvorpaa jeg lavede dem, er meget simpel og velkjendt. Den bestaai 
simpelthen i, at man tegner op en horisontal Lin)e for de for- 
skjellige Aar, for hvilken Statistik foreligger, og for hvert af de 
Punkter, som betegner et Aar, reiaer man en vertikal Linje, hvis 
Lsengde koresponderer med det opfiskede Kvantum. Forbinder 
man saa Endepunktei-ne af disse Vertikaler med en Linje, sa» 
giver den Linje, man derved faar, en Kurve, 8om danner et 
BiUede af Fiskeriemes Qang. Det nye ved min FreŒgangsmasde 
var egentlig bare det, at jeg gjorde Kurven op sserskilt for hvert 
Amt for de sidBte 30 Aar, og indtegnede disse Kurve paa et Kart, hver 
Kurve ved det Amt den tilherer. Jeg konstruerede altsaa op disse 
Kurver for Torskeâskeriemes Vedkommende efter den oficielle 
Statistik, og ved da at se paa de to Kurver for Nordlands og 
Finmarkens Amter — det vil altsaa sige for de to Amter, hvur 
de sterste Torskeâskerier foregaar — viste sig den Ëiendomme- 



— 183 — 

lighed, at de to Kurver lignede hinanden meget, ikke ganske i 
Detalj, men i stflrre Trsek lignede de hinanden noksaa meget. 
Denne Statistik begyndermed 1875 og gaartil 1895. I Begyndelsen 
af Perioden er der en Stigning i Pinmarksfisket og en tilsvarende 
Stigning i Lofotfisket. Saa kommer der nogle Aar en stœrk 
Nedgang i Finmarksfisket og eu tilsvarende Nedgang i Lofotfisket. 
Saa er der atter en akarp Stigning ug saa Nedgang for et enkelt 
Aar, som korresponderer med en skarp Nedgang i Lofotfisket. 
Kun i Slutningen og Begyndelsen af den 20-aar3periode, som 
Statistiken omfatter, er Overensstemmelsen mindre. Naar man nu 
sammenligneF disse Kurver — jeg tegnede dem op paa et gjennem- 
sigtigt Papir og iagde dem ovenpaa hinanden — saa viste det sig, 
at denne Oïerensstemmelse ikke var af den Art, at Finmarksfisket et 
Aar stemte med Lo/otfisket det samme Aar. Den var derimod af 
lien Art, at Finmarksfisket det ene Aar stemte med Lofotfisket 
det nteste Aar, med andre Ord: Kurven for Finmarksfisket maatte 
forskyvea et Aar tilhaire bortover Kurven for Lofotfisket, forât 
Overensstemmelsen skulde komme istand. Og saa er at merke, at 
Lofotfisket bestandig er betydelig sterre end Finmarksfisket. 
Tœnker man sig den ene Kurve udklippet og lagt paa den 
anden, saa vil de stemme, naar Finmarkskurven forskyves et Aar 
tilhflire, og der yïl altid vœre en faelles Diflerance. Denne Diffe- 
rance dreier sig om 18 — 19 Miliioner. Dette vil altsaa sige, at 
ved at gaa ud fra Finmarksfisket et Aar og lœgge til 18 — 19 
Millioner, vil man komme til et Tal, som tilnsermelsesvis skulde 
angive Lofotfisket det folgende Aar. Hvis dette virkelig hnlder 
Stik i Lfengden, er det jo klart, at det er et Résultat af iidskillig 
Interesse. Jeg vil ikke paastaa, at det bolder Stik stadig, men 
jegmener, Spergsmaalet er afsaapas Interesse, at det burde optages 
til naarmere Undersegelse. Man burde forsage, om der ikke skulde 
findes statistiske Oplysninger lœngere tiibage end de, jeg har havt 
til Disposition, forât man kunde faa starre Sikkerbed, end man 
kan bave efter den Statistik, jeg har benyttet, for, at det virkelig 
ei' saaiedea, som jeg har antydet. 

For at kontroUere Rigtigheden af dette Eesultat, som jeg 
aaaledes tilfseldjg kom til, stiDede jeg op et Par Tabeller og 
Uregnede efter de Tabeller, hvor stor Afvigelse der var raellem 
àm Spaadom, jeg paa denne Maade kunde faa istand for Udbytlet 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



— 184 — 

af et Âars Lofotâske beregnet efter det foregiiaeDde Aars Finmarks- 
fiske, og det virkelig opfiakede Kvantum. Det viste sig for disse 
20 Aars Vedkommende, aom vi her liai- med at gjere, at Differancen 
er Baa stor, at Besultatet ikke har nogeiisomlielat Betydning, i to 
eller inuligens tre Aar af de 20; men i de andre 17 Aar er For- 
skjellen raellem Spaadoinmeii og det virkelig opfiskede Kvantuin ikke 
Bt0rre, end at Spaadonimen aynes mig virkelig at maatte hâve nogen 
Betydning. I enkelte Aar stemmer den ganske og aldeles, i andre 
Aar kan Differancen vœre 3, 4, 2, 3, l'/a, 3, 9, 4, 8, 7, 6, 9, 
Millioner. Kun i tre Aar er Differancen over 10. Jeg vil ikke gaa 
ntermere ind paa, hvorvidt dette er et rent Tilfïelde eller ikke, men 
der er virkelig 17 af de 20 Aar, hvor en Spaadom, gjort paa denne 
Maade, vil give et tilnsermelsesvis rigtigt Résultat, og det er et sau 
mserkeligt Tilfœlde — hvis det er et Tilfœlde — at jeg sjntes, 
det liavde lilstrœkkelig Intéresse til at bringes frem her i denne 
Forsamling. 

Beregner man et Aars Lofotfiske med Udgangspuokt i det 
foregaaende Aars Lofotfiske — forseger man at spaa Udbjttet 
af Lofotfisket for et Aar ved at gaa ud fra det foregaaende Aars 
Lofotfitike, bliver Differancen meget aterre, Den Spaadom, mM 
faar paa den Maade, bliver meget upaalideligere end ved at gaa 
ud fra df^t foregaaende Aars Finmarksfiske. Det er jo noksaa 
eiendommeligt. Der er altsaa meget atarre Differance mellem el 
Aars Lofotfiske og det foregaaende Aars, end der er mellem min 
Spaadom og det virkelige Forbold. Der er et meget sterre Antal 
Aar, liïor Differancen er over 10 Millioner. 

Dette var omtrent, hvad jeg vilde sige. Det var ikke meie. 
ii'g egentlig havde paa Hjerte, idet jeg selvfolgelig ingenlunde lil 
gaa ind paa nogen Diskussion om de mnltge Aarsager til ^n 
Sammenliœng, som er saa tvilsom og liviler paa saa lidet sikker 
Grund som dette. 

A n m. Af Foredraget gaves derefter et Résumé paa tysk. 



B'iSKEBiSKOLËBESTYRER Backeb : Jeg tror, at det vilde vaTe 
af stor Intéresse for âe udeiilandske Herrer, om Hr. Brunchorat vilde 
oplyse om Fonikellen mellem Lofotfisket og Finmarkatislret, netolig 
med Rogn og ikke Rogn. Jeg tror ikke, de kjender det. 



— 186 — 

Beunchoebt gav paa tysk en Forklaring om, at Lofottoraken 
gyder, bvorimod Loddetorsken ikke. 

Fl8KEBllH8PEET0B 80KEN8EN: Jeg ved ikke, om Ht. Backer 
med ain Bemeerkning mente at antyde, at det var muligens Pisk, 
snni det ene Âar havde vœret uoder Lofoten for at gyde, som det 
andet Aar kom til Finmarken. Hvia det var Meningen, tror jeg, det 
var en fuldstsendig Feiltagelse. Den Fisk, som kommer til Finmarken 
om Vaaren, og aom vi kalder Loddetorsk, tror jeg, de fleate, som 
harstiideret de Forhold, mener er en Fiak, aom endda ikke er bleven 
befrngtniugédygtig. Det er ung Fisk, Sdie og 4de Aarsklasae. Den 
almindelige Loddetorsk er ialfaid af omirent samme StBrrelae og er 
betydeUg mindre end Lofotakreien. Hvîe det skulde vœre aaa, aom 
den œrede Foredragaholder antydede, at der skuide vaare nogen Sam* 
menfaieng mellem Lofotlisket det eue Aar og Finmarkaâaket det andet 
Aar, maatte dette hâve sin Grand i, at det, som gjorde, at Lofotfisben 
dkbt ene Aar kom i st^rre Meengde end altnindeHg til Lofoten, det 
eanime Forhold skulde ogsaa det andet Aar gj0re, at Loddetorsken 
skulde S0ge Finmarkens Kyst, eller altsaa deri, at det vilde tage et 
Aar, for at Vandet med de Forhold, som der var under Lofoten, rnk 
Finmarkens Kyst. Jeg vilde heller aige, at der kunde vsere nogen 
Sammenhœng mellem Lofotfisket og Finmarksfisket, i Tiif^elde a( 
at der var et Mellemnim paa 4 og 5 Aar. Hvia der f. Ex, et Aar 
havde vseret heldige Gydningsforhold uoder Lofotens Kyet, kunde jeg 
tœnke mig, at om 4à6 Aar vilde denne Yngel, aom da var iidklsekket 
i Lofoten, kunne vœre ved Finmarkens Kyst. Det passer kanske ikke 
paa deu ÏEaade, men det .vilde jeg tsenke mig mère naturligt, om saa 
var Tilfœldet. 

Fl8KERllN8PBKT0E Wallemi Tur jeg sp0rge Hr. Brunchorst, 
hvor mange Aar der er mellem de to korresponderende Perioder, de 
(o Kurver, aom svarer til hinanden. 

Db. Beunchorst: De to Kurver omfatter 20 Aar, fra 1876 til 
1895. Naar den eue fojskyves et Aar, kommer den til at atemme 
mcd den anden. 

FiSKEKiiNSPEKTgB Wallem : Der kan viatnok vfere en Sammen- 
bœng mellem Ijofotfisket og Finmarkafisket, forsaavidt som det saa- 
kaldte Loddefiske, der folger efter Lofotfieket, kan antages at staa i For- 
biiidelse med det. Men man b0r derhos lasgge Meerke til, at Finmarkafisket 
egentlig er et dobbelt, elïer falder i to Terminer, det f0rste Fiske begynder 
om Vinteren, derefter f0lger en Stans paa 1 à 2 Maaneder, og aoa 
begynder Loddeôsket. Denne Forskyvning i Fiskerierne falder sammen 
med Golfetrflmmens B0ining, f0r8t sydover, hvormed falger det saakaldte 



— 186 - 

QodtfiBke, gydefœrdig Torsk. Fiakea begyoder at 8t0de onder Land 
l»ngat nord, og dernœst forskyver Fîsket aig aydover, f0r Skreien 
kommer til Lofot^n, eller f0r det store Indsig finiier Sted. Naar det 
er endt eller omtreDt da, begynder det Btoie Lodde-Fieke oppe i 
Fimnarken . 

Naar der er en vis Korreupoodance mellem dièse to Fiakerier, 
kan man ogsaa tcenke sig Muligheden af, at de Stimer, som er til- 
bage i Lofoten og forlader Lofoten for at gaa ud i det store Océan, 
treekker nordover for at emcere sig nf den Rogn og Yogel, aom da 
fiades Bpredt opover Kysteu, og seul ganske viat f^lger den hele Kyst 
nordover. Samtidig dermed indkommer ogsaa den Lodde, aom B0ger 
Kyateu for at gyde senere paa Aaret. At der er en Korespondance 
mellem de to Fiakeiier, og at der vil kunoe fiadea visas Overenstemmelser 
i de aarlige UdbytCek vanta paa den af Hr. Bnmchorst aotydede 
Maade, foKr jig mîg temmelig overbevist om. Xaar Hr. Brunchorat 
bnigte det Udtryk: „at spna", saa er det vel et beskedent Udtryk 
for at udfinde den logiske Saiiimenhaeng mellem dièse to Perioder, 
Hr. Brunchorst mener, at Finmarkafisket koiresponderer med Lolotfisket 
ved atforskyves et Aar tilbage. Deiine Forskyvning kan jo ogsaa godt 
forklares aaatedes, at naar der er daarligt Fiske i Lofoten, er der en desto 
Bt0tTe Masse Fisk tilbage, ogjo mère Fisk der er tObage, desto mère Fisk 
vil der ftfige Kysten opover. Man kunde derlorkaneke heller vende Satsen 
omogeige, Ht det er Finiunikafisket soin korre s pondérer med Lofctfisket 
saaledoH at ikke Lolotfieketa at0rre Udbytte, men dets mindre korreapon- 
derer med Fininarkefiiikets nt^rre Udbytte, og omvendt. Dièse korrespon- 
derende Perioder af et Fiukeris Opgniig og N^dgang, ogeaa for Torske- 
linkeriets Vedkommende, vil vistnnk lîiidee at hâve ain tilsvarende 
Korrespondaiice i de meteorologiske og kydj ografiske Forhold, ikke 
hovedsagelig i Fiakeetimemes voxende filer attagende Msengde. 

En TiiJg er imidlertid heiat eiendominelig med Heneyn til vore 
Torsk efiakerier, en Ting, aom lier ikke er ber0rt hve;ken i detto 
Foredrag eller tidligere, og det er, at den atore Torsk, Havtorsken, 
som udgj0r Maaaen undei de store Toi-skeiiidsig hos os, ellers ikke 
fiiides paa vore Kyster, aldrig i vore Fjorde, aldrlg undtagen i 
Gydetiden, og derhos naar den er seget ind til Finmarken for at 
ermere sig af Lodde. Elter at den bar emteret sig af liOdden, gaar 
din ud paa Dybet og bliver don saakaldte Eglîsk. Og efterat 
Skreien bar gydt i Lofoten og ved Trondhjems- og KomsdaUkysten, 
forlader ogeaa den Kysten og forsvinder ude i Havdybene. Ligeu ser den 
igien. Selv ude paa Bankerne 10 — 20 Mil fra Land (hvor der i disse 
Drtge er atort Fiske) faar man al aiiden Fisk, men ikke eller 
allerraindst Torsk. . ,-,,-,,,1,. 




Den avernte Kuive aiigiver Udbyttet af liofi.tfisket i Millionei- Fisk fra 1875 
til 1896. Den naderste Kiirve TJdbyttet af Finmarksfisket for samme Aarrtekkfi. 
Ben sîdste Kurve er forskiidl et Aar tilliaiie saa Fmmarksiidbyttet for 1876, 76 
oav. kommer ander Lofotiidbyttet foi 76, 77. Tallene paa Vertikalen tilvenstre 
angiver Udbyttet i Miilioner. 



.;, Google 



— 187 — 

Dette Faktum tror jeg, man ekal Isegge megen Vsegt paa, forât 
det kunDe konstateres, at den Torsk, Bom afgiver de store Torskefiskerier 
langs vore Kyater om Vinteren i Gydetiden, og aom er vor aller- 
vigtiget© Indttegt paa Fiskerieraes Omraade, — den Torsk kommer 
kun paa eu 2—3 Maanedera Viait, og dermed forlader den Kyaten. 
Man har apurgt, hvor denne Torak bliver af. Ja, det kan iDgeo sige. 
Sara har ment, at Torsken, naar den forlader Lofoten' og Veateraaîen, 
miiligens gaar op til Fiomarken, idet man i Finmarkaliak har fundet 
Lineangler og Sn0reangler, aom ganske leatemt er fra Lofoten, ligesom 
Sars har paaviat, at man har fundst Angler fra Lofoten i Torak oppe 
ved Spitabergen. Viatnok har man draget ganake overordentlige 
Keaultater af en lignende Drift, t. Es. Nanaena Bevia for Str^mmen. 
Uen af F and af saadan enkelt eller flere Torsk eangler, eller af 
den Omatêendighed, at man f. Ex. har kunnet finde engelake og 
franske Angler i Kveite fanget iidenfor Namdalen — derfra at slutte 
saadant, som der her er Taie om, tror jeg er for drîatigt. Materîalet 
er for kleiat. Sandaynligheden for andre Aaraager er for stor, Men 
der er îalfald aaa meget, som tyder paa, at der er en vis Xorreapondaiice 
meilem de forakjellige Fiekerier, apecielt mellem de af Hr. Brunchorat 
naevnte, at der er al Opfordring til at studere det videre og Haa 
nitiagtigt som rauligt, ikke bare ved HJBelp af Statistîkken over 
Fangstudbyttet, men formentlig i vtRsentlig Grad ved videnakabelige 
(hydrografiske) Undersogelser, hvortil der er lagt en respektabel 
Urundvold af Bergena Muaeum. 



.;, Google 



XIII. 

THE OTSTER PONDS ON THE WEST COIST OF ïOIfWAT. 

He&man Fri£^le B. s. 

On the West coast of Norwaj there are some sait water 
ponds the peculiar physical conditions of which are little kiiown 
outside of Scandinavia. 

In 1878 the late professor Rasch had his attention drawn to 
a little pond near Ekersund catled Oatraviktjernet (the Ostravik 
tain), wliere not only oysters are found in great numbers, but which 
also abounds in marine forms of animal life, though tbe pond vas 
on a higher level than tbe Sea and thus was in no direct connec- 
tion withthe Océan, Professor Basch went to inspect tbe place in 
the nionth of October. He found a small lake, a few hundred 
yarda long, scarcely as broad, and with the surface about 7 feet 
above high water mark. The surface was fresh water, but at the 
depth of from 3 to 5 feet tbe water was nearly as Balt as the 
sea outside. 

He was astonished to find a température in the deeper water 
layers of 28" C. (82" Fahr.) and a rich marine life, both animal 
and vegetable. Along the steep rocky shores he saw oysters stan- 
ding in large heaps, protruding like forked corala, and on the 
muddy bottom clusters of oysters laj scattered about, which had 
broken off from tbe rocks by their own weight. Besides the oysters 
he also found a great deal of other moUuscs, cruatacea, annelides, 
and other invertebrates. 



/ri 



n,s,t,.,.d.:, Google 



.;, Google 



— 189 — 

From a little lake, situated higher up among tbe hills, a brook 
was coming dnwn into the pond, a circumstance whicb explained 
the occureDce of the fresh water. 

But bow did tbe sait water get in? The inhabitants of tbe 
place Baid tbat from Maj and often until October tbere was no 
renewal of the sait water, but wben tbe autumn and winter gales 
set in, tbe waves broke over the rocky bar and âlled the pond 
with sait water. 

In 1884 tbe late Mr. Buch, secretary to tbe Society for the 
Promotion of Norwegian Fisheries, discovered the oyster ponds of 
Espevik and SeÎB, tbe former on tbe Tysnes Island, the latter on 
an adjoining ialet. 

The Espevik pond (plate I) is situated on a well protected 
bay on the south-east point of tbe Ty8ne80, being removed from 
the sea hy a low sandy barrier scarcely more tban 5 feet above 
sea level at higb waters. As for the renewal of the salt-water, 
it ig to be noted tbat only a bigh spring tide, and indeed one 
higbtened by an in-shore gale, passes over the barrier and entera 
the pond. 

Hère too, as in the Ostravik pond, ïthe sea water seldom 
gets in between May and October; however, by means of a canal 
that bas heen dug out, it bas been made possible to regulate tbe 
renewal of the saltwater. 

From the surrounding bills, rieing to five or six hundred feet, 
fresb water is constantly oozing down, 90 that under ordinary 
circumstances there will be an abundsnt cover of freshwater. 

Tbus tbe same features as appear in the Ostravik pond ar& 
also présent hère; so also the abounding marine Hfe. 

In August 1886 Mr. Buch found tbe température at 12 m. t& 
be 34. B" G. (98°Fahr.), and the oysters were beginning to die off. 
He therefore caused the canal to be dug from tbe pond to the 
Bea, and to be provided at tbe latter end witb a lock that could 
be opened and sbut at pleasure, so as to he able to regulate at 
any time tbe renewal of the water, as well as the température. 
The canal bas on several later occasions proved extremely useful. 
Thia very summer the température bas riaen to 31° C. (88" Fabr.), 
and tbe gâte has bad to be opened in order to cool the water. 



■A'OOc^lc 



_- lyo ~ 

When the high latitude of thèse ponds (W° N.) is considered, 
one must greatly wonder at the abnormal températures occurring 
hère, such conditions heiag hardly known from any other place. 
JSven those old well-known oyster ponds of Lago Fusaro, near 
Naples, and Mare Picciolo, near Tarento, can scarcely show such 
a high tempe rature- 

Usually thèse remarkable warm-water ponds are of small 
dimensions (the Espevik pond bas a greatest length of about 
300 mètres and breadth of 170 mètres; the adjoining Sel0 pond 
is nearly of the same estent, and the Ostravik pond somewhat 
smaller); nor is the depth considérable; tbat of the Ostravik pond 
rcaching 12 m., that of the Espevik and Sels ponds 5 m.; ail of 
them being so much raised above sea level, that the sea cannot 
rush in under ordinary circumstances ; and fiually there muât l»e 
such abundant afllusion of fresh water, that ihe latter can form a 
cover over the underlying sait water, 

Such is, in short features, the character of thèse ponds, wbere 
the peculiar température conditions develnp in the course of the 
summer. The winter température is nothing striking as it does 
not vary very much from that of the sea outsîde, 

The following température nieasurements, taken in the Espevik 
pond in 1892, are likely to give the best illustration of the 
conditions : 



Températures in 

January 

Februai-y 

Mnrch 

April 

Mny, beginning, 

„ end 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

December 



at 5d 



15.1 
10.1 



J.6» C. 

U „ 



16.6 
16.2 
21.9 
26.8 
31.6 
25.1 
20.3 
14.2 
8.9 



6.0« C. 

6.2 „ 

8.2 „ 

13.1 ,. 
14.0 ^ 
19.0 „ 
23.0 „ 
as. 8 ^ 
27.0 „ 
24.6 „ 

21.2 ^ 
9-0 .. 



— 191 — 

Thèse figures are tliose of an average normal year, but as 
the meteoroloRical conditioDS hâve of course the great influence on 
the température of the ponds, two years are never exactiy alike. 
In Bome years the température already in April lises to 23 — 24", 
and in May to 26—27"; in other years the maximum température 
will not be reached until August or September. 

The température of 1889 was very much differîng from those 
of a normal year: 





SurfHce 


lut. 


2 m. 


5 m. 


May began with 


13.0» C. 




11.6" C. 


10.6» C. 


„ 13th 


14.5 „ 
20.0 , 


19.6 „ 
20.2 , 


17.0 „ 
20.6 „ 


14.6 „ 


„ 2l8t 


17.0 „ 


Juni Ist 


20.4 „ 

19.5 , 


21.4 „ 
19.6 „ 


21.4 „ 
21.6 „ 


18.0 ,. 


„ 15th 


20.8 „ 


Aug. 4th 


18.9 , 


18.9 „ 


19.0 „ 


19.0 „ 


„ 24th 


14.2 „ 


16.3 „ 


18.2 , 


18.2 , 



From the middle of June to the middie of August the tempe- 
rature was throughout ail the water layers 19" C. 

From the former température table will be seen that throughout 
the autumn and winter months the maximum reraains at the 
bottom; in April however it is found at 1 meter, afterwards 
einking conatantly, so that when we get well into August it lias 
usually reached the bottom. 

The year 1889 was meteorologically an abnormal one, to 
which I shall return later on. 

Professer Rasch was the first who tried to give an explanation 
of the peculiar conditions existing in thèse saltwater ponds, where 
not only a tropical beat is developed, but where also animal life 
is tliriving so abundantly. 

His theory was that the bottom, chiefly consisting of decom- 
posed organic matter, caused a fermentation, which again, as every 
Chemical process, caused a development of beat; the heat centi'e 
had accordingly to be looked for in the bottom. Afterwards, 
however, Professor Helland bas stuclied the question and given 
another, and apparently more satisfactory, explanation. 

hnl,.. v.L.OO^IC 



— 19a — 

In „Norsk Fiskeritidende" for 1889 fae publisbed bis inTestiga- 
tioDB of tbe Espevik pond under tbe title of "The température in the 
OyBter ponds". Aller meiitioning tbe earlier tbeory of tbe cause 
of tbe abuormal température conditions, and showing wby it could 
not be maintained, Le goes on to say : "The origin of this accninu- 
lation of beat must no doubt be Bought in tbe great beat-source 
of the Earth, riz. tbe Sun." "Ab at a deptb of 3 to 4 m. in the 
pond a température bas been observed of 34.5° C), while the 
surface température wae IS'*, we raay conclude tbat the w&rm 
wâter of 34.5** must hâve been beavier than the water of 18*^, 
otberwise tbe foi mer would bave risen, and tbe cold water ba*e 
sunk. Tbe cause of tbe warmer water being' beavier I take to be 
tbe greater saltness of the warm water, a supposition tbat bas been 
proved correct by later expérimenta." 

Professer Helland gives tbe foUowing table of température 
and saltness in the Espevik pond on June 30tb 1888. 

Deiith 



in celciua 


Saltne^a 


22.3 


24.61 


22.7 


24.53 


23.0 


25.15 


27.0 


27.26 


27.4 


27.93 


26.8 


30.73 


25.3 


30.81 


25.2 


30.73 


23.7 


31.24 


23.2 


31.19 


22.6 


31.99 



5.0 

He furtber says t 

"The high température in the water is originatect fîrst by the 
beating of the water by the rays of the sun ; tbe heated water 
sbould, according as îts density decreasea, rise towards tbe surface. 
But the water having, on account of its saltness, a greater spécifie 
weight than the overlying water of !ess saltness, it eannot rise." , 

*) Measurements of Mr.' Bncti from 1884. ' 



— 193 — 

As wiU be seen from the above table, tbe maximum température 
vas at 2 m. and 27.93 °/oo saltness. Afterwards the warm water, 
on account of its weight, sinks deeper and deeper. 

Just as the température is not the same every year, so the 
degree of saltness will also vary. In thèse amall ponds that lie 
protected between the hills, the fresh and sait water are not 
hkely to be eo easily mixed by the action of the waves, as the 
wind gets very little hold on the surface; a rather damp summer, 
however, has no small influence. Thus the summer of 1898 was a 
very rainy summer. On the 4th of August Professer Arnold of 
St. Petersburg found the saltness in the Espevik pond to be as 
follows :*) 



Surface 


n.79 


at 1 mètre 


26.89 


- 2 „ 


2B.62 


- 8 „ 


26.66 


■ 4 „ 


26.84 


ÎOth I found it to be: 


Surface 


6.13 


Va mètre 


17.37 


1 


21.14 


2 


25.04 



4 ,. 26.09 „ 

A striking proof of the correctness of the theory of Professer 
Helland seems to me to be the summer of 1889. Though through- 
out the whole summer of that year we had the finest aunshine 
and an unusual beat, the température of the pond neverthelesa 
did not rise to more than 21.4* (71 Fahr.), on June Ist. It 
afterwards went down again to 19** through ail layers, and at this 
point it kept even into Angust, sinking later on still lower. 

The reason is that the dry and warm summer caused the 
fresh water cover of the pond to evaporate, and tKe afflux from 



*) The saltness determined by aerometer. 

**( The saltneafi determined by titration ; the same method as uaed by 
Prof. Hellan»:. 



— 194 — I 

the surrounding hilU also dried out. In conséquence tbe whole 
water layer of the pond came to be of a uniform saltness, and , 
iU températures did not therefore rise above tbose of the âord 
outside. I 

This clearlj proves that the freshwater cover forms as it 
were a lid over the pond, bo that the beat of tbe lower water 
layers constantly accumulâtes in course of tbe summer. Not man} ' 
dajs of sunshine are needed to make tbe beat rise, and I bave 
observed a rise of 3 degrees from one day to anotber. 

If tbe tbeory of Profcssor Rascb, that tbe developmeot ol 
heat in thèse ponds was due to a cbemical process at tbe bottom, i 
sbould be correct, we sbould of course bave to seek the centre | 
of beat at the bottom and to expect to ând bere tbe bigbest . 
température in tbe winter as well as in tbe summer. But od one 
hand it ia sbown by the température tables that it is not likely 
tbat the bigh température of tbe water should come Irom below. | 
and on tbe other hand the examinations of the bottom itself I 
ehow no signa of an unusual beat devetopment going on there- 
Dr. Brunchorst . examined especially the summer température of tbe 
bottom of tbe Espevik pond, wbicb consists of a deep layer of j 
mud, Tbe uppermost layer bad about the température of the 1 
overlying waterlayer, but in going deeper the température decreased, | 
80 that at l'/î to 2 mètres be met witb the presumable average ' 
heat of the pond. Dr. Brunchorst did not publish hia examinations, 
BO I now forget the exact figures, but I think the température 
of the deeper mud layers bas been sometbing over 12". 

At the distance of 4 or 6 kilomètres from tbe Espevik 
pond lies tbe Seîe pond. The natural circumstances are hère very 
nearly tbe same as at the former place. Tlie Sel» pond however 
appears to be lésa regular as to the heat development, Tbe reason 
is that tbe afflux of freshwater is bere mucb smaller, but 30° C, 
and even more, often occurs. 



As above mentioned, there is in tbese ponds a ricb animal 
bfe, and particularly the oysters thrive well in tbe beated water. 
The ponds are regular hot-beds for oysters, Along the rocky 
shores the oysters are standing in great masses ; tbese however 



.,,1,.. -v.Cioo^lc 



— 195 — 

are always left intact, beîug considered a stock of breeders, 
Across the pond are Btretched a great number of vires, which 
are saspended at a suitable depth bj means af empty barrels (mosUj 
paraffine casks), (fig. 1 and pi. I). On the wires the coUectore are hung, 
for which are used fascines (birch-faggots), (fig. 1). Two kinds are 
employed, eitber flat ones, I'/j m. long, or bundles. The former ones 
are made by folding double a wire three mètres long and putting the 
twigs between; strings being tied at the ends and midway hetween the 
eods and centre. IThese collectors are used ail over the deeper part 
of the pond, while in the more shallow parts buudles of twigs are 
employed. About 3000 collectors are hung out in the Espevik 




H-^ 



■^-ir 



ction of the pond Bliowing the a 
of the collectors. 



pond. Plate I shows the arrangement of wires and barrels in 
tliis pond; fig. 1 is a transverse section showing how the 
collectors are fixed to the wires; and at the bottom are also 
collectors in the shape of wooden trestles. The latter were for- 
mely used, but the ship-worm (teredo norvegica) Sp.) has in 
récent yeara lavaged so badly in ail woodwork, tbat they 
had to be abandoned. For the collectors are only used twigs of 
birch. They are made ready in April, and when the température 
of the water rises to 2 1 or 22 degrees the hanging-out takes place. 
Between the months of June and September, the spat will hâve 
Sfittled, and the iock in the dam is opened so as to let in fresh 



— 196 — 

Sea water. Ail the collectorB remain until Âpril next year; they 
are thea taken out, and the young oysters cHpped off with shears. 
Plate II shows one of the long collectors with affîxed oysters, one 
year old, taken up in Âpril 1S97. 

The young oysters are mostly sent to Stavanger, wheie 
they are laid out on some bauks in the neighbourbood, belonging 
to the Tysnes Oyster Company. The smallest ones, however, are 
sorted out and placed in net-cases (hoBpitals) in the Sele ponil 
where under the high température they quickly develop, being 
removed to the banks when two years old. The Sel0 pond i$ 
not uaed ai présent as a breeding park, but exctusively for tbe 
biinging up of the young oysters. 

The net-cases are made of galvanized iron-wire netting, of Vj or 
"/i in. mesbes, the size being somewhat less than a mètre square 
and stifiened by tbick iron wire. The cases are hung on tbe ffires 
that run across the pond. 

An average barvest from the Espevik pond is about one 
millionof young oysters, but hère, as at other places where oysters 
are cultivated, good and bad years altemate. Since 1884, bowerer, 
there bave only been two years, 1887 and 1889, when the settlia? 
of spat miscarrted. A year may occur when tbe settlement of spal 
will be 80 large, that one can hardly put a needle's point betw^en 
the oyster-spat, and the wbole of the collecter looks as if it bai 
been dipped in mortar. Such embarras de richesse, however, is iiot 
exactly the best thing as only the smaller part will develop, the 
rest being squeezed to death. 

[In my lecture I said very little about the cultivation of tlie 
oysters, as my chief purpoee was to draw attention to the peculiar 
physical conditions occurring in thèse ponds, which I thouglit 
were little known. But the interest shown by the members ofthi' 
Congress, during their visit to Espevik, in the cultivation earrieil 
on there, bas caused me to give a short description of that ffork 
and add the plates EQ and IV giving some views of the pond.] 



.;, Google 



A long collecter witL spat from 189tt, tafeen np in AprU 1887, 



.;, Google 



-;--'■ V 



.;, Google 



.;, Google 



.;, Google 



I 

Twci yiew3 of the Sele pond. After Photos taken by Mr. Frinian Ralirs. 
h.ji,.. v.L.OOQlC 




.;, Google 



ou THE SEA TERBITORT, 
SPECULLT WITI EESAItl) TO THE nSHEMES. 

Mr- Hboar Olsen. 

Mr. Président! 

Gentlemen! 

In the law of nations the territorial waters of a state means 
that part of the adjacent open sea, which is under the supremacy 
of the state. In many instances will be seen the importance of 
the sea along the coast of a country belonging to its sea territory, 
but I will hère only mention, that tbe citizens of a state bave tlie 
exclusive right of fisbing witbin the sea territorial limit- and that 
the state iu question bas entire jurisdiction as well as unlimited 
autbority to give rules and régulations for the use of tbe said stretch 
of sea for fisbing purposes, for instance protection of some kinds 
of Ësh, prohibiting or limiting the use of certain âshing tackle etc. 

Even when — as in this instance ^ considering tbe question 
about tbe sea territory as far hS tbe fisheries are concerned only, 
it is évident, tbat it is of tbe highest importance for tbe state in 
question to know for certain where the sea territorial limit is, and 
the importance bereot will now be found even larger than ever be- 
fore on account of the steadily increasing compétition between the 
nations in ail branches of trade. 

Meantime it is a fact, that the question about the extent of 
the sea territory is rather indistinct in many countries, and that it 
is at any rate interpreted differently by various states. In many 
or rather in most European countries there seems, bowever, to lfç> 



— 198 — 

a somehow fixed rule about the sea territorial lîmit as regards tbe 
fisheriea, viz. 3 miles or minutes (*/« geograpbical mile) trom the 
outermoBt point of the coast or from the outermost island or rock, 
that ia not overflowed by the sea. This limit of the territorial 
waters has originally no doubt applled to ail relations and origtnatea 
most likelj from the old rule in the law of nations, that a state's 
Bupremacy went so far out as a cannon bullet would reaek. The 
limit is in thèse countries no doubt atill maintained as far as the 
âsberies are concerned, but it is rather doubtful, whetber the said 
narrow limit will be found satisfactory as soon as the question 
concerna the extent of tbe aea territory to be kept neutral during 
war between other nationa. Modem artillery ia now so perfect, 
that the reacb of a cannon must be estimated at 30 kilometers a,t 
leaat — or several timea 3 miles. 

In old timea, or at anj rate in the 1 7tli century, aeveral atates 
maintained a mucli . larger extension of the sea territory than now- 
adaya. In ScotlaTid tbe state maintained supremacy over the ad- 
jacent aea aa far as one could aee, and the Danish-Norwegian King 
maintained sovereignity over the entire sea between Norway and 
Iceland and Greenland as well as between the southem coast of 
Norway and Jutland. As for Greenland the sea territorial limit 
was specially fixed at 16 miles (for aome time even at 64 miles). 
In Iceland lawa were given, which stipulated 16 and even up to 
between 20 and 30 miles from the coast as sea territory, ail on 
account of the fisheries. Later on in Iceland the rule became 16 
miles without exception and this rule was maintained even into this 
century. The first paragraph of the ordinance emanated on 12th 
February 1872 about foreigners' fishing under Iceland reads, how- 
ever, thus: Tbe sea territorial limit shall be as it is fixed by the 
usual law of nations or by spécial international agreement regard- 
ing Iceland. Any such spécial agreement regarding Iceland has, 
however, not been fixed upon, and the Danish government uow 
maintains a aea territorial limit of 3 miles only. The same limit may 
now be said to apply to tbe whole of Denmark, this country having 
in 1882 agreed to tbe so called North sea treaty, which maintains 
a territorial liicit of V4 geograpbical miles or 3 miles or minutes. 

In the 18th century, however, the Danish government main- 
tained a limit of 1 geographicaî mile or Vi6= degree of latitude, 



— 199 — 

and this extent of the sea territory hasalways been and is Btill 
maintained by Svieden- ^>am bas since.1760 maintained a sea 
territorial limit of 6 miles. 

In the 18th century the eame rule applied to Norway as tbe 
one that applied to Denmark, at that time united with Norway, 
namely 1 geographical mile. This rule has since then always beeD 
maintained by Norway, and thia was one of the principal reaaons 
for Norway in 1882 not entering upon the North eea convention. 
The other European states maintain as far as 1 know 3 miles 
;'A geographical miles) as sea territorial limit in as far as they 
hâve not confined themselyes to maintain the old terra: the reach 
[ of a cannon shot. 

i The interested powers bave to my knowledge never protested 

I against various states maintaining a sea territorial limit différent 
from that of other countrîes, and it may therefore be said that the 
rule in Norway, Sweden and some time in Denmark of 4 miles and 
that in Spain of 6 miles has practically been accepted. Nor hâve 
theory and science of law of nations protested against single nations' 
right of maintaining sepavate rules as to the extent of the sea 
territory. 

It is évident, that the question about the extent of the sea 
territory is one of highest importance to Norway, the coast îine of 
which from the Swedish frontier in the south to the Eussian fron- 
tier in the north measures no less than abt. 2636 kilometers, with- 
out reckoning the numerous "Qorda". The question is of spécial 
interest for the Norwegian fisheries, which are carried on along the 
entire coast, and out of 2 millions inhabitants between 50 and 60 
thousands are occupied as fishermen, not counting those that carry 
on home fishery in connection with agriculture or other trade. 

With référence to Norway it ia, as already mentîoned, settled, 
that the extent of the sea territory is reckoned at 4 miles from the 
coast (1 geographical mile). This rule dates back to the middle 
of the ISth century and is contaîned in a séries of rescripts from 
the Danish-Norwegian government (rescripts of 'Vs 1745, ^"/a 1747, 
Vs 1756, ^Vï and ^7* 1759). It will also be found in two régulations 
of "A 1807 and '"/a 1810, but they do not contain any directions 
as to the starting point for fixing the limit Iine. This is, however, 
contaîned in the royal resolution of 22nd February 1812, according. 



— 200 — 

to which ihe outermost island or rock not overfiowed hy the sea ahall 
be used as Btarting point tor fixing the territorial lirait. Whether 
to take into considération rocks which at ebb-tide only are not over- 
flowed by the sea, has not been distinctly stated, and in tbis re- 
spect tbere is no practice. If the distance between the islands and 
rocks lying outside the coast does not exceed twice the extent of 
the territorial lirait, in our case 8 miles, one is entitled to draw 
straight lines between thèse islands and rocks and to use such as 
starting pointa to fix the territorial limit. As you' may know, 
gentlemen, the larger part of the Norwegian coast is surrounded 
by innumerable islands forming what we call " Skjœrgaard" . On 
certain stretches of this "Skjœrgaard", outside which fishing is car- 
ried on, tt has been quite impracticabte to draw the Unes accord- 
ing to the curves formed by the islands, and it has therefore in 2 
cases been settled by the king how to draw the lines. By royal 
resolution of "/lo 1869 it was determined, that a straight line 
drawn at 1 geographical mile's distance from and parallel with a 
straight line between the islands of Storholmen and Svinti should 
be considered the territorial limit for tbat part of the sea outside 
the coast of SendmBre, where the flshing exclusively is reserved the 
iuhabitants of the country. Tke distance between the two islands 
of Storholmen and Svina is conaiderably more than 8 miles, but in 
thèse parts there are so spécial circumstances, that it would be of 
no practical use to the fisbermen to draw the line otherwise- Now 
this line can easily be found by the fisbermen and by the fisherj 
inspectors by means of points on the mainland. called "med"- If 
on the other hand the line should be drawn according to the very 
unregular situation of the islands in many angles, it would hâve 
been impossible to find it for those at sea, interested in always 
being able to know where the line goes. 20 years later it was 
iound necessary to extend the said line. By royal resolution of 
9tb Septbr. 1889 it was then determined, tliat a line drawn at 1 
geographical mile's distance fi-om and parallel with a line from 
Storholmen ïia Skraapen, Gravskjœr and Kalven to the outermost 
Jevleholm outside Grip is to be considered tlie sea lirait for the 
correspondiiig coast of Komsdals amt, inside which the fisbing is 
exclusively reserved the inhabitants of the country, Both of thèse 
lines hâve been respected by foreign nations who hâve tried fishing 
outside those coasts. '"-""" ■.'^''■''■'yl'- 



-- 201 — 

The practical considérations that hâve dictated the drawing of 
thèse lines hâve certainly been fuUy acknowledged and I am in- 
elined to believe, that it will be found appropriate in other coun- 
triea with similar circumstances to adapt the rules we hâve intro- 
daced on the coasts mentioned. 

With regard to bays m- "fjords^, of wliich there are ao many in 
Norway, the rule is, that thèse are totally considered Norwegian 
territory, irrespective of their breadthi when the country's aupremacy 
mnst be considered maintained for séries of years. 

In jurîdical respects it is immaterial whether the fjord is ex- 
clusively surrounded .by mainland or by islands. The latter is the 
case in Vestfjorden, which on the one side is formed by the main- 
land, whiist on the other side by the Lofoten islands. For centuries 
this Fjord bas been maintained as éxclusivety Norwegian territory 
and the fisheries there hâve exclusively been reserved Norwegian 
subjects. When in 1868 a Frencb vessel tried to flsh in Vestfjor- 
den, this was prohibited by the Norwegian government. The terri- 
torial limit is hère reckoned 1 geographical mile from the souther- 
most part of the group of Itest islands. Varangerfjord in Finmarkeii 
is also supposed to be considered Norv^egian territory. With regard 
to the catching of whales this is sxpressly decided. 

Similar rules to those we bave with regard to our Qords, are 
also to my knowledge maintained by Bussia, which country con- 
siders the White sea as "mare clausum" although its breadth is 
more than one degree of latitude. 

There hâve on several occasions been nmch agitation for an 
extension of the sea territorial limit, and this seems to be a very 
reasonable demand. With référence to the question as to how 
large a stretch of the sea a power nowadaya shoutd maintain neu- 
tral in case of war between other nations it seems évident, that a 
limit of 3 or 4 miles from the coast is too little, considering the 
development of modem artillery. But I will hère only mention the 
matter in connection with the fisheries. and I am then of opinion 
tliat the now customary sea territory is too restricted. The pré- 
sent severe compétition in fisheries, bas created or is about creating 
new methods of flshing. The large steam as well as sailing 
vessels partaking in the fisheries, connected with the use of new 
improved outfits, make it a duty, that cannot be refused, to take 



— 202 — 

JDto considération bow to prohibit the decrease of the fisheries. 
This Î8 a yery difficult problem. We cannot say, it is true, that 
we hâve noticed any specially decrease in those kinda of âsh that 
generally visit our coast. But the decrease of the âsheries in the 
North sea inay well make one feel uneasy. To proraote the fiaheriea 
now threatening to decrease by means of artifiàal breeding is a 
problem that to my opinion, as far as eod and similar species 
of fîsh is concerned, bas not yet been solved. On the other hand it 
would be of the higbest importance in this respect if the tîsheries 
could through suitable police régulations be arranged in such a 
manner that the fisheries and everybody concerned therein could 
benefît therehy. 

This will of course hâve a bénéficiai effect on the young fish 
(the fry) and thus by natural means refill the seas; as is well 
known the fry station themselves along the coast, wherefore they 
should be protected by every possible means. 

In the seas outside the territorial boundary fishing as now 
going on must of necessity cause great diminution in the catch. 
Along the coast the fishing ought to be regalated by laws and such 
regulating would be the more important the broader the territoiy 
is. Such a law would be of great efiïciency along the coast, at aiij 
rate for our country, as the banks to which many kinds of fish 
seek, are eituated along the coast in various distances frorn it 
And the necessity of extending the sea territorial boundary of the 
country are becomJng greater the more developed and effective the 
methods of catching be,coraes, 

Also considérations for the fishing population of the coast make an 
extension of the boundary very désirable. With the modem boats 
now used, fishing in the fiahermen's home districts is considerably 
facilitated, as the fishing can now take place at a much further 
distance from the coast than before, The Norwegian govemment 
bas given considérable assistance in the fonn of loans towards 
building of modem boats. The territory along the coast which is 
continually fished by the country's own fishermen must be consi- 
dère d reserved exclu si vely for those. 

As previously mentioned the idea of the extension of the 
fishing boundary in the intereat of fishermen is not a nev^ thought. 
The well known scientific institution l'Institute de droit intemationa!, 

h.ji, " .A'OOgic 



I — 203 — 

bas at several meetings in 1891, 1892 and 1894 occupied itself 
with this important question. Ât the meeting held in Paris in 
1894 it was unanimoualy agreed to, that the gênerai boundary of sea 
territory (also taking regard to the citizen s sole right to ûsh) 
should be 6 miles (IVa geographical mile) froni the coast, One of 
the Russian members of the instituts, the well known Dr. von Martens 
propoaed a boundary of ten miles, but this was rejected by 25 
rotes against 10. At this meeting Norway was represented by 
Prof, Dr. Ludv. Aubert who insisted upon the desirability of a 
considérable extension. Prof. Aubert has also written upon this 
subject in a treaty in the Kevue générale de droit internationale 
for 1894, a treaty whicb I hâve made uso of in preparing this paper. 

The resolution whicb was agreed to in 1894 by the said 
soientific institution has later been taken up by the government of 
the Netherlands, who has proposed that those nations most inter- 
ested in the question agrée to a convention that the sea territory 
boundary shall be 6 miles. So far as I know the question is still 
pending by the various govemments. 

I thînk that it would be a great assistance if at this inter- 
national fishery congress this question be discussed. Scientific men 
hâve in Paris in 1894 given their opinion. Now it is the practical 
tiian and the man of administration who should speak and give 
opinion, I beg to move, that the congress expresses as ita opinion, 
that an extension of the sea territory boundary to 10 miles (2Vî 
geographical) or at any rate to 6 miles (l'/a geographical) is dé- 
sirable out of considération to the fisheries in the whole. I présume 
tliere is no necessity for the congress to touch upon the question 
as to from which point or place in the coast the boundary shall be 
drawn. Mr. Président and gentlemen, I beg to propose to the 
congress the foUowing resolution: 

"That the international fishery congress in Bergen of 1898 
expresses as its opinion, that it will be in the interest of the fisheries, 
that an international convention be agreed upon that the sea terri- 
tories be fixed at 10 miles, or subsidiary at 6 miles (60 to the 
degree of latitude)." 



.;, Google 



— 204 — 

M, W. DE WbsCHNIAKOff : Je n'ai que peu de mots à ajonter 
à l'excellent rapport de Mr. Olaen, pour soutenir ea thèse de la néces- 
sité d'étendre les limites de la mer territoriale dans les intérêts de 
la pêche. Cette question est d'une grande importance et j'avais aussi 
l'honneur de la recommender à l'attention du Comité d'organisation du 
Congrès avant de connaître son programme détaillé . 

La limite actuelle de 3 milles marins, consaciée par difiérentE 
traités internationaux relatifs à la pêche et par une sorte d'accord 
toute reconnue presque par tous les états civilisés ne répond plus ni 
k )a tbéojie de Bynkershaek , qui l'a fait naitre , — de la plus grande ; 
portée du canon, — ni aux intérêts de la pèohe. Les progrès de l'art 
militaire ont avancé la plus grande portée <Ju canon bien au delà de 
3 milles; de même les études et les investigations des différents Fiahery 
Boarda sur la vie et la propagation des poissons et d'autres animto 
de la mer ont également renversé les vieilles théories à ce sujet et ont 
démontré l'insuffisance de la zone de 3 milles pour la protection ds 
la pêche. A l'appui de cette opinion je me permets de signaler à j 
l'attention du Congrès l'excellent travail du Dr. T. Wemyss Fiilton, j 
superintendent des investigations scientifiques dans le Fîshery Board 
for Scotland i ITie Territorial Waters and Sea Fisheries , qui a été 
publié dans le Blackwood'a Magazine NDCCCCL VU au mois de juillet 
1895. Mr. Wemyss Fulton fournit beaucoup d'arguments en favenr 
de l'extension des limites de la mer territoriale dans les intérêts de 
la pêche et donne toute une série de conventions internationales et 
de règlements nationaux, qui reconnaissent l'insuffisance des limites 
actuelles. Il suifit de citer surtout la décision du Tribunal d'Arbi- 
trage sur la question des pêcheries de la mer de Behring, décision 
qui a fixé la zone protectrice pour les phoques à fourrure (fur scals} , 
autour des lies Prybiloff à 60 milles géographiques. Les Etats Tlnis, 
aussi que le Royaume uni de la grande Bretagne et de l'Irlande se 
sont soumis à cette résolution. Pour les îles de Commandeur, appm^ 1 
tenant à la Russie, cette zone à été déterminée par une convention 
provisoire et a été fixée à 30 milles. i 

Il existe en outre dans différents pays, des réglementa spéciauï, i 
qui défendent des procédés de pêche destructifs et dangereux dans la | 
zone extraterritoriale . Tels sont : les règlements du Sea Fisheries Acl i 
de 1808 pour l'Irlande, qui protègent les bancs d'huitres à la distance , 
de 20 milles de la côte irlandaise; le Herring Fishery Act de 1889 ■ 
qui défend l'emploi du beam-trawling dans toutes les eaux territoriales ■ 
de l'Ecosae et dans quelques baies de la côt,e occidentale au delà de 
la zone territoriale . L'administration française a aussi le pouvoir, 



— 205 — 

en vigueur d'uD décret de 1862, de prohiber certains 
pÊche dans les eaux extraterrîtoriales ; de même en Italie la commission 
de la pêche, tout en reconnaissant la zone des eaux territoriales de 
3 milles j a recommendé, il y a quelques années, aux commissions 
locidea de réglementer l'emploi du Steam-trawling à une distance de 
h côte plus ou moins grande que les 3 railles. Selon l'opinion de 
la plupart de ces commissions locales cette distance devrait être avancée 
jusqu'à 10 ou même 15 milles. En 1892 la question de l'extension 
de la limite des eaux territorinleB a été l'objet d'une conférence des 
représentants de l'Espagne , du Portugal , de la Mexique et de plusieurs 
états de l'Amérique du Sud. Cette conférence s'est prononcée pour 
une zone de 11 kilomètres. Enfin en 1893 une Commission spéciale 
(Select Committee) de la Chambre des communes après avoir étudié 
les conditions de la pêche maritime, a émis l'opinion que la zone 
actuellement reconnue de la mer territoriale étant insuffisante pour 
protéger la propagation et la conservation des poissons, il était désirable 
de provoquer une entente internationale pour l'extension de la zone 
territoriale dans les intérêts de la pêche . Après cela la question des 
eaux territoriales a été longuement discutée par l'Institut International 
dans la session de 1894, qui a proposé de recommender aux gouver- 
□ements d'étendre les limites de la mer territoriale, à 6 mOles marins. 
Mais jusqu'à présent cette question n'a pas obtenu de solution pratique. 
Aussi je crains fort que si le Congrès voulait adopter la limite de 10 
milles proposée par Mr. Olsen, cette résolution se trouvant en contra- 
diction avec celle de l'Institut International , plus compétent que notre 
Congrès en matière du droit international, cette proposition n'ait que 
peu de chances de succès. Toutefois, en soumettant mes doutes au 
Congrès, je m'associe complètement au rapport de Mr. Olsen et h, la 
décision que voudra prendre l'assemblée actuelle dans le sens de 
l'extension des limites de la mer territoriale. 

De. J, h. Fuli.ABTON.— I hâve much pleasure in seconding the 
proposition which Amtmand Olsen has made, that it is for the benefit 
of the fisheries that the territorial limît should be extended to ten or 
si."t miles. What I hâve to say has référence chiefly to the North 
Sea, as this is the area where questions of the maintenance of the 
fish supply are most pressing and bulk most largely in the estimation 
of the nations of Northern Europe. At présent the fishing of the 
North Sea is regulated by the Convention af 1882. The territorial 
limit has been lixed for the purposes ol fishing at three miles from 
the shore, and it seems that Norway daims to regulate the fishing 
within 4 miles, while Kussia also, I believe, daims a larger territorial 



— 206 — 

eea limit than tbree miles, It îa intereating to look at ths présent 
conditions of the fishing in the North Sea and compare the altered 
ciroomstanceB with those that prevailed at tlie date of the conventioD. 
In my country thJs eubject bas been investigated by Boyal commiBsioDs, 
by committeee of the Houae of Gommons, by administrative fishing de- 
partmeots and by varions aseociatione. The consensus of opioiOQ and 
the facts tabulated show that the fish which are now caught are smalier 
than tbose obtained ten or twenty years ago in the same ares. 
ThÏB fact has been emphasised by the committee of 1891 which was 
appointed by the Hoase of Gommons to consîder and inqiiîre into the 
State of matters snd to suggest remédies. Looking to the évidence 
given especially by Hull and Grimeby practical, men who are engaged 
in the fishing industry, and to the conclusions at which the committee 
arrived, it is seen, that it takes double the nnmber of such a ûiii as 
plaice to fUl a box at the présent date that it dîd a décade ago. 
That we may accept this évidence as an exact record of what has 
takeu place I can corroborate from personal enquiry and investigation 
in Scotland, Now we may ask what is the cause for this diminution 
in size. When we compare the means of captare now and at that 
date it is to be noted, that not only hâve boats increaaed in size but 
the engines of capture bave similarly been augmented. Since the 1882 
convention a new type of iîshing boat has been adopted and a modifi- 
cation of the trawl has made this the most powerful instrument of 
capture that has ever been known in the history of the North Sea 
fishing. In Britain new and large steam trawlers are being contina- 
ally built, and the beam-trawl bas been supplanted by the more efficient 
ûtter-trawl. But other nations are also advancing in their apparatus 
for capturing the fish of the North Sea and North Atlantic. Take for 
axaniple Germany and it will illustrate what I mean. In 1886 Get- 
many had its fii-st steam-trawler at work. In 1889 they had 3, in 
1890 this number had increased to 16 and at the end of 1897 they 
had 117 steam trawlers. Other nations are also advancing, and an 
interesting question arises as to whether the présent means of capture 
is not in excess of the quantity of fish available from the North Sea, 
that will yeild a fair retum for the capital inveated. One thîng at 
«ny rate we do know, and that is, that new grounds hâve to he ex- 
jDloited and steam trawlers hâve now to proceed further from home to 
fibtain a remunerative quantity of fish. The interests of ail the nations 
bordering on the North Sea and fiahing on its banks to ray mind are 
alike ; viz. that the supply of adult and full grown fish shoold be 
maintained, and that when this is endangered means should be adopted 



, L .OO' 



gic 



— 207 — 

to conaerve the snpply. In Scotland the régulation and prohibition of 
fiahîng in areas whîch forin nurseries for the yoxmg and spawning gronnda 
for the ripe fish hâve been undertaken. Our object bas been to main- 
tain the iish supply, and the prohibition of beam and otter-trawhog 
v^itbin certain areas in the judgment of the Scottish authorities will faelp 
to eftect the purpose ail of us désire in the interests of the fisheriea. 
In England the demand bas cbieây been to prevent the sale of mini- 
atore and undersized fish. Kow ihe différence to my mind seems not 
irrémédiable. The fisheries of Scotland and England differ in some 
respecta. Our Une and net fishermen land 280,000 tons of white fieb 
and herrings, while the steam trawlers land 28,000 tons per year. Âbout 
35,000 fishermen follow the net aud Une fisbing and land one million 
aterUng of herrings whicb are exported to Ruaeia and Germany. In 
England there ïs no such disparity of the conditions. But we in 
Scotland bave not tbe shallow waters which are found along the Eng- 
Iish coasts as well as along the Belgian, Dntch and &erman lands. 
In thèse shallow waters are found tbe yonng fish, and ail of us désire 
to see thèse forma protected till tbey become adult fiah. I tbink wo 
might with advantage to the fisheries combine both méthode of régu- 
lations and prohibition of area of fisbing and sïze of fisb, and tbat ie 
one reason why I welcome tbe proposition of Amtmand Olsen to ex- 
tend the territorial waters. Of course this congreas haa no power, but 
I think that it is acting within its province in passing such a resolution 
which will doubtleas receive due considération as coming from practical 
men. It seema likely that tbe aignating powers to the North Seaa 
convention will meet, and when they do meet they will bave the ré- 
sulta of our délibérations as représentative of various fisbing interests. 
I am not going to meddle with any of the jurïdical questions of 
ownership, or any of the naval, cuatoms, or other régulations 
which concem our différent countriea, and am content that the j^ropo- 
sition appliea only to our common interests in maintaining an adéquate 
iish supply in waters common to ail mankind. The particular appli- 
■cation is a matter for agreement between various powers wbo hâve 
common ioterests in the fisheries of various seas, and ail I désire is 
to place on record my opinion, that régulations for tbe benefit of the 
fiaberies might witb advantage be drawn up in connection with the 
méthode of fishing in inshore waters up to 10 miles from the coast 
and that thèse régulations should be binding on the siibjects of the 
various contracting couotries. 

M. Ptpe: Monsieur Olsen ne m'en voudra pas si je ne partage 
pas sa manière de voir. Sa motion vise une prohibition de toute 

h.ji,.. A'OOQlC 



pèche dans lea eaux territoriales jusque 10 millee on an moins 6 milles 
des côtes. 

£d Belgique nous avons la pêche de la Crevette. Un grand 
nombre de familles en vivent tout le long du littoral. Elle est faite 
avec des canote trop petits pour aller fort au large. 

Avant de priver ainsi nne bomie partie de la population cotière 
d'un pays des moyens de trouver sa vie il faut être bien sur de 
l'efficacité des moyens qne l'on propose . Est-U suffisamment établi 
que les côtes seules soient des fonds de reproduction ou les liens de 
réunion de tous les jeunes poissons? J'ai navigué pendant 13 aanées. 
Nous avons un chalut k bord. J'ai observé que l'on prend du petit 
poisson dans toute la partie sud de la Mer du îford. Le raisonnement 
de Monsieur Olsen ferait fermer à la pêche toute la partie Sud de la 
Mer du Nord ou les profondeurs ne vont pas an-dela de 25 à 30 



D'autre part si l'on portait pareille défense qui en surveillerait 
l'exécution? Nos côtes sont basses et les relèvements à 10 ou % 
milles y sont impossibles . Dans ces conditions quel officier de Marine 
trouverait assez facilement et avec exactitude cette limite. Encore, si 
un officier la trouvait, certainement aucun pêcheur ne saurait s'il est, oui 
ou non, dans la limite des 10 ou 6 milles. 

Je ne pourrai pas voter la motion de Monsieur Olsen. 

pBOF. Vinciguebba: Je prends la parole seulement au but de 
déclarer que je crois devoir m'abstenir de la votation qu'on va faire 
sur les propositions de Mr. Olsen. Je n'ai pas de doutes que la 
question soit assez étudiée autant qu'elle se rapporte à la Mer du 
Nord, mais je ne peu pas dire le même pour la Méditerranée. L'ex- 
tension des limites de la mer territoriale servira sans doute à protéger 
les poissons, mais je crois qu'il faut aussi se préoccuper des intéréte 
des pêcheurs et ie ne puis pas décider dans ce moment si cette 
mesure n'irait être dangeiireuse aux pêcheurs italiens. J'aurais bien 
volontiers donné ma voix à une motion qui aurait reconnue l'utilité d'une 
revision générale des lois de chaque pays sur les limites de la mer 
territoriale, dans l'intérêt de la pêche, mais je ne peut pas voter qu'elles 
soient fixées à 10, ou même à 6 milles, aussi dans la Méditerranée. 

Captain Collins moved an amendmeut to the resolution and 
spoke regarding it, as follows: 

Mr. Président; — Fiom the remarks made conceming this résolution 
by the distinguished gentlemen who hâve discussed it, I am compelled 
to believe that the principal object airaed at is to secure an extension 
of territorial limitation, as applied to the fisheries, for the countries ot 



■V, Cookie 



Europe, and especially those having a particuJar interest in the fîsh- 
erieB of ihe North Sea. I am ready to admit that the North Sea is 
a most important fishing ground, and that certain limitations may bo 
needed to conserve and protect its supply of fisb. But, granting the 
utmost that can be reasonably claimed, the North Sea is only a small 
part of the fishing area of the world, and there is no reason why this 
congresa should pass a résolution, embodying advice to ail conntries, 
when the object sought relateB solely to Europe and haa no apparent 
connection with the welfare of the ûsheries of nations in other parta 
of the world, notably the United States. 

It is pertinent to invite attention to the face that, by treaty, the 
citizens of the United States bave the right to fisb outside of the 
three-mile llmlt on the coasts of British North America, and on some 
parts of those coasts there are no territorial restrictions on our fisher- 
men. It is, therefore, scarcely supposable that thèse righte and prive- 
ledges woidd be voluntarily given up, however désirable the extension 
of territorial jurisdiction to ten miles may «ppear to be to cotmtries 
which, owing to peculiar conditions goveming their fisheries, may 
perhapa agrée to such changes as the resolution calls for. Nor do I 
believe that agreements of this character can possibly afiect any coun- 
tries except the signatory powera. For ît is not conceivable that tlie 
treaty rights — among which the international territorial limitation of 
three marine miles is prominent — of any coantry not agreeing to pro- 
visions of this bind will be violated or restricted in any manner. If 
this aasumption is correct, the citizens of any country not agreeing to 
a new territorial jurisdiction will continue to hâve the same rights as 
heretofore to fish np to the three mile hmit, or whereever they bave 
been accustomed to fish nnder treaty. 

France as well as the United States bas an interest in this matter. 
On some parta of tbe coaat of Newfoundland her fisheimen hâve cer- 
tain rights and privilèges for fishery, secured by treaty, that exceed 
those of the natîve-born citizens of that island. Will she give up 
the se rights? 

Tben, too, Russia, Japan and the United States hâve a common 
interest in protecting the berds of fur seals that inhabit the North 
Pacific and Bering Sea. And, so far as thèse animais are concemed, 
a ten mile limitation would be no protection, for it ha» been demon- 
Btrated that a hmitation zone of sixty miles is inadéquate. Conse- 
quently, if they are to be saved, a spécial agrée ment must be 
entered into by the powers most concerned, but because it may be 
found necessary to extend territorial jurisdiction in this caae to more 

,.,,„..14'^.OO^IC 



— 210 — 

thau eixty miles, for the purpose of saviug to mankind a most use- 
iîil tuT bearing animal, it ia absurd to suppose it wonld be jnâîcious 
to make ench extension of territorial control apply to the gênerai dsh- 
«ries of the world. 

Beasoning trom the eame standpoint, Ht. Président, I see no 
necessity for this congress to pasa a résolution recommending a certain 
action ou- the part of aU nations, when the matter concerna only part 
of them. Believing, therefore, that the resolation will be stronger 
and more lîable to command respect if its real object is clearly stated, 
I mo78 to amend it ao that it may apply only to the countriee bordericg 
the North Sea. 

Kaptein Dsechsel: Det forekommer mig, at det af Hr. Amt- 
mand Olsen her redegjorto Sp0rgsmaal har den atorste Intéresse, og 
jeg maa hâve Tilladelse til at yttre nogle Ord derom. 

for uogle faa Timer siden har Dr. ^jort her i donne Forsamling 
udtalt, at man îkke burde vedtage eller gjennemf0re nogen for Fiske- 
riet iiidskr«enkende Foranataltning, uden at det var gmndet paa den 
videnskabelige Forakninga ïleaultater eller paa aaden Uaade var aaie 
begrundet. Jeg er i saa Henseende ganake af Dr. Kjorts Mening. 
Der er neppe Tvivl om, at mun endnu savnar megen videnskabelig 
Forekning for den norake Kysts Vedkommende, og jeg tror eodog 
med Sikkerhed at kunne sige, at en aaadan Foraknlng vilde brioge til 
Keaultat, at man vilde kunne drive det norake Eyat- og Fjordfiakeri 
med langt storre Eraft og flere Slags Bedskaber end nu, uden at 
akade Fiakerierne. Men for Nords0ens Vedkommende er der ait fore- 
tagefc en Rfekke videnskabelige Undoraagelser og man er ad Erfarin- 
gens Vei kommet til beatemte Reaultater, gaaende ud paa, at Fiske- 
bestanden i dette Farvand i en betKnkelig Orad er tormindsket. Naar 
nu Hr. Amtmand Olsen har atillet Forslag om en Resolution, gaaende 
ud paa, at de s0torritorjale Orsendaer udvides til 6 eller 10 Kvartmil, 
eaa kan jeg til Fremme af en Fredning af Fiakerierne kun hilse et saadant 
Foralag med udelt Bifald. Jeg er ikke bemyndiget til at udtale nogetsom- 
belat her paa den danake Regjerings Vegne; hvad jeg udtaler, er knn 
min personlige Mening, men den gaar nd paa det samme som af Mi'. 
Fullarton nys udtalt, at noget maa der giflrea for at frede Piskerieme 
for det overhaandtagende Fiakeri, og jeg tror, at en Udvîdelae af S0- 
territoriet vil Viere et virksomt Middel bertil, Qanake viat har Mr. 
Pype, nservœrende her, nylig udtalt, at en aaadan Frematilling vilde 
ikke vœre tilàtrsekkelig. Man ved ikke, om Fiakeriet ikke burde frf- 
dea langt ud over disse Grsendaer. Det er sandt, men det er paa 
den anden Side en Kjendsgjeming, at K.ystfar\'andene er af den aterste 



^ ?n - 

Betyduing for FreâniDgea. Vi bar igasr seet et Eart, ndarbeidet af 

Hr. Wallem, paa hvilket 8tr0inmene i NordB0eu var aflagt, og nian 
Til erindre, at ^de gik langa saavel HollandB aom TysklasdB og Dan- 
marks Kyster, og heraf fremgaar da klart, at naar Fiskenea ^g gydea 
hvorsomhelBt i NordBi0en, ville de og Yngelen at Striammen fores til 
Kysterne og Farvandene î Nserheden af dem. I Virkelighedeii ser vi 
jo ogsaa til visse Tider Fiskeriet foregaa i umiddelbar Neerhed af 
Kysterne, f. Ex, i Nœrheden af Homs Rec, og dette er Bevis nok for 
Betydningen af at skaane disse Farvande for det radikale Fiskeri. 
Men for at en sandan Fredning skaï bave nogen Betydning, maa den 
vtere vedtaget af aile til de forskjellige Fiskefarvande grœneende Lande, 
og dette vil vist niedfore nogeD Vanskelighed. Jeg ser f. £x. ikke, 
at det vilde vaere til videre Nytte, at man for NordsiSens VedkommeDde 
antog en i Overenastommelae med Eesolutioneu VÈerende Bestemmolae, 
bvis en enkelt Magt, i. Ex. Tyskiand, ikke vilde slutte sig dertil. 
Det vilde f^re til, at Fiskeriet vilde blive kraftigt udnyttet af Enkelte 
nden vœsentlig Nytte for Fredningen i Almindeligbed, I det Hele vil 
man, aelv om man ved denne Kongres slotter sig til Eesolutionen, 
kunne forudse mange Vanskeligbeder, naar Sagen skulde bebandles 
ved en international Eonference. Danmark for ait Veâkoromende maa, 
efter bvad jeg antager, aaaledes gjflre Fordring paa, at en Udvidelse 
af Sflterritoriet som foreslaaet, ikke alêne kommer til at gjielde for 
Nords0en, men for aile danske Farvande, ogsaa de islandske og fœn*- 
iske. Og endvidere maa man efter min Mening ira dansk Side 0nske, 
iit der tages sœrligt Hentiyn til saa lukkede Farvande som Kattegat, 
for byilket de svenske og danske B«gjeringer bar sluttet en Eouven- 
tioc, der er antaget af de respektive Regjeringer, uden dog endnu at vœre 
approberet af den danske Bigsdag. En Tilslutning til denne Konvention 
fra de forskjellige fiskeriinteresaerede Staters Side maa ï hoi Grad 
0iiskes og ligeledes ganske sîerlige Régler for visse islandske Farvande, 
hyor det overhaaiidtagende Trawlfiskeri er i Fserd med at 0delœgge visse 
Fiskeridistrikter. For0vrigt b0r man efter min Mening gaa endnu vi- 
dere end Resolutionen i Eetning af Havfiskeriemes Fredning i Almin- 
deligbed. Det er ikke nok at udatrœkke de s0teri-iti.riale Grsendaer. 
Man b0r ogsaa fastssette et Forbud mod II and brin gel se af Undermaala 
Fisk paa de forskjellige Kyster. Det er mit Haab, at denne Sag maa 
nyde snarlig Fremme. Under aile Orastfendigheder vilde jeg henstille, 
at man ved aile Iremtidige Konferencer eller Kongreaser, bvad enten 
private eller officielle, ikke bliver stnaende ved, bvad den hervterende 
italienske Représentant antydede, at benvise de ber nsevnte Sp0rgsmaal 
til nœrmcre videnakabelîg Forakning. Det var det, man gjorde ved 



— 212 — 

den halvofficielle Konference î London 18d0. Nu burde man ^aa 
mers end et Skrîdt videre, og jeg vil haabe, det vil gaa i Betning af 
en kraftig Fredning af de Fiakerier, aora trœnger dertîl. Jeg alutter 
mig peraonligt til den af Hr. Amtmand Olsen foreelaaede Resolutioii. 

PÉRAED fremsatte og begrundede f0lgende foralag: 

„I1 est d'un intérêt gênerai pour l'industrie des pêches q'une entente 
internationale ait lieu pour élaborer nn règlement international concer- 
nant la pêche maritime." 

Fiskeriimsp)i;kt0b Lundberu: Jag beklagar, atc jag icke àr 
maktig att uttrycka mig pà nâgot Irànimande sprâk, atan nedgas hâlla 
mig till mitt eget. — Dâ det àr af intresae, att representanter for Aé 
friLmmande nationerna uttala ein mening i denna frâga, skall jag nâmua 
n&gra ord om de svenska fôrhàllandena. Jag skall for det târsta 
upplysa om terri torialgrànsen i Sverige. Den âr for nîirvarande icke 
best&md mera au vid kusten t'rân noreka grànsen ned till Kullen, Ber 
&r den enl. K. kungôrelsen den 5. maj 1871 beatamd till 4 kvartmil 
Samma territorialgr&na skulle, enl. den under forhandiing varande kon- 
ventîonen mellan Sverige och Danmark, âfven blifva gallande mellao 
dessa tvâ l&nder, men blott i fr&ga om de delar af vâr kust, aom 
ligga vid till Danmark gransande vatcen, sàlanda vid Bornholm och i 
Kattegat — i Sundet ^t ett annat forhâllande. For OsterajôkuBtcn 
deremot fînnes ingen sarskild bestammelse angâende terri torialgrànsen. 
Der mâste man anse S-kvartmilsgr&nsen sàsom gallande ; ty det 
fînnes ingen annan. 

Det sjTies mig vara mycket vanakligt att efter sa kort ofver- 
vâgande, aom vi har bafva haft tillfâlle till, kunna bilda sig nâgon 
bestSmd âsigt i den nu fôreliggande frâgan. Den fôrealagna utstraek- 
ningen af territorial griinsen ar fràn fiskarenas synpunkt mycket till- 
talande, aâsom ocksâ kapten Drechsel nyaa framhàllit, men det finnes 
a andra sidan f5rhâllanden som gora, att man, àtminstone hos oss i 
Sverige, bôr val ijfvervâga hvad inverkan en aâdan utatrackning nf 
temtorialgranaen i andra lânder skulle ko m ma att bafva pâ vâra 
fiakerier. Det akulle vara întreasant att se, hum den norska t*rri- 
torialgransen i sâdant fall skulle taga sig ut, uppdragen pà ett ^5- 
kort; Iniru lângt ut pâ hafsbankai-na den skulle komma att strâcka 
sig. Fràgan g&ller nâmHgen fSr fràmicande làndera fiskare, huru nàr» 
de kunna komma intill land. Man kan tycka, att det ej betyder sa 
mycket, men vi hatva i Sverige ertarenhet om, att det kan fiir fiskare 
vara mycket vanskligt att t. ex. icke la gâ in och ankra under land, 
âfven om de icke fiaka der, om de skola hehôfva hàlla sig 2Vs '"'' 
utomak&ra. 



— 213 — 

Dertiil kommer en annan omet&ndigliet, som afven àr framhàllen 
UDder diskuRsionen, Damligen att det S.r mycket svàrt for en fiskare 
att bestâmma, bvar hau ar, om han âr inom eller utom teiritorial- 
gràosen, och han loper derfBre fara att komma i stàndiga klammerier 
med de bevakande fartygen och dylikt, Jag tror sâlunda, att frâgan 
h&r mânga sidor, och att man bor v&] betânka sig hàrvidlag. 

Det var en annan sak, Bom berôrdea i fôredraget, och det var, 
huruvida staterna hafva ratt att utetracka sin territorialgrans hum 
lângt de bebaga. Nii âr det ju s&, att Norge och Sverige hafva gjort 
detta och bestamt en ny grâns i etâllet fbr den allmÉLnna 3-milagranBen. 
Men nâgon allmâln regel om denna finnes .ju heller icke. Jo, den 
finnes eiter den nya Nordsjotraktateu, men denna âr ocksà den enda 
ofverenakommebi' om den aaken. Men nagou allmilnt gSlIande regel 
finnea det icke i frâga om terrjtorialgrftnsen, sa att mau vet ju icke 
om frainmande makter bry aig om att godkànna en uppstâld sàdan. 
Det kan gà an for stora HJomakter, men for smâstater torde det icke 
alltid bliiva sa latt att uppratthâlla eu sàdan godtycklig territorialgrânB. 
Om man t. ex. mellan Sverige och Danmark totre aig fâre att delà 
Kattegat till midtlinien eller nâgot dylikt. — — 

ÂUTUAND Olben: Nei, det er nogei andet. Mellem Norge og 
Sverige er 4 Mil anerkjendt. 

FiSKEEiiNePEKT0R LoNDBEBG: Ja, hittills àr den icke bestridd, 
men mera veta vi ej. 

Amtmand Olsen: Men det har 100 Aara Hœvd for Norges 
Vedkominende iajfald, 

FlSKESiiNSPEKT0B LcNDBEBQ : Ja, det âr val môjligt, men det 
har val knappt varît nàgra frammande fiakare utanfor Norgea kust, 

ÂMTHAND Olseh; Nei, inen det er bestemt for Norge for over 
100 Aar aideu. Det ansees jo folkeretlig fastalaaet. 

FisKEEiiN8PEKT0B LuNDBEBG: Sa àr det en annan sak, sora 
jag ockaâ gilma ville veta, huru fôredraganden tankt aig, och det âr: 
hnni akall territorial gràneen dragaa omkring Ôar t. ex, vid en ô sâdaa 
8om Bornholm och de ôar soin ligga midt i Kattegat? Tager man 
10-mils grânsen rundt om dem, sa blifver det icke sa Htet. Med ett 
ord: det finnes en hel del aâdana avârigheter vid tUiampningen, aom 
gôra, att saken verkligen har tvâ sidor, och man kan behôfva betànka 
Big litet, innan man uttalar sig for lO-milsgrànaen aâsom allmân regel. 

Brcbsal (Aaleaund); 0nskeligheden af Flytning af Territorial- 
linjen har vEeret lienge paa Taie hoa oa i Aalesund, og det vilde vare 
Bserdelea Snskeligt, om man feunde faa en Udtalelae i den Betning af 
KoDgreasen. Tor os Fiakere deroppe i Aaleauud, aom bniger f. Ex. 



— 214 — 

Jra 6 Evartmil og opover lil 60 — 70 udenfor Territorialgrœndseii, 
er det mvget indskreenket, saadaD aom det du er. Jeg anser det 
aaaledes bedst, at vi fik op til dsn Isengste Âfstand, som her er Tde 
om; men setv den mindste Udvid«Ue modtager vi med den st0rste 
Glœde. Men der er en Ting, aom jeg har taeiikt paa, nemlig at hyis 
man vedtager den Résolution, som Amtmand Olsen toreslaar, kommer 
man ind paa den garnie Maade, at naar man maaler ad fra Eysten 
med dene trauge Btigter og Fjorde, man ior mange Eyststrœkoinger 
ikke vil komme udfor Skjœrgaarden, Knnde man ikke her faa tilknyttet 
tQ Olsens Foralag en Bestemmelae om, at der tagea visse Fimkter med 
saa og saa mange Evartmil mellem hver aam Udgangapunkt, hvis ikke 
vil man for mangea Vedkommende vcere omirent tige vanhjulpeii. 
Saaledes atiller det sig for os, og jeg ve.d, at det for andre Lande er 
ligedan. Skulde man tage de indre Pjorde aom UdganBpunkt, vilde 
man, aelv om man udvidede det til 10 Eva>tmU, paa langt nier af- 
bJEelpe de Erav, aom er ifra den almindelige Fiakeribefolkning om en 
Udvidelse af Territorialgnendsen. Jeg vil derfor haabe, at man samtidig 
med at give en Udtalelse om Flytuing af Orsendsen ogsaa kunde 
komme ind paa 8p0rgsmaalet om at bestemme en vis Afstand fra de 
forskjellige Punkter, bvorira Qreendaen skulde trsekkeH. 

Ahthand Olben: Jeg skal faa Lov at svare den sidste cerede 
Taler med et Far Ord. Jeg har î Foredraget adtrykkelig ndtalt, at 
jeg ikke antâger, det vilde vœre heldigt, at denne Eongres vedtog en 
Résolution om, hvorledes Orsendaen akulde trsekkes, men at man kun 
barde ndtale sig for Onakeligheden af en Udvidelae af Territoriai- 
greendaen saa eller saa langt, og Qrunden, hvorfor jeg har sntaget, at 
det ikke vilde veere heldigt her at komme ind paa de Spdrgsmaal, er, 
at diaae Spefrgsmaal — som ogsaa af Hr, Lundberg antydet — inde- 
holder mange Vanakeligheder, der — som jeg viet ogsaa nsevnte i 
mit Foredrag — er af meget fin juridisk Natur. Jeg tror ikke, man 
blev Baa let f^erdig, skulde man f0rat beg3^de med aile de Sp0rgsmaal, 
som kan opstaa, naar man skal til at teenke paa, hvorledes Griendaen 
i aile mulige TUfaelde skulde trEekkes. 9r. Lundberg har tremholdt 
disse Vanakeligheder som en Anke mod Resotutionen, saavidt jeg for- 
atod, som en Hindring mod Tilslutning til det Forstag til Résolution, 
som er fremlagt. Jeg tror imîdlertid ikke, man beh0ver at veere 
syuderlig seagstelig i saa Henseende. Diaae Vanakeligheder har man 
fortiden, og dem vil man visselig ogaaa faa i Fremtâden. Men Vanake- 
lighederne vil ikke blive st0rre, om man sœtter Oraaudseu til 6 eller 
10 Mil. Det kan hœnde, at der kan indtrfede nye Tilfœlde, men 
Principeme, hvorefïer man maa afgj0re Sp0rgamaalene, vil veere de 



gamme, enten man aœtter 4, 6 eller 10 Mil, Det er dels internationale 
Overenskomster, dels den folkeretslige Videnskab, Ëom afgj0r det. 
Det er det Foram, hvortil jeg mener, man maa henviae disse Sider af 
Sagen, 

Geneealkonsul Tottebman fandt ligesom Vincîguerra ikke at 
kanae deltage i Âfstemningen om dette 8p0rgsmaa]. 

The Peesident had scarcely any objection against the proposai 
of M. Pérard, but iound it désirable to bave a more definite express- 
ion of their wisbea. Already the Paris congress of 1894 had, on the 
baais of common international law principles, voted for an extension 
to 6 miles. That assembly was compoeed of émisent lawyers from 
man y coun tries, The présent congress was composed of men that 
poBsessed eminent professional knowledge in auother field, that of the 
fisheries, and the support by this assembly of a resolution in favour 
ot the esension of tbe territorial boundary must therefore be consîdered 
to be of great importance. Tbe objection had been made that it will not 
always be easy to know whetber a fisbing vessel ig inaide or ontside 
tbe territorial boundary, which is certainly true, but he could not in 
that circumstance see any absolute hindrance against an extension. 
For there is the same diffîculty, though perhaps iu a somewhat less 
degree, in the case of the 3 miles boundary. Nor would it in bis 
opinion be right to say that a new régulation cannot be put into 
exécution for a definite area of the sea uniess the governments of ail 
the adjoining couotries agrée about it. If for instance there are 6 
powers, and 4 or B of thèse agrée upon a sea-territorial boundary, he 
supposed that auch an agreement would ao far attain considération as 
international law, that it might also be claimed that it should be 
respected by the power or powers that did not enter into tbe agreement. 
There was not, at any rate, sufiicient reason wby the assembly ahould 
not adopt a resolution in favour of what tbey must oonsider to be in 
the interest of the fiaheriea. He would therefore strongly recommend 
the adoption of the proposai of Âmtmanâ Olsen. 



Anm. Forudeu ds her nœvnte deltog i Diaknasionen d'Er. T. Olsen, Grimiby, 
Larsen og Piakariûispektar WaUem, af hvis tldtalelfle <paa Engelak) intet 
Beferat er Jeveret. 

Sekretaerea. 



iv, Google 



— 216 — 

Ved deD dereJter foretague Votering afatemtea f0rst over Anjt 
mand Olsens Forslag aaalydeude: 

„Den internationale Fiskerïkongres i Bergen finder det at vtere i 
Fiskeriersee Interesse, at Territorialgraensen fastseettes til 10 (subsidisert 
6) Kvartniil hvoraf 60 paa 1 Breddegrad." 

„Le congrès international de pêche à Bergen 1898 adopte la 
resolution suivante; Il est dans l'intérêt des pêcheries, que la limite 
de la mer territoriale soit fixée à 10, ou subsidièrement à 6 milles 
marins (dont 60 au degré de latitude)." 

Forslaget vedtoges mod 4 Stemmer (Pickerîng, Duncan, Pérard, 
Lundberg; d'Hr. Tôtterman og Vînciguerra deltog ikke i Afstemmngen). 

Derefter voteredea over Capt. CoUins Amendement, hvorefter Inrj- 
skrsenkuîngen kun akulde gjselde de vest- og nord-enropœieke Lande. 
Dette Tillseg forkasledes med 41 mod Vstemmer. 

Férard tog efter Opfordring ait Forslag tîlbage. 



.;, Google 



XV. 
SUE L'DtTEÛJUCTION DES 

sjMosnœs dans ms ucs ToiCAnquis de i'itaiie. 

M. LE Professeur D. Vikcigubrea. 

Messieurs. 

J'espère qu'il ne soit pas sans intérêt pour ce congrès, que 
j'y donne un petit aperçu sur ce qu'on a fait jusqu'à présent en 
Italie au sujet de la pisciculture de la part de notre ministère de 
l'agriculture, et principalement que je vous informe des résultats 
qu'on a obtenus dans les laca volcaniques de l'Italie centrale. 

Le développement de la pisciculture en Italie remonte à peine 
à. quinze ans à peu près. Il était bien naturel que l'attention du 
Gouvernement fusse attirée en premier degré par les grands lacs de 
l'Italie septentrionale, oji, comme il est bien connu, nous avons 
pu obtenir une victoire piscicole tout à fait complète, telle que 
l'acclimatation définitive d'une espèce de Corégone „le Corégone 
blanc", Weissfelcken des Allemands (Coregomis albus, Fatis) qui 
maintenant se pèche et se reproduit en quantité dans le lac de 
Como, tandis qu'auparavent il manquait tout à fait à l'Italie. On 
à maintenant l'intention d'essayer il'j introduire aussi le Corégone 
bleu, Blaufetcken des Allemands (Coregonus Wartmauni, L) qui 
paraît être dans ses pays d'origine plus estimé que le premier. 
La station de pisciculture de Brescia a, depuis dix ans qu'elle 
existe, conduit bien d'opérations de repeuplement de rivières avec 
la truite des ruisseaux, de lacs avec celle ordinaire des lacs ou 



— 218 — 

avec sa forme particulière au lac de Garde, le carpione, et les 
effets de ces opérations n'ont pas attendu à se faire connaître. 
Bans les premiers temps on a fait aussi quelques incubations d'oeufs 
de saumon dont les alevins ofit été versés dans le Tessin et dans 
le Peseara mais sans aucun résultat connu. Moi-même j'en ai 
élevés quelques-uns à Rome et je les ai unis plus tard dans un 
étang sauœâtre, pas loin de Naples, le lac de Patria, mais aussi 
dans ce cas il n'y a eu un satisfaisant résultat, bien que M. le 
Dr . Batfaele m'ait assuré qu'on a péché un ou deux saumons dans 
la mer de Naples. Après l'Italie supérieure, le gouvernement italien 
a voulu s'occuper aussi des régions centrales et méridionales de 
notre pays , avec l'institution de la station de pisciculture de Rome, 
que j'ai l'honneur de diriger. Un des premiers essais tentés par 
moi a été celui d'introduire les truites dans les lacs du Latium. 
Il est bien connu que les Salmonidés, ne font, dans aucun cas, 
partie de la faune des lacs de nature volcanique et particulière- 
ment de ceux qui, comme ceux du Latium, sont formés par des 
cratères d'origine assez récente, remplis d'eau météorique, qui 
n'ont jamais eu une communication directe avec la mer. H est 
évident que la faune ichtyologique de ces lacs doive son origine 
presque exclusivement au transport d'oeufs fait par les oiseaux 
aquatiques et tandis qu'on peut bien admettre que les oeufs des 
Ciprinidea, très petits et d'habitude adhérents aux herbes qui sont 
près des rivages, puissent être transportés bien aisément, on comprend 
aussi comme ça ne puisse se vérifier pour les oeufs gros et lourds 
des Salmonidés, lesquels reposent en général au fond des eaux. 
Mais je savais bien aussi qu'on avait déjà transporté des truites et 
d'autres Salmonidés dans quelques-uns des lacs-cratères de l'Auvergne, 
dans les Maares de l'Eifel et même dans les Açores et ça me 
faisait considérer comme très probable la réussite de leur introduc- 
tion dans nos lacs. 

Avant tout je me suis assuré que dans ces lacs vivaient en 
très grande quantité les petits crustacés qui servent d'aliment aux 
alevins des Salmonidés; j'ai aussi voulu constater par moi-même la 
grande profondeur de ces lacs, qui fournit k ces poissons une eau 
fraîche pendant l'été . Quant à l'alimentation des adultes je n'avais 
pas de crainte parce qu'elle était assurée par la présence des 
poissons des autres espèces et pnncipalement par la grande abon- 



— 219 — 

dance de notre Suclet d'eau douce, l'Athevina lacustris, qui est 
particulière k ces laça. 

Me9 premiers essais ont été faits dans le lac de Bracciano, 
qui se trouvant à 30 km. N. W. de Rome, a une circonférence 
d'à peu près 30 km. et une profondeur maximum de 160 m,; j'y ai 
versél, à plusieurs reprises, des alevins de truites de lac, provenant 
d'oeufs fournis par l'établissement de pisciculture artificielle de 
Terbole (lac de G-arde) et êclos dans la Station de pisciculture de 
Rome. Les résultats ont été magnifiques, parce qu' après 3 ou 3 
ans on a déjà commencé êl pêcher des truites de quelques kilo , et 
au bout de 8 aus on en a même pris une qui pesait 22 kilo et 
demi. On a obtenu à peu près les mêmes résultats dans le lac 
d'Âlbano, qui est à 20 km. au sud de Rome, plus petit, mais encore 
plus profond que celui de Bracciano, parce qu'il a 10 km. de 
circonférence et 180 m. do profondeur. Au contraire, dans le lac 
de Boljena, qui a à peu prés 50 km. de circonférence et 140 m. de 
profondeur, malgré que j'y aie fait plusieurs immersions de truites 
de lac les résultats ont été très restreints, et dans celui de Vico, 
qui a 14 km. de circonférence et seulement 32 m. de profondeur ils 
ont fait complètement défaut. J'avoue qu'il ne m'a pas été possible 
jusqu'à présent d'établir avec certitude la cause de ces résultats 
si différents; il est probable qu'une certaine influence soit due aux 
brochets qui sont très abondants dans les lacs oti je n'ai pas réussi 
avec les truites , tandis qu'ils manquent tout k fait à celui d'Âlbano , 
mais ils se trouvent pourtant, bien qu'un peu moins communs, à 
Bracciano , oti on a eu les meilleurs résultats . 

Dans le lac d'Albano on a aussi versé des truites arc-en-ciel, 
qui y ont acquis un très grand développement, parce qu'elles ont 
déjà atteint un poids de 10 kilo. Elles sont même au point de 
vue industriel préférées aux truites ordinaires, parce que celles-ci 
sont presque toujours d'une stature très grande, et ne sont pêchées 
que pendant l'hiver, tandis) que les truites arc-en-ciel se tiennent 
peu loin de la surface pendant presque toute l'année et on les 
prend de toutes dimensions. C'est réellement une race très forte 
^t très rustique, comme il est prouvé par le fait qu'on a récemment 
constaté à l'école d'agriculture de Cagliari, où on a pu élever des 
truites arc-en-ciel dans une eau qui avait 12 p. 1000 de chlorure 
de sodium. 



— 220 — 

Pourtant il ne faut pas oublier que les lacs volcaniques, dont 
je viens de parler, manquent d'ordinaire tout h fait d'affluents od 
les truites peuvent monter pour frayer, et si quelque petit cours 
d'eau débouche en eux il n'a pas un lit approprié pour leur frai, 
de aorte que les truites ne peuvent s'y reproduire naturellement. 
On ne peut donc pas dire que les truites soient introduites défini- 
tivement dans ces lacs, et il faut toujours répéter les immersions 
pour assurer la pêcbe. Mais je dois aussi avouer, que j'ai une 
confiance très grande dans l'influence de l'adaptation et que de la 
même manière que les autres poissons ont pu s'adapter à se repro- 
duire dans des conditions bien différentes de celles qui leur étaient 
naturelles, comme, pour ne pas sortir hors de l'Italie, l'alose de 
nos lacs qui a perdu la coutume d'aller k la mer , je ne désespère 
pas, que les truites auHsi qui vivent dans les lacs finiront par s'y 
reproduire sans toujours remonter ou descendre dans les fleuves. 
Les pêcheurs du lac d'Âlbano ont déjà observé que les femelles, 
je ne sais pas si de la truite ordinaire ou de celle d'arc-en-ciel, 
peuvent réussir à se débarasser des oeufs, qu'on trouve près des 
rivages; voilà donc un premier pas que la nature a fait en faveur 
de leur reproduction naturelle, 

Dans le lac â'Âlbano on a aussi fait quelques immersions de 
Saumon de Californie: cette espèce y a eu une croissance très grande 
et très rapide, parce que au bout de deux ans on a péché des 
saumons qui pesaient 11 kilo; c'étaient généralement des femelles 
qui ne réussissaient pas à se débarasser de leur énorme masse 
d'oeufs , et on les trouvait très souvent mortes sur le rivage pendant 
l'hiver. C'était le seul temps dans lequel on les voyait, mais leur 
chair n'était pas bonne à manger et on en a bientôt abandonné 
l'élevage. 

Au but d'assurer d'une manière définitive à ces lacs la présence 
d'un Salmonide j'ai fait aussi l'incubation d'oeuts du Corégone 
blanc, et j'en ai distribué les alevins dans divers endroits. Dans 
ce cas le meilleur résultat a été obtenu, malgré les brochets, dans 
le lac de Boljena, où les Corégones ont atteint en peu d'années 
un poids de plus que 2 kilo, et une longeur de 70 cm., il parait 
même assuré, ce qui a bien plus d'importance, qu'ils se soient déjà 
reproduits dans ce lac, parce que les pêcheurs assurent avoir vu 
des essaims de tout petits alevins dans les mois de Janvier et de 

i.,ji,^.. .A'OOQlC 



— 221 -- 

Février, c'est à dire k une époque dans laquelle auparavant on 
n'en voyait pas, parce qu' aucun autre des poissons da lac se 
reproduit dans ce temps. Ce bon et beau poisson est donc 
assuré k nos marchés. 

On peut donc retenir que les Salmonidés, bien qu'ils ne soient 
pas indigènes des lacs volcaniques, peuvent j être introduits arti- 
ficiellement et servir de cette manière à augmenter et améliorer 
leur production à, l'avantage des populations qui vivent aux bords 
de ces lacs. 



.;, Google 



XVI. 

TffiE HECESSITT 01 AS IHTERNATIOHAI 
nSÏÏEEIES ASS0CUTI05. 

BT 
K. K18HINOUYB. 

I am sorry to say 1 only speak Japaiieae and a poor sort oi 
Englisb ; and as I am not allowed to epeak Japanese in this congress 
I shall tiy and speak in English. I only hope it vill not be too 
difficult for jou to understand me. T am sorrj too, tbat I hâve 
had BO little time to prépare for this congress as I hâve lately been 
fully engaged with pressing work. 

I live in the far east, tbe land of tbe Mikado. Letters sent 
to or from my native country from or to this country take one 
month or more till they are delivered. Thus we are always behind 
time. We bave thereiore, for many centuries, developed ourselves 
independently of occidental civilization. In the présent day, howerer, 
it is not the time to seclude oneself; we wisb to keep abreastwith 
the marcb of time in the west; thus alao to participate in the 
discussion of the many important problems bearing on the promo- 
tion of fisheries. This is tbe principal reason why I propose to 
«stabiish an international fisheries association. I do not believe 
that any of my coUeagues feels the neceasity of sucb an associatioD 
mucb more tban 1 do. Wbile carrying on scientitïc work on fishes 
and fisheries, I always feel tbe insuffiency of the literature I bave 
to consult. 1 could only get a very déficient knowledge of con- 
temporary works publisbed in foreign countries. The great difficulty 
is due to the fact that the literature is scanty, scattered, and moreover 



— 223 — 

written in luany différent languages- As I hâve been isolated from 
my fellow workers and consequently very poorly informed, I hâve 
been longing since niany years for an international fisberies asBO* 
dation by means of which the deficiency of necessary information 
might be supplied. Through such a médium you may even obtain 
some new knowledge from the orient too. The oriental nations 
hâve long been élever fish-culturiats, and they hâve also many 
ingénions implements for catching fish. Now, taking the good 
opportuiiity of tbis congress, I earnestly apply to ail that are inter- 
eated in fisheries, begging you to sympathize with me and to endea- 
Tour to establish such an association as soon ma possible. 

How is it about the progress of fisheries? Is it satisfactory ? 
I am very sorry that I cannot answer in the affirmative. No, the 
ptogress of fisheries is very slow indeed when compared with the 
progress of other industries. We should say extremely slow, when 
we remember that fisheries hâve developed from very ancient times, 
— hunting and fishing being the first and principal crafts and means 
of subsistence of the ancient peoples. 

What hâve we to say about the supply of fish? Is it not 
decreasing? Yes, some important kinds of fishes are gradually 
decreasing everywhere, and we hâve no sufficient means to stop 
the decrease. Unfortunately, neither législation nor artificial pro- 
pagation bas any substantial effect, in many cases- For the sake 
of ccnvenience I distinguish three periods in the development of 
fisheries. The first period is the period of capture, in which people 
catch fish by primitive modes. The second period is the period 
«f reckless capture on a large scale. And the third period is the 
period of artificial propagation. 

Now, looking over the progress of fisheries in varions civilized 
countries, we find that they are atill in the second period of develop- 
ment, i. e. they are in a poor, imperfect condition, in spite of the 
wonderful development of other industries in récent times. People 
are depleting, or bave depleted, the waters, but they cannot restock 
them. 

Are the fisheries of pelagic fishes and other migratory fishes 
constant in the catches they ofPer? No, they are very variable, 
and at présent we know very little about the cause. Even the 
natural history of important fishes is not yet fully investigated. 

hnli... v.L.OO^IC 



And in orâer to investigate the migration of fishes, international ■ 
coopération is quite necessary. Closely connected with this work, 
we want coopération in oceanography and other related inTestigatioas. 
The flshing apparatus has not yet been scientifically Btudied, 
If we study Tarions kinda of âsbing apparatus and the methods of 
using them, we shall find many features of the greatest importance 
to the development of fisheries. I am at présent carrying on some 
investigations in that direction, and I find it a very interesting 
study indeed. 

Nor are the methods for curing fish very perfect. They are 
capable of great improvements. The scope of curing fish is not 
only to prevent putréfaction, but to préserve the nutritious matter 
in a good condition, and if possible to mnJie it better than in the 
non-cured state. In many cases the fish is preserved in a very 
good condition; but its nutritive value is often spoiled by the method 
of preserving it, making it a food that is no food at ail. 

At présent we put some restraints upon the fisheries by limiting 
the season, the area, the size of tho âshes to be caught, &c. 
Moreover, some implements are prohibited because they catch very 
much fish, while on the other hand the implements with which one i 
can get less fish with much labour are allowed. Of course at 
présent auch restraints are quite necessary; but surely they are not 
the h est and wisest mettiods. 

What is the chief cause of such a slow progress of fisheries? 
I believe that it is chiefly due to the deficiency of infiuential perso- 
nages that pay attention to thèse industries, and to the want of 
coopération among those few personages who are interested in thèse 
industries. 

Other sciences or industries hâve their own periodical or 
periodicala devoted to their promotion. 

If the fisheries are not important we may neglect them. But 
a great number of people are engaged in thèse industries and gain 
their livelihood by them. Moreover, fish is an important and valu- 
able nourisbment, cheap and easy to digest. I believe that in future 
a large supply oJ food can be obtained only from water, 

Sometimes, when thei'e is an absolute necessity, conférences 
are held among authoritîes of différent countries. As far as I know, 
there were conférences on the trawling in the North Sea, and the ' 



— 225 — 

International Conférence on the Seal-hunting in the North Pacific. 
But Buch conférences were temporary, and quite limited as to 
subjects. I think it is now tbe time to establish a permanent 
association, treating ail questions relating to fisheries. 

There are many other reasons for establishing an international 
fisheries association. For instance, outside the narrow strip of 
territorial water, fiahermen of âifi'erent nations hâve equal rights to 
fish. To avoid collisions between them we want international 
régulations. 

The moat important fishes are very like, or quite the same, in 
ail countries, herring, sardine, anchovy, salmon, trout, âatâsh, cod, 
mackerel, taiTOy, oyster, lobster, flnd so fdrtliy t/eîn^ alvays foond 
on the list of valuable Ëshes of every country. If tberefore we 
hare a central institution to coordinate our work in tbe various 
countries, it will enormously qukifren the progress of tbe fisbîng 
industries. 

Well, tbat we may corne up with the progress that bas been 
iDttde by other industries, let us bave an international aasocilation 
devoted to fisheries. We do noË want to fall behind t^e âge, we 
do Bot want to bave our ideas moss-grown. 

I oannot suggest a detailed plan for &e orgaAization of sudi' 
an association; but I thinli it likely that tbe international âsberies 
association would be supported by the governments that are inter- 
ested in fisheries, as is tbe case with the international geode)^ 
Bodetj.- 

The aasoeiatioQ will' publisb a >ourrtal, quarterly or if possible 
iuont4ily;> and we sball meet once in tbree or five years, the dftlaner' 
tbe bettâr-. 



■),<j,i,.,3S:, Google 



xvn. 

sua LA rOEMATION L'UB COMITÉ UrTEEUATIOBil 

POUE L'OESAnSATION DES FÏÏTÏÏES COSÏEÈS. 

M. J. PÉBABD. 

Les congrès internationaux rendent les plue grands serriceG, 
c'est une chose, qui n'est pas douteuse. En mettant en rapport 
les personnalités de chaque paya, qui s'occupent des mêmes ques- 
tions, ils contribuent d'une manière très efficace aux progrès, qui 
peuvent être faits dans l'étude de ces différents sujets; ils peuvent 
enfin être auprès des gouvernements l'interprètes des désirs des 
différentes nations. 

Mais pour remplir ce but il faut qu'ils soient vraiment inter- 
nationaux, que leur lieu de réunion ait lieu successivement dans 
les différents pays, que le programme de leurs travaux soit fait de 
manière à étudier les questions, dont la solution présente un intérêt 
général. 

Pour être réalisé dans ces conditions, un congrès doit être 
longuement préparé non seulement dans le pays oti il doit se réunir, 
mais dans chaque nation devant participer à. ces travaux. Une 
entente internationale est nécessaire pour le programme des questions 
k traiter. Et le premier devoir des organisateurs est de se mettre 
en rapport avec les personnalités étrangères capables de leur prêter 
le concours de leurs études et de leurs expériences. 

Enfin pour que l'oeuvre des congrès de pêche soit durable et 
profitable, il faut, que la réalisation des voeux et des résolutions 



— 227 — 

itdoptés en séances soit poursuivie après la clôture des congrès, 
qu'au congrès suivant il puisse être constaté quels services ont 
pu rendre les travaux du congrès précédent. 

Toutes ces différentes choses ne sont possibles, que s'il existe 
un lieu permanent entre tous ces congrès, que, si une commission 
permanente composée des personnalités les plus compétentes de 
chaque pays s'occupe à la fois d'organiser les congrès successifs 
et de poursuivre la réalisation des résolutions votées dans les 
congrès précédents. 

Chargé des détails d'organisation du congrès, qui doit avoir 
lieu à Dieppe cette année, j'ai pu apprécier tous les services, que 
rendra ce comité permanent et sur ma proposition te comité 
d'organisation du congrès de Dieppe a voté en octobre 1897 que 
cette question serait inscrite au programme de ses séances et que 
la nomination de cette commission aurait lieu avant la clôture de 
sa session. 

Ajant eu depuis l'honneur d'être nommé membre du comité 
d'organisation du congrès de Bergen, j'ai pensé, que cette question 
devait être aussi portée devant vous pour que la commission nom- 
mée ait l'autorité que pourrait lui donner votre approbation. Je vous 
propose donc d'adopter la résolution suivante, qui résume en quel- 
ques mots la proposition que je viens de développer devant vous. 

„Le congrès international de pêche réuni à Bergen sur l'initia- 
tive de la Société d'Encouragement pour la pêche en Norvège 
décide, que la formation d'un comité permanent international chargé 
d'étudier les conditions diverses d'organisation (date, lieu de réunion, 
programme etc.) des futurs congrès internationaux est de nature à 
rendre les plus grands services, et décide en outre de confier à 

M. M la mission de porter cette décision au congrès 

international de Dieppe, qui a inscrit au programme de ses séances 
— depuis le mois de décembre 1897 — la nomination de ce comité 



Dfi. BbunchOBST: Jeg vil faa Lov at st0tte Hr. Pérards Ud- 
talelaer paa det varmeste. Jeg mener for mit eget Vedkommende, at 
Hr, Pérards Syn paa deime 8ag er iuldstœndîg korrekt og berettiget. 
Jeg mener som hau, at det er absolut neidveudigt, at der nedseettes 



W >Wm1»ii< iateFBAtiwal' Kouit*, forât Twkerikwi^vssaBifi k&n ft<HniD« 
iftt at lïfîi^gQ â«t aWrat mulige Udbytto^. Jeg vîjj altsea aobefsln lïsn ai 
Hr. Pérard foreslaaede ït«Bo)iition, og jisg vil tàllaâe mig ftt neiTii« 
NA\!T)en4, pa» eudel Abend, aom man vUdie fiAdq det hsnsigtsmwBsigt, 
at deD hervœrende E,0Dgre9 valgte til paa, d.ej)B Vegiie at overbnnge 
B^solutdonen til Eongreseen i Dieppe. For »n ator Del er de Herrer, 
sppi jeg vil titlade mig at nceviie, aaadanne, aom videa at ville IO0AB 
ved KongresBen der, delà er det BaadenDe, om hvem dette viatDok 
ikke kan sigea aikkert, men aom BasdByslîgvia vil fremmftde. Navnene 
er taget saaledes, at hvert Land har ain ReprœaeDtant, Jeg akal' tîK^ie, 
at Listmi ikke er opeat af mig alêne, men af mig i Fbrbitidelto med 
BrçBideuten. Det forklareri at mît Navn fbrekoimner paa Listea. 
NaTnene er ffilgendQ: 

For Âni«rika. l^bonidlbe Nonrse, for Bfilgien Pype, for DaDmark- 
Dreclt^fil, ft^. Ëqglaod og Skotlaod Fullartoo, foi) Frankrige Fémrâ; 
for ItaMon. Vinoigu^rra, for Japan, Ejahinouye,. for Rnaland &immi 
Jor Sverige Lundberg, for Tyakland Herwig, for Caterrige ¥8116,. for 
Korge Brunchqrat. Dette Foralag har jeg altaaa forel0hig villet. bringe 
frem for ForaamliDgen. — Der er endnu anmeldt et Pnr Meddelelaer 
angaaende samme 8p0rgBmaal, aom fonnentlig bedat gjsrea i Sammen- 
hsBDg med de du afholdte Foredrag, f0r Diakusaionen begyuder. 

N. Boboddie: The expérience of différent congreasoa, statiatJcal, 
geologioal, etc. bas long beeu ahowing tbat tbe auccesa of tbeir 
work dépends vei^ much ou two neceasary conditiona aine qua dob, 
viz; ^— first, Uiat tbe meetings should take place periodically, every 
two or three yeara. Secondly, tbat there should" be a permanent 
executive committee, whicb ahould t^e care of everytbitig in connection 
^tfa,tbe periodical meetings. 

We bave- tbe hoiwur ofi taking part; in tbe first- iBtMi)atti»>al 
S/fh^y cpngFeaa, . whiçb hae beea organized' by. tJm Dorwe^aB,fisb«rt«ti' 
BÇ.ciçty, 80 well kwwp ioi its . eminent leaders, and puahjng actitity^ 
Selskabet fçr. de norske Fiakeri^rk Fremme. 

The présent meeting, I am sure, will net be the laat of its kjnd. 
Similar meetings are certain to be held, to the great furtherance of 
our spécial work, tbe stndy of food-fishes and of fiab-cultnre. 

The présent meeting ought to âx th'e date and place of the aext 
Gongreas and sketch out a program of its work. 

At the aame time I propose that a permanent- internatidnal'bQrean 

of < fiahiamB and fiBh<-ciil1mre be created, and that' the présent congreas 

sball nominale the first members of auch a bureau-.- !%£ international 

tniMauis intended-to oarry- inte eyecution-tb^ resohitiona paseed by- 

h.ji, " ,L'Ot"H^IC 



— «9 — 

Ihe JMeriHitmMtt Méétfe^, and i* Aie way to «Wfy siîfeii'fife *ôrk on 
&b cuMurU' eiaé S^-nry aubjftctft'; Eo tmify S^èsry atsthUiiê; *& ^è 
wwy ye»r a ahviH fweoawt af flfeit Sas Bbeiï doné' i!4' Hï8' vUtftJtiS 
eouotriès' relative «* fit* enitare and' tlie' fi^ftsrfes;' âHtf ilQ8% tb' gWé 
inA»piQetio0 on Stiicry snbjisets. 

The inteniBïional' ïiureair maj at flrsï, for aottiB' fime, 6o' * ittoving 
«ne-, hBvmg-fcr iBs' reafiieiww ttlie' eify where th« n«ct! fishery éiJHgreBS 
ïw tO' tki)^ pibce; andl î sappos» iï Will' Ke qUiïe CoUVtni^Ht tbnt subit 
» bnrwBF shonl* Bw eBtelilffihe* diMl' cenUroU'ed by oBe rtf tMe priVtffe 
fishery societJes' or Vy a gOvamnlMlt SHboiy d^aKtuMt df comibi^otl'. 
Iti'OrâtH- to illtiBti-Bte-tAle importoiiie ôt die propDsed' udiSbdf^n of 
the work throngb tbe internatiotial ùt^wey itieetihg»' adfl' tf peilnaii^t 
fiahery bureau, P may say * iew woifàa' from œy' OWH* expérience, 
Pl^e yeara' ago P -WRQttod' A aUDW grapUicAlly the tiQmpttrative iupor- 
teflce of tb»* fisfaeries of difieranl? ooaatries. H fbudd' tbe st^tistït;? of 
âÉà^es et> diSbrentl and' 90 ihcontpl^iff, that/ T ColUd' tmèb aO' cotuptt'- 
iBODB' Btnd' waB' ftroed' tb- give- up' my projecf. TKa \m<Si;atibtl' df tMë 
fl^ery stbtistiOB' of tiie' VmioiiB iKnintHes' ni&y be' tbe âl^' jlroblëtfl' df 
oiir meetlDgS' aDd> of tbe- proposed' international' burtltin: 

Pish culture and< («chnlcal sciences bettrisg on tîie'fistliag inâfastrles 
bav«' so ndmiioed dUriiiK' tHe Ikst' eijîht' or* ten yeart; Ulaf eWry onS 
oi'iay iblltny-worfeersj I 8appo8«,- fbela' th» neceafllty of Kno\ririg'8btfi6i 
tbing, a»' aemn M' possible,'- atiottt* ail thfl' ilbpn3Vdttt»]ttr= atfd' ileW 
mvestigstioD». AV tbe' pi-<esOTtt' (îhy tbemare in efvW? doiltftry manj* 
fisbeiy sc(iietfeBj a&d aiao fletiery p«riodîcaltr; ' tint' tbe làttet ttte 
pntâtsbed in dtfifërwrt' languRges,' andWt' is Very difflenlt' to get theriï,- 
and' bwd* work; tO' read- tbeiH' ail. 

On the other hand we know very little' 0^1 oOr fefl^/^wffrkers itf 
the diâerent' ooRirtnee;^ and' w»' hian* vwy- mm^- difEltMlty- itf oiftaining 
desH-ed' infonnstiemioo sabjectstHat ifttbrest' ifs. Ite lÂireatt pr&posed 
will very^moch ligbtwr oflrwwfe in ail'ttfese casés: 

Il tberefore- pmpoee' thaV tb>ff' folio wiHg resôlstlABd ' t^ pasSed-by 
the présent' meeting: 

1. Tik iatermttoiral fish^T'' cooigress^ at Bergen' shall tix' tbe' tiriite' 

aad^ place of'tl*i neat' oongress," 

I prc^sA thiKt tbb nezt'fiabiery coagi'Etes'~sboiiM'be'helA at'F^ris 

in- 1909 6*rio^the international' 'exhibition. 
2-i T6e. international! flsheryicongreBB^atiBéi^eri 8hall''neminaf*i tbW 

memb^rs- of as esecuth-e comnif^e', which at the' aamë tTiïiW 

mut b«< an^' international fishery bureau with' a prdgrAin prëvi- 

oaiày. ^Mffaect ouU- 



— 230 — 

FlSKESiEONSCLENT Dahl : Mig tiltaler de fremeatte Tanker og 
Forsiag aterdeteB meget. Jeg tillod mig i det Foredrag, jeg holdt 
den f0r8te Dag, at udtale aom ikke vserende en Umuligbed, at man kunde 
faa en intematioDal Fiskeristatistik med samme Régler. Nu ser det 
ud til, at Begyndelsen er nsermere, eiid jeg tsenkte mig. Jeg meoer, 
at Fiskerierce aaaveleom andre Nœringer har den at^rate Fordel a(, 
at Folkene aamles og greier ud for hinanden sine atore Intereaaer, 
aom ofte viser sig at vsere Fœlleainteresaor. Jeg vil stfltte Valget al 
de forealaaede Udsendinge til Dieppe og derved 3t0tte en Begyndelse 
til noget, aom jeg mener kan advikle aig til noget attire. 

Olsen (Grimaby) nsevnte endel Gj0remaal, aom en international 
Foreoing kunde faa at behandle. 

DiBiGBNTBN : Jeg vil for mit Vedkommende faa Lov at udtale, 
at Tanken om at atitte en international Fiskeriforening har jeg ikke 
tilatrsekkelig Oversigt over til, at jeg t0r udtale noget i den ene eller 
den anden Retning derom. I og for aig er der jo ikke Tvil om, at 
en saadan Forenîtig, deraom den lod sig realiaere, vilde kunne atihe 
adakillig Nytte; men nden at Sagen er mère forberedt, end den er 
ved denne Kongrea, tror jeg, dot er yanakeligt for Kongreaeen at af- 
give nugeti bestemt Udtalelae derom. Jeg skulde derfor linde di^t 
rimeligt, at denne Plan om Stiftelae af en intemationul Fiskeriforening 
overaendtea Kongressen i Dieppe aammen med Hr. Pérarda Reaolution. 
I Overetiaatemmolse hermed tillader jeg mig som TiLteg til den af 
Hr, Pérard foreslaaede Résolution at fremBîette aaadant For«lag: Vi- 
dere anmoder Kongreasen de aamme Herrer om Ugeledea at forelœgge 
den af Dr. Kishinouye fremsatte Plan om en international Fiskerifor- 
ening aaavelaom det af Hr. Borodine fremsatte Foralag til Resolution 
for Kongreasen i Dieppe. 

Hr. Fbimann Kahbs anbefalede Praesidenteas Poralag. 

Mr. W. DE Weschniakofp : Mesaieurs ! il me semble que toutes 
lea propositiona que nous venona d'entendre aur la création d'une 
aasociation internationale, d'un bureau ou d'un comité permanent on 
d'un congrès international, ont un seul et même but — de provoquer 
l'organiaation d'une institution internationale permanente, dans les 
intérêts de la pècbe, n'importe le nom qu'elle portera. Comme nous 
n'avons paa le temps de discuter plus longuement sur la forme et les 
attributions de cette future institution, il no nous reste que de trans- 
mettre par nos délégués cette question au oongrèa international de pêche 
maritime, qui va se réunir k Dieppe au moia de Septembre. De mon 
côté je voudrais recommender à l'attention du congrès actuel, ainsi qa'à 
celle du congrès de Dieppe une question un peu oubliée, qui a été 



soulevée, il y a déjà près de 30 khb, an CoDgrès mtematioDal de 
statistique, tenu à la Haye en 1869. Je parle de la atatistique inter- 
nationale de la pêche. Cette question a été vivement débattue dans 
une des aections du congrès, qui a voté ensuite unanimement le 
programme élaboré par la section et dont j'avais l'honneur d'être 
rapporteur à l'assemblée générale du congrès. 

Comme il avait été aussi décidé par le congrès de la Haye, sur 
la proposition du célèbre Quetelet , que toutes les branches de la 
statistique internationale seraient réparties entre différents pays qui se 
chargeraient de préparer des aperçus comparatiis statistiques sur leur 
branches respectives, la statistique de la pêche a été conSée aux soins 
de la Hollande. Mais cette tâche n'a pas été remplie par ce pays, 
et en général toutes ces belles propositions , à peu d'esceptionaprès, sont 
restées à l'état de voeux. 

U me semble qu'en provoquant la création d'une nouvelle institu- 
tion internationale permanente dans les intérêts de ta pêche il serait 
désirable de recommender à l'attention de cette institution le soin de 
s'occuper de la statistique internationale de la pêche, d'élaborer un 
programme pour cette statistique, en prenant en considération celui 
de la Haye (1869) et de donner de temps h. autre dts tables statisti- 
ques comparatives sur la pêche contemparaine de tous les pays. 

Pe^SIDENTEN : Spargamaalet om Betimeligheden af den Tilfaielse, 
som er foreslaaet af mig, er i det vœsentlige af hœngigt af, hvorvidt den 
Plan, som er fremsat af Hr. Kishinouye indeholder noget andet og 
mère end den Plan, som er fremsat af Er. Pérard. 

VOTERING: 

1. Pérards Forslag bifaldtes enstemmig. 

2. Den af Prsesidenten foreslaaede Tilf0ielse bifaldl«s enstemmig. 
pRilSlDENTEN : Sp0rgsmaalet er nu, hvem disse Herrer akal vasre, 

Aer skaï overbringe denne Besolutîon. Hvis ingen udtaler sig derimod, 
vil jeg anse den af Sekretœren og mig opsatte Liste, som indeholder 
de tidlîgere af Sekretseren oplœate Navne, for vedtaget. — Ingen har 
ndtalt sig derimod, denne Liste er altsaa vedtaget. 



Digil^rM.;, Google 



.;, Google 



iv, Google 



.;, Google 



.;, Google 



.;, Google